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April to June, 2019

Introduction

About the Ontario Employment Report

The Ontario Employment Report is released four times a year and provides an assessment of the current trends and developments in the Ontario labour market. The Ontario Employment Report is a companion report to the Ontario Economic Accounts, which provides an overall assessment of the current state of the Ontario economy. All estimates in this report are based on Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey, unless otherwise specified.  Its primary audience includes economists in both public and private sectors and credit rating agencies.

Methodological note

In the current issue, year-over-year change represents change between the averages in the second quarter of 2018 and the second quarter of 2019. Note that the Ontario Economic Accounts report primarily shows changes between the previous and the current quarter.

This report uses seasonally adjusted data in charts displaying data with a monthly frequency in the Overview section.

Unadjusted data is used in charts and tables showing the changes for the current quarter compared with the same quarter for the previous year. Unadjusted data is also used to calculate annual averages, year-to-date averages and 2019 second quarter averages.

Overview

Ontario’s labour market overview

Employment:

+202,900 net new jobs year-over-year

+126,000 full-time jobs year-over-year

Unemployment rate:

5.6% in the second quarter of 2019

Year-over-year, Ontario’s employment grew by 2.8% (202,900), higher than the Canadian rate of 2.3%.

Ontario’s unemployment rate was 5.6% in the second quarter of 2019, slightly higher than the Canadian rate of 5.5%.

Year-over-year overview

Ontario’s labour market, 2008-2019

The combination line and area chart shows Ontario’s unemployment rate (line chart) and employment (area chart) from January 2008 to June 2019. Ontario’s unemployment rate has trended downwards since the recession, reaching 5.4% in June 2019. Employment in Ontario has risen steadily since the recession, reaching just over 7.4 million workers in June 2019, putting it well over the pre-recession level of roughly 6.6 million.

The combination line and area chart shows Ontario’s unemployment rate (line chart) and employment (area chart) from January 2008 to June 2019. Ontario’s unemployment rate has trended downwards since the recession, reaching 5.4% in June 2019. Employment in Ontario has risen steadily since the recession, reaching just over 7.4 million workers in June 2019, putting it well over the pre-recession level of roughly 6.6 million.

Between the second quarter of 2018 and 2019:

  • employment growth was driven by increases in full-time employment (+2.1%) and part-time employment (+5.9%)
  • gains were concentrated in private sector employment (+2.4%) and self-employment (+8.4%), while public sector employment slightly declined (-0.5%)
  • there were significant employment gains in the services-producing sector (+3.1%), as well as minor employment gains in the goods-producing sector (+1.5%)
  • three of the five Ontario regions posted employment gains with Eastern Ontario experiencing the fastest employment growth (+4.2%)
  • youth and older workers experienced above-average employment growth (+3.3% and +5.0%, respectively)
  • the average hourly wage increased by 3.0%, to $28.25  

Type of Work quarterly details

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s employment by full-time and part-time status. Total employment increased by 2.8%, driven by gains in both full-time employment (+2.1%) and part-time employment (+5.9%).

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s employment by full-time and part-time status. Total employment increased by 2.8%, driven by gains in both full-time employment (+2.1%) and part-time employment (+5.9%).

Year-over-year, full-time employment increased by 2.1% and part-time employment increased by 5.9% in the second quarter.

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s employment for the private sector, public sector and self-employment. Employment increased in both the private sector and self-employment, while declining in the public sector. Private sector employment increased by 2.4%, while self-employment grew by 8.4% and public sector employment decreased by 0.5%.

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s employment for the private sector, public sector and self-employment. Employment increased in both the private sector and self-employment, while declining in the public sector. Private sector employment increased by 2.4%, while self-employment grew by 8.4% and public sector employment decreased by 0.5%.

Year-over-year, both the private sector and self-employment saw growth, while employment in the public sector decreased. The fastest employment growth was in self-employment (+8.4%).

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s employment for above- and below-average wage industries, compared to the paid employment in all industries. Employment in above-average wage industries (+3.1%) increased more than employment in below-average wage industries (+0.6%). Paid employment in all industries (excluding self-employment) rose by 1.8%. Above-average wage industries are defined as those with wage rates above the average hourly wages of all industries in 2018.

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s employment for above- and below-average wage industries, compared to the paid employment in all industries. Employment in above-average wage industries (+3.1%) increased more than employment in below-average wage industries (+0.6%). Paid employment in all industries (excluding self-employment) rose by 1.8%. Above-average wage industries are defined as those with wage rates above the average hourly wages of all industries in 2018.

Year-over-year, paid employment increased in above-average wage industries by 3.1%, while employment in below-average wage industries increased by 0.6%.

Sector and occupation quarterly details

Employment change by industry, goods-producing industries

Year-over-year, there were significant employment gains in the services-producing sector (+3.1%), as well as minor employment gains in the goods-producing sector (+1.5%).

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s employment by industry for goods-producing industries. Construction experienced the largest employment growth (+3.3%), followed by manufacturing (+0.6%), agriculture (+3.6%) and utilities (+1.4%). The only goods-producing industry that saw a decline in employment was forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas (-8.3%). The overall employment in goods-producing industries increased by 1.5%.

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s employment by industry for goods-producing industries. Construction experienced the largest employment growth (+3.3%), followed by manufacturing (+0.6%), agriculture (+3.6%) and utilities (+1.4%). The only goods-producing industry that saw a decline in employment was forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas (-8.3%). The overall employment in goods-producing industries increased by 1.5%.

Among goods-producing industries, the employment increase was driven mostly by construction (+3.3%).  Agriculture experienced the largest growth rate among goods-producing industries (+3.6%), while employment in forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas decreased (-8.3%).

Employment change by industry, services-producing industries

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s employment by industry for services-producing industries. Eight services-producing industries had an increase in employment. Health care and social assistance experienced the biggest employment gain (+6.6%), followed by educational services (+6.9%), wholesale and retail trade (+3.3%) and transportation and warehousing (+7.9%). Three industries experienced employment declines. The biggest employment decline occurred in accommodation and food services (-4.1%), followed by information, culture and recreation (-3.9%). The overall employment in services-producing industries increased by 3.1%.

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s employment by industry for services-producing industries. Eight services-producing industries had an increase in employment. Health care and social assistance experienced the biggest employment gain (+6.6%), followed by educational services (+6.9%), wholesale and retail trade (+3.3%) and transportation and warehousing (+7.9%). Three industries experienced employment declines. The biggest employment decline occurred in accommodation and food services (-4.1%), followed by information, culture and recreation (-3.9%). The overall employment in services-producing industries increased by 3.1%.

Among services-producing industries, health care and social assistance gained the most jobs, while transportation and warehousing experienced the highest rate of employment growth (+7.9%). Accommodation and food services had the largest decline in employment (-4.1%).

Employment change by occupational group

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s employment by broad occupational group. Seven occupational groups experienced employment gains. Sales and service occupations had the biggest employment gain (+5.0%), followed by natural and applied sciences and related (+9.7%), and occupations in trades, transport and equipment operators (+4.0%). Employment in three occupational categories decreased. Manufacturing and utilities occupations experienced the biggest decline (-4.4%), followed by business, finance and administration (-1.3%).

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s employment by broad occupational group. Seven occupational groups experienced employment gains. Sales and service occupations had the biggest employment gain (+5.0%), followed by natural and applied sciences and related (+9.7%), and occupations in trades, transport and equipment operators (+4.0%). Employment in three occupational categories decreased. Manufacturing and utilities occupations experienced the biggest decline (-4.4%), followed by business, finance and administration (-1.3%).

Among broad occupational groups, sales and service occupations saw the largest increase in employment, while employment in manufacturing and utilities declined the most.

Geographic region

Ontario regions

The map shows Ontario’s five regions: Northern Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Central Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area. This map is based on groupings of Statistics Canada’s economic regions.

The map shows Ontario’s five regions: Northern Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Central Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area. This map is based on groupings of Statistics Canada’s economic regions.

Employment change by Ontario region

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in employment in the five Ontario regions: Northern Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Central Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Employment increased in three of the five regions. The rate of employment growth was highest in Eastern Ontario (+4.2%), followed by the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) (+3.4%) and Central Ontario (+3.2%). Employment declined in Southwestern Ontario (-0.5%) and Northern Ontario (-1.2%). The overall employment increased by 2.8% (+202,900).

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in employment in the five Ontario regions: Northern Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Central Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Employment increased in three of the five regions. The rate of employment growth was highest in Eastern Ontario (+4.2%), followed by the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) (+3.4%) and Central Ontario (+3.2%). Employment declined in Southwestern Ontario (-0.5%) and Northern Ontario (-1.2%). The overall employment increased by 2.8% (+202,900).

Year-over-year, employment increased in three of the five Ontario regions. The rate of employment growth was highest in Eastern Ontario (+4.2%), followed by the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) footnote 1 (+3.4%) and Central Ontario (+3.2%). Employment declined in Southwestern Ontario (-0.5%) and Northern Ontario (-1.2%).

Unemployment rates by Ontario region

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates by Ontario region in the second of 2019. Northern Ontario had the highest unemployment rate at 6.8%, followed by the Greater Toronto Area (5.9%), Eastern Ontario (5.2%), Central Ontario (5.1%) and Southwestern Ontario (4.8%). The overall unemployment rate for Ontario was 5.6%.

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates by Ontario region in the second of 2019. Northern Ontario had the highest unemployment rate at 6.8%, followed by the Greater Toronto Area (5.9%), Eastern Ontario (5.2%), Central Ontario (5.1%) and Southwestern Ontario (4.8%). The overall unemployment rate for Ontario was 5.6%.

In the second quarter of 2019, Northern Ontario had the highest unemployment rate (6.8%) and Southwestern Ontario had the lowest unemployment rate (4.8%).

Participation rates by Ontario region

The horizontal bar chart shows participation rates by Ontario region in the second quarter of 2019. The Greater Toronto Area had the highest participation rate at 67.1%, followed by Eastern Ontario (65.7%), Central Ontario (65.1%), Southwestern Ontario (61.1%) and Northern Ontario (60.6%). The overall participation rate for Ontario was 65.4%.

The horizontal bar chart shows participation rates by Ontario region in the second quarter of 2019. The Greater Toronto Area had the highest participation rate at 67.1%, followed by Eastern Ontario (65.7%), Central Ontario (65.1%), Southwestern Ontario (61.1%) and Northern Ontario (60.6%). The overall participation rate for Ontario was 65.4%.

Quarterly labour force participation rates varied considerably among the economic regions. In the second quarter, participation rates ranged from 60.6% in Northern Ontario to 67.1% in the GTA.

Age and gender quarterly details

Employment change by age group and gender

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s employment for the three major age groups, as well as by gender, compared to the overall population. Ontarians aged 25 to 54 years gained the most jobs (+2.0%), followed by Ontarians aged 55 years and over (+5.0%). Employment for Ontarians aged 15 to 24 years increased the least (+3.3%). Total employment (for population aged 15 and over) increased by 2.8%. Males (+3.5%) gained more jobs than females (+2.0%).

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s employment for the three major age groups, as well as by gender, compared to the overall population. Ontarians aged 25 to 54 years gained the most jobs (+2.0%), followed by Ontarians aged 55 years and over (+5.0%). Employment for Ontarians aged 15 to 24 years increased the least (+3.3%). Total employment (for population aged 15 and over) increased by 2.8%. Males (+3.5%) gained more jobs than females (+2.0%).

Compared to the same quarter last year, core-aged workers (25 to 54 years) gained the most jobs, followed by older workers (55 years and over) and youth (15 to 24 years). Youth workers experienced above-average employment growth (+3.3%), and older workers experienced the highest employment growth rate (+5.0%).

Unemployment rates by age group and gender

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates for the three major age groups, as well as by gender, compared to the overall rate, in the second quarter of 2019. Youth (15 to 24 years) had the highest unemployment rate at 12.5%, followed by the core-aged population (25 to 54 years) at 4.5% and older Ontarians (55 years and over) at 4.2%. The overall unemployment rate in the second quarter of 2019 was 5.6%. The male unemployment rate (5.7%) was higher than the female unemployment rate (5.5%).

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates for the three major age groups, as well as by gender, compared to the overall rate, in the second quarter of 2019. Youth (15 to 24 years) had the highest unemployment rate at 12.5%, followed by the core-aged population (25 to 54 years) at 4.5% and older Ontarians (55 years and over) at 4.2%. The overall unemployment rate in the second quarter of 2019 was 5.6%. The male unemployment rate (5.7%) was higher than the female unemployment rate (5.5%).

Compared to a year ago, the unemployment rate decreased by 0.4 percentage point for females and by 0.1 percentage point for males. In the second quarter, the unemployment rate of youth was 12.5%, the highest among the three age groups. Compared to a year ago, unemployment rate decreased for all age groups.

Participation rates by age group and gender

The horizontal bar chart shows labour force participation rates for the three major age groups, as well as by gender, compared to the overall rate, in the second quarter of 2019. The core-aged population (25 to 54 years old) had the highest labour force participation rate at 86.2%, followed by youth (15 to 24 years old) at 63.8%, and older Ontarians (55 years and over) at 38.7%. The overall participation rate was 65.4%. The male participation rate (70.0%) was higher than the female participation rate (61.0%).

The horizontal bar chart shows labour force participation rates for the three major age groups, as well as by gender, compared to the overall rate, in the second quarter of 2019. The core-aged population (25 to 54 years old) had the highest labour force participation rate at 86.2%, followed by youth (15 to 24 years old) at 63.8%, and older Ontarians (55 years and over) at 38.7%. The overall participation rate was 65.4%. The male participation rate (70.0%) was higher than the female participation rate (61.0%).

In the second quarter, core-aged workers had the highest participation rate at 86.2%, followed by youth at 63.8% and older workers at 38.7%. Compared to a year ago, the participation rate increased for all age groups. The participation rates for males increased compared to a year ago (+0.9 percentage point) and slightly decreased for females (-0.1 percentage point).

Education level and immigrant status quarterly details

Employment rates by education level and immigrant status (core-aged population)

The horizontal bar chart shows employment rates by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years old), in the second quarter of 2019. By education level, those with a university degree had the highest employment rate (87.2%), followed by those with a postsecondary certificate/diploma (86.7%), those with a high school diploma (74.1%), and those with less than high school education (55.2%). By immigrant status, those born in Canada had the highest employment rate (84.8%), followed by established immigrants with more than 10 years since landing (82.8%), recent immigrants with more than 5 to 10 years since landing (78.7%), and very recent immigrants with 5 years or less since landing (65.6%).

The horizontal bar chart shows employment rates by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years old), in the second quarter of 2019. By education level, those with a university degree had the highest employment rate (87.2%), followed by those with a postsecondary certificate/diploma (86.7%), those with a high school diploma (74.1%), and those with less than high school education (55.2%). By immigrant status, those born in Canada had the highest employment rate (84.8%), followed by established immigrants with more than 10 years since landing (82.8%), recent immigrants with more than 5 to 10 years since landing (78.7%), and very recent immigrants with 5 years or less since landing (65.6%).

In the second quarter of 2019, persons without a high school diploma continued to hold the lowest employment rate among all groups (55.2%), while university degree holders recorded the highest employment rate (87.2%), followed by postsecondary certificate/diploma holders (86.7%).

Those born in Canada recorded the highest employment rate (84.8%), while very recent immigrants continued to have the lowest employment rate (65.6%) among groups by immigrant status.

Unemployment rates by education level and immigrant status (core-aged population)

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years old), in the second quarter of 2019. By education level, those with less than high school education had the highest unemployment rate (7.9%), followed by high school graduates (6.5%), those with a university degree (3.8%), and postsecondary certificate or diploma (3.7%). By immigrant status, very recent immigrants with 5 years or less since landing had the highest unemployment rate (8.7%), followed by recent immigrants with more than 5 to 10 years since landing (5.7%), established immigrants with more than 10 years since landing (4.1%) and those born in Canada (4.1%).

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years old), in the second quarter of 2019. By education level, those with less than high school education had the highest unemployment rate (7.9%), followed by high school graduates (6.5%), those with a university degree (3.8%), and postsecondary certificate or diploma (3.7%). By immigrant status, very recent immigrants with 5 years or less since landing had the highest unemployment rate (8.7%), followed by recent immigrants with more than 5 to 10 years since landing (5.7%), established immigrants with more than 10 years since landing (4.1%) and those born in Canada (4.1%).

In the second quarter of 2019, postsecondary certificate and diploma holders recorded the lowest unemployment rate (3.7%) among all educational attainment groups, below that of those with a university degree (3.8%). Those without a high school diploma had the highest unemployment rate (7.9%). The unemployment rate of those with a university degree decreased, year-over-year, while the unemployment rates for those with and without high school diploma increased. Post-secondary certificate and diploma holders’ unemployment rates remained relatively unchanged.

Year-over-year, the unemployment rates decreased for established immigrants (-0.7 percentage point) and recent immigrants (-0.2 percentage point), while the unemployment rate for the other groups remained relatively unchanged.

Participation rates by education level and immigrant status (core-aged population)

The horizontal bar chart shows labour force participation rates by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years old), in the second quarter of 2019. By education level, those with a university degree had the highest participation rate (90.6%), followed by postsecondary certificate or diploma holders (90.1%), high school graduates (79.3%), and those with less than high school education (59.9%). By immigrant status, those born in Canada had the highest participation rate (88.4%), followed by established immigrants with more than 10 years since landing (86.3%), recent immigrants with more than 5 to 10 years since landing (83.5%) and very recent immigrants with 5 years or less since landing (71.9%).

The horizontal bar chart shows labour force participation rates by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years old), in the second quarter of 2019. By education level, those with a university degree had the highest participation rate (90.6%), followed by postsecondary certificate or diploma holders (90.1%), high school graduates (79.3%), and those with less than high school education (59.9%). By immigrant status, those born in Canada had the highest participation rate (88.4%), followed by established immigrants with more than 10 years since landing (86.3%), recent immigrants with more than 5 to 10 years since landing (83.5%) and very recent immigrants with 5 years or less since landing (71.9%).

In the second quarter of 2019, university degree holders and those with a postsecondary certificate or diploma continued to record the highest participation rates, while those without a high school diploma had the lowest participation rate (59.9%). Participation rates for all educational attainment groups, except those without a high school diploma, slightly improved, year-over-year.

In the second quarter of 2019, recent immigrants and very recent immigrants continued to have the lowest participation rates compared to established immigrants and those born in Canada. Participation rates for all groups, except for very recent immigrants, increased, year-over-year.

Wages quarterly details

Average hourly wages total, full-time and part-time employees

The line chart shows average hourly wages for all employees, full-time and part-time employees expressed in real 2018 dollars from 1997 to 2018. Real average hourly wages of all employees increased from $24.56 in 1997 to $27.36 in 2018; those of full-time employees increased from $26.37 in 1997 to $29.11 in 2018 and those of part-time employees increased from $16.67 in 1997 to $19.17 in 2018.

The line chart shows average hourly wages for all employees, full-time and part-time employees expressed in real 2018 dollars from 1997 to 2018. Real average hourly wages of all employees increased from $24.56 in 1997 to $27.36 in 2018; those of full-time employees increased from $26.37 in 1997 to $29.11 in 2018 and those of part-time employees increased from $16.67 in 1997 to $19.17 in 2018.

Over the last two decades, the average hourly wage increased in real terms footnote 2 (i.e. after accounting for inflation) from $24.56 to $27.36, with the growth rate averaging 0.5% per year. Over this period, real wages grew at an average growth rate of 0.7% for part-time workers and 0.5% for full-time workers.

Hourly wage growth by type of work

The vertical bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) nominal per cent change in Ontario’s hourly wages by type of work. The average hourly wage increased by 3.0%. Hourly wages increased for both full-time (+3.4%) and part-time employees (+1.0%); permanent (+2.7%) and temporary employees (+2.6%) and employees with union coverage (+3.0%) and those without union coverage (+3.1%). Inflation during the same period was 2.2%.

The vertical bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) nominal per cent change in Ontario’s hourly wages by type of work. The average hourly wage increased by 3.0%. Hourly wages increased for both full-time (+3.4%) and part-time employees (+1.0%); permanent (+2.7%) and temporary employees (+2.6%) and employees with union coverage (+3.0%) and those without union coverage (+3.1%). Inflation during the same period was 2.2%.

In the second quarter of 2019, the average hourly wage of Ontario employees was $28.25, an increase of 3.0% from the second quarter of 2018. footnote 3 Consumer Price Index inflation over the same period was 2.2%. footnote 4

Average hourly wage rate and wage growth by occupational group

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s average hourly wage rate and growth by occupational group. In the second quarter of 2019, the average hourly wage rate for Ontario was $28.25 (+3.0%). The highest average hourly wage rate was for management occupations at $47.52 (+3.6%); followed by natural and applied sciences and related occupations at $38.59 (+3.5%); and occupations in education, law and social, community and government services at $34.47 (-0.9%). The lowest average hourly wage rate was for sales and service occupations at $18.37 (+2.5%). The only occupational group that experienced decline in average hourly wages was occupations in education, law and social, community and government services.

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the second quarters of 2018 and 2019) change in Ontario’s average hourly wage rate and growth by occupational group. In the second quarter of 2019, the average hourly wage rate for Ontario was $28.25 (+3.0%). The highest average hourly wage rate was for management occupations at $47.52 (+3.6%); followed by natural and applied sciences and related occupations at $38.59 (+3.5%); and occupations in education, law and social, community and government services at $34.47 (-0.9%). The lowest average hourly wage rate was for sales and service occupations at $18.37 (+2.5%). The only occupational group that experienced decline in average hourly wages was occupations in education, law and social, community and government services.

Employees in three broad occupational groups experienced the highest wage growth: art, culture, recreation and sport (+10.8%), business, finance and administration (+4.1%), and health (+3.8%).

Appendix

Overview of annual employment ten-year review

 2009201020112012201320142015201620172018
Total Labour Force (000)7,080.27,160.97,227.47,276.47,383.87,418.67,426.17,489.57,579.87,673.0
Participation Rate (%)67.066.866.666.266.365.865.265.064.964.5
Male Participation Rate (%)71.571.171.170.770.570.37069.569.268.7
Female Participation Rate (%)62.662.862.361.962.261.660.760.760.760.5
Total Employment (000)6,432.76,537.86,658.46,702.66,823.46,877.96,923.26,999.67,128.07,242.4
- Full-time (000)5,174.05,256.15,373.55,412.05,489.55,540.05,618.25,672.65,778.75,909.0
- Part-time (000)1,258.71,281.81,284.81,290.61,334.01,337.91,305.01,327.01,349.31,333.4
Employment-Population Ratio (%)60.961.061.460.961.261.060.860.761.060.9
Male Employment (000)3,300.83,363.63,450.43,471.53,522.83,567.13,607.13,635.93,700.93,763.9
Female Employment (000)3,131.93,174.23,207.93,231.13,300.63,310.83,316.13,363.73,427.13,478.5
Part-Time (% of total)19.619.619.319.319.619.518.819.018.918.4
Goods-Producing Sector Employment (000)1,365.01,380.61,408.71,415.31,397.51,382.01,401.41,418.11,432.61,453.1
Services-Producing Sector Employment (000)5,067.75,157.35,249.75,287.35,425.95,495.95,521.75,581.45,695.45,789.2
Private Sector Employment (000)4,194.74,268.24,339.74,373.04,447.04,517.04,540.74,597.34,690.64,740.6
Public Sector Employment (000)1,232.81,254.71,294.31,286.01,314.01,305.41,294.11,306.41,329.11,376.7
Self-Employment (% of total)15.615.515.415.615.615.315.715.715.515.5
Total Unemployment (000)647.5623.1569.1573.8560.3540.7502.9489.9451.8430.7
Unemployment Rate (%)9.18.77.97.97.67.36.86.56.05.6
Male Unemployment Rate (%)10.59.48.28.38.07.576.86.25.6
Female Unemployment Rate (%)7.78.07.67.57.27.16.56.35.75.6
Long-Term (27 wks+) (% of total)18.824.924.122.722.922.820.019.919.516.9
Average Unemployment in Weeks18.422.022.422.221.822.420.019.919.317.2
Youth Unemployment Rate (%)17.617.415.917.016.215.714.714.012.311.9
25-54 y.o. Unemployment rate (%)7.87.36.56.46.25.95.65.45.04.7
55+ y.o. Unemployment rate (%)6.66.46.05.85.55.34.94.94.54.2
Average Weekly Wage Rate ($)828.35842.35862.45883.12895.56907.17938.09958.5967.441001.74
Average Hourly Wage Rate ($)22.6623.0923.5524.0924.4824.8225.5926.1526.4327.36

Employment by region (000)

 2009201020112012201320142015201620172018
Greater Toronto Area2,963.03,034.63,077.83,112.33,240.23,241.13,320.43,373.23,442.93,521.6
Central1,487.71,508.11,552.01,551.41,559.51,597.21,597.51,598.01,655.21,656.9
Southwestern752.0761.7771.1772.9769.4775.0770.5775.8778.4794.3
Eastern879.2879.6897.0908.7898.4907.9889.2904.9903.4916.0
Northern350.8354.0360.4357.3355.9356.6345.5347.7348.2353.6

Unemployment rate by region (%)

 2009201020112012201320142015201620172018
Greater Toronto Area9.69.28.48.88.28.07.16.96.46.1
Central9.18.47.47.06.96.25.95.95.35.2
Southwestern10.39.18.17.87.77.06.96.15.65.2
Eastern6.87.26.76.66.67.06.76.45.74.9
Northern9.08.37.87.27.46.67.27.16.45.8

Total employment by CMA (000)

Greater Toronto Area

 2009201020112012201320142015201620172018
Toronto2,817.02,880.32,923.42,960.63,092.13,087.43,176.73,215.03,289.63,353.0
Oshawa175.1184.3189.0190.0194.5201.4196.4214.0210.4220.6

Central Ontario

 2009201020112012201320142015201620172018
Hamilton369.8369.1375.1376.6374.8383.7385.4385.8417.9413.8
Kitchener250.7258.1270.5271.6278.9283.1279.8281.6287.8292.2
St. Catharines-Niagara186.3190.4196.1201.8193.5195.4204.1203.1197.6201.7
Peterborough58.556.657.658.554.960.561.259.561.263.6
Brantford68.667.468.567.568.968.669.370.272.370.0
Guelph79.179.282.083.979.881.890.590.690.888.8
Barrie90.399.1101.5102.3109.4111.6108.4104.2115.6114.6

Eastern Ontario

 2009201020112012201320142015201620172018
Ottawa500.4515.3517.4535.4523.5533.8531.1543.4546.7557.6
Kingston79.276.779.380.682.681.482.983.687.386.4

Southwestern Ontario

 2009201020112012201320142015201620172018
London238.8239.6237.7242.3240.4243.0252.0245.9245.8252.9
Windsor146.4147.5147.9153.3154.8155.2158.0164.1162.8164.5

Northern Ontario

 2009201020112012201320142015201620172018
Sudbury79.880.782.180.883.383.182.381.781.181.4
Thunder Bay60.060.260.361.862.861.559.760.161.563.7

Overview of quarterly employment year-over-year

 2017q32018q32017q42018q42018q12019q12018q22019q2
Total Labour Force (000)7,658.97,782.47,598.97,682.17,510.57,728.07,717.17913.8
Participation Rate (%)65.465.264.664.163.664.265.065.4
Male Participation Rate (%)69.969.668.868.467.568.669.170.0
Female Participation Rate (%)61.161.160.760.059.860.061.161.0
Total Employment (000)7,197.07,315.27,213.47,302.77,082.37,268.27269.27472.1
- Full-time (000)5,913.76,049.15,818.45,909.05,707.75,858.25970.26096.2
- Part-time (000)1,283.31,266.01,394.91,393.71,374.71,409.91299.01375.9
Employment-Population Ratio (%)61.561.361.460.960.060.461.261.8
Male Employment (000)3,758.83,833.83,730.93,794.33,653.63,771.23773.83906.0
Female Employment (000)3,438.23,481.33,482.53,508.43,428.73,497.03495.43566.1
Part-Time (% of total)17.817.319.319.119.419.417.918.4
Goods-Producing Sector Employment (000)1,472.21,491.01,465.21,463.01,406.81,411.01451.71474.0
Services-Producing Sector Employment (000)5,724.85,824.25,748.25,839.75,675.65,857.25817.55998.1
Private Sector Employment (000)4,789.54,810.74,744.94,774.84,620.04,751.64756.94872.6
Public Sector Employment (000)1,285.11,373.51,347.11,385.11,352.31,368.51396.01389.3
Self-Employment (% of total)15.615.515.515.615.715.815.416.2
Total Unemployment (000)462467.2385.5379.4428.2459.8447.9441.7
Unemployment Rate (%)6.06.05.14.95.75.95.85.6
Male Unemployment Rate (%)5.95.55.45.26.16.65.85.7
Female Unemployment Rate (%)6.26.64.74.65.25.35.85.5
Long-Term (27 wks+) (% of total)18.216.920.417.216.516.017.014.4
Average Unemployment in Weeks17.916.720.217.517.316.617.415.5
Youth Unemployment Rate (%)11.312.110.110.811.812.413.012.5
25-54 y.o. Unemployment rate (%)5.45.24.44.24.75.04.74.5
55+ y.o. Unemployment rate (%)4.14.13.93.55.04.94.34.2
Average Weekly Wage Rate ($)970.131,004.19979.941,000.71994.551014.321007.271035.15
Average Hourly Wage Rate ($)26.2827.2526.8027.4827.2827.9027.4328.25

Employment by Region (000)

 2017q32018q32017q42018q42018q12019q12018q22019q2
Greater Toronto Area (GTA)3466.23535.73509.93545.43,466.63,563.53538.83659.1
Central1695.91686.11656.41696.31,598.51,650.71646.61699.4
Southwestern782.8810.3789.5790.3775.2772.4801.3797.0
Eastern893.8917.9908.2916.1905.4931.6924.4962.8
Northern358.3365.4349.3354.5336.6350.0358.0353.8

Unemployment Rate by Region (%)

 2017q32018q32017q42018q42018q12019q12018q22019q2
Greater Toronto Area (GTA)6.46.65.45.55.76.46.45.9
Central5.15.54.54.15.85.25.55.1
Southwestern5.55.55.14.45.96.15.04.8
Eastern6.55.14.84.65.05.24.85.2
Northern6.55.55.35.56.66.15.96.8

Total Employment by CMA (000)

Greater Toronto Area

 2017q32018q32017q42018q42018q12019q12018q22019q2
Toronto3313.73361.93351.03380.93,305.73,393.63363.43492.2
Oshawa212.2222.4211.0219.5211.9222.9228.6227.0

Central Ontario

 2017q32018q32017q42018q42018q12019q12018q22019q2
Hamilton432.4412.4423.3420.7407.7415.1414.3415.4
Kitchener290.5303.1287.4302.3276.6295.6286.5306.3
St. Catharines-Niagara202.2205.1198.5201.8195.4192.4204.4196.0
Peterborough62.566.361.066.559.562.262.062.3
Brantford72.668.974.971.870.875.568.580.9
Guelph91.388.691.092.987.094.486.895.3
Barrie117.3120.9117.9119.1106.3114.9112.3117.9

Eastern Ontario

 2017q32018q32017q42018q42018q12019q12018q22019q2
Ottawa (Ontario part)540.6557.3550553.7552.3564.9567.2575.2
Kingston87.487.98885.185.586.187.391.2

Southwestern Ontario

 2017q32018q32017q42018q42018q12019q12018q22019q2
London242.9260.3242.5247.8245.8246.5257.9244.9
Windsor168.1163.7164.3169.1160.9171.5164.2174.4

Northern Ontario

 2017q32018q32017q42018q42018q12019q12018q22019q2
Sudbury82.282.282.184.678.084.980.885.8
Thunder Bay63.465.361.261.762.259.865.762.3

Note: All estimates in this appendix are based on Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey.


Footnotes

  • footnote[1] Back to paragraph This economic region closely matches the GTA, the main exception being that it excludes the city of Burlington.
  • footnote[2] Back to paragraph Real wages are based on nominal wages deflated by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for all items. Self-employment is excluded.
  • footnote[3] Back to paragraph Year-over-year comparison (between second quarters of 2018 and 2019) is in nominal dollars.
  • footnote[4] Back to paragraph Measured as an increase in the all-items Consumer Price Index for Ontario between April and May of 2018 and April and May of 2019.
Updated: January 06, 2022
Published: July 03, 2019