The Algonquin land claim
The largest land claim being negotiated in Ontario. If successful, it will be the province’s first modern-day constitutionally protected treaty.
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About the land claim
The claim covers a territory of 36,000 square kilometres in eastern Ontario that is populated by more than 1.2 million people.
If successful, the negotiations will produce the province’s first modern-day constitutionally protected treaty.
The Algonquins of Ontario assert that they have Aboriginal rights and title that have never been extinguished, and have continuing ownership of the Ontario portions of the Ottawa and Mattawa River watersheds and their natural resources.
The boundaries of the claim are based largely on the watershed, which was historically used and occupied by the Algonquin people.
A proposed Agreement-in-Principle is now available.
- Executive Summary of the Algonquins of Ontario Proposed Agreement-in-Principle
- Algonquins of Ontario Proposed Agreement-in-Principle
- Algonquin Land Claim Harvesting Maps
- Algonquin Land Claim Reference Maps
- Algonquin Land Claim Descriptive Plans
This document is based on extensive consultation and feedback on the Preliminary Draft Agreement-in-Principle December 2012.
Several years of work remain, including another stage of negotiations and consultations. The end result would be a Final Agreement that will take the form of a modern-day treaty.
Key terms of a possible settlement
The negotiators for the Algonquins of Ontario, the Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario have agreed to recommend:
- the transfer of 117,500 acres of Crown Lands to Algonquin ownership
- $300 million as settlement capital provided by Canada and Ontario
- defined Algonquin rights related to lands and natural resources
The negotiators have also agreed that:
- no new reserves will be created
- Algonquin Park will be preserved for the enjoyment of all
- land will not be expropriated from private owners as a result of the settlement
Several years of work remain, including another stage of negotiations and consultations, before a Final Agreement can be reached.
- land will not be expropriated from private owners
- no one will lose existing access to their cottages or private property
- no one will lose access to navigable waterways
- no new First Nation reserves will be created on lands that are transferred
- less than 4% of the Crown land in the claim area is proposed for transfer
- the vast majority of the Crown land base will remain open to all existing uses
- after transfer, Algonquin lands will be subject to municipal jurisdiction, including the same land use planning and development approvals and authorities as other private lands
- land transfers will:
- restore historically significant sites to the Algonquins
- contribute to the social and cultural objectives of Algonquin communities
- provide a foundation for economic development
- arrangements will be negotiated for existing recreation or hunt camps to continue on lands that will be transferred
- Ontario will facilitate these negotiations
- Algonquin harvesting rights will be subject to provincial and federal laws necessary for conservation, public health and public safety
- the Algonquins will continue to develop moose harvesting plans with Ontario
- Fisheries management plans will be developed for the Algonquin settlement area, with the first priority being protection of the sensitive fisheries of Algonquin Park
- no lands will be transferred from Algonquin Park
- Ontario will continue managing Ontario parks, with the Algonquins having a greater planning role
- two non-operating parks and parts of five non-operating parks are proposed for transfer
- a new 30,000 acre provincial park near Crotch Lake is being recommended
- for every acre of park land proposed for transfer, six acres of new park land would be added
"Algonquins of Ontario Proposed Agreement-in-Principle" is made publicly available.
More than 2,000 people attend a series of nine tripartite public information sessions to learn about and provide comments on the Preliminary Draft Agreement-in-Principle.
Members of the Ontario negotiation team:
- organized more than 150 meetings with land owners, cottage associations and those who hold direct interests in the Crown land parcels identified for potential transfer to Algonquin ownership
- conducted discussions with local municipal representatives regarding proposed Algonquin land selections in their municipalities
- met with angler and hunter groups, environmental and park groups, and other sectoral interests
Algonquins of Ontario hold meetings to review the Preliminary Draft with Algonquin voters.
Negotiators release a Preliminary Draft Agreement-in-Principle for public review and comment. Seeking public input at this stage in negotiations is unprecedented.
All parties reaffirm the shared objectives and the current phase of negotiations begins.
Ontario’s Municipal Advisory Committee and Committee of External Advisors established.
All parties agree to publicly release a Statement of Shared Objectives and a Framework Agreement to guide the conduct of the negotiations.
The governments of Canada and Ontario agree to enter negotiations with the Algonquins.
The Algonquins formally submit a land claim to Canada and Ontario, asserting that the Crown never entered into a treaty with the Algonquins.
Who is involved
The parties negotiating the claim are:
- the Government of Canada
- the Government of Ontario
- the Algonquins of Ontario
The Algonquins of Ontario
Approximately 10,000 people of Algonquin descent live in the land claim territory. They are represented by a collective called the Algonquins of Ontario in negotiations.
Elected individuals sit at the negotiating table as part of this collective, representing the following communities:
- the Algonquins of Pikwakanagan First Nation
- Greater Golden Lake
- Mattawa/North Bay
- Shabot Obaadjiwan
- Whitney and area
The government is negotiating a settlement on behalf of the people of Ontario to:
- achieve legal certainty regarding the rights of the Algonquins of Ontario with respect to lands and natural resources
- promote opportunities for economic, cultural and community development for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities affected by the claim
- improve relationships between the Crown and Aboriginal peoples and between Aboriginal communities and their neighbours
Ontario’s negotiating team for the Algonquin land claim includes representatives of:
- Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs
- Ministry of Natural Resources
- Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing
- Ministry of Northern Development and Mines
The team includes the co-chairs of two advisory committees established by Ontario in 1996:
- Norm Lemke, Co-Chair, Ontario’s Municipal Advisory Committee
- Al Stewart, Co-Chair, Ontario’s Committee of External Advisors
Ontario’s Chief Negotiator: Brian Crane
How to get involved
Your voice is important to us.
Send your comments and feedback to the negotiation teams:
Algonquins of Ontario
613-735-3759 or 1-855-735-3759 (toll free)
1-800-567-9604 (toll free) or 1-866-553-0554 (TTY toll free)
613-732-8081 or 1-855-690-7070 (toll free)
Publications on the claim
You can request the following publications about the land claim:
- Algonquins of Ontario Proposed Agreement-in-Principle
- Preliminary Draft Land Claim Agreement-in-Principle December 2012 (PDF)
- Tripartite Statement of Shared Objectives
- Algonquin Hunt Management Plans
- 2009 Framework for Negotiations Agreement
- 2009 Consultation Process Interim Measures Agreement
- 2009 Land Selection Process Paper
- 2007 Algonquin Declaration Order Made Under the Environmental Assessment Act, R.S.O. 1990, c.E. 18
To request a copy of one of these publications, please contact:
Ontario Information Centre
Algonquin Land Claim
31 Riverside Drive
Pembroke ON K8A 8R6
Toll Free: 1-855-690-7070
Office hours are 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., Monday to Friday.