Teaching and learning resources
Increase your understanding of the importance of treaties in Ontario.
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Please note: Some of the resources below were created by external partners and do not necessarily reflect the opinions or positions of the Ministry of Indigenous Affairs or the Government of Ontario.
Lesson plans and guides
- Historica Canada’s Treaties in Canada Education Guide (PDF) has discussion topics, including Indigenous oral traditions, a historical timeline of treaties and case studies
- EduGAINS has Ontario Ministry of Education-developed resources.
- Archives of Ontario James Bay Treaty lesson kits for grade 6 and grade 9 students and map of Treaty No. 9 signing locations
Indigenous partner resources
- Anishinabek Nation's We Are All Treaty People kit has lesson plans, activities and books for grades 1-8
- Anishinabek Nation’s learning resources
- Anishinabek Nation’s Gdoo-Sastamoo Kii Mi treaty-related curriculum resources
- Videos of Indigenous speakers sharing their knowledge about the importance of treaties, treaty relationships and rights in Ontario
- Treaties in Ontario infographic (PDF) shows the number of treaties in Ontario, the regions they cover and the populations within treaty areas
- Canadian Encyclopedia’s Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada
- Historica Canada’s Naskumituwin (Treaty) Heritage Minute about Treaty No. 9 from the perspective of George Spence, a Cree hunter from Fort Albany
- Historic treaties and treaty First Nations in Canada infographic
- Archives of Ontario James Bay Treaty virtual exhibit
- Ontario treaties and reserves allows you to search for a city, address or postal code to find nearby treaties and reserves in Ontario
- Ontario First Nations and treaties map (PDF) shows treaty locations in Ontario. Order a copy for the classroom for free from Publications Ontario. A downloadable version (Publication #: 027005_U) and a printed version (Publication #: 027005) are available.
- Maps of Treaty-Making in Canada shows the Pre-1975 treaties of Canada, covering most of Ontario and negotiated between 1725 and 1923
- Algonquins of Ontario settlement area boundary map (PDF) shows the largest land claim currently being negotiated and the province’s first modern-day treaty
- A map of Indigenous Trail Markers shows 25 educational markers honouring the culture and history of Indigenous peoples along the TransCanada Trail
- Crawford, Kelly. Alex Shares His Wampum Belt. Illustrated by Don Chretien. North Bay: Union of Ontario Indians, 2017.
- Crawford, Kelly. Dakota Talks About Treaties. Illustrated by Don Chretien. North Bay: Union of Ontario Indians, 2017.
- Misiak, Zig. Wampum: The Story of Shaylyn the Clam. Illustrated by Jennifer Bettio. Brantford: Real Peoples History, 2015.
- Robertson, Robbie. Hiawatha and the Peacemaker. Illustrated by David Shannon. New York: Abrams Books, 2015.
- Switzer, Maurice. We are all Treaty People. Illustrated by Charley Hebert. North Bay: Union of Ontario Indians, 2011
- Angus, Charlie (2015) Children of the Broken Treaty: Canada’s Lost Promise and One Girl’s Dream, University of Regina Press.
- Asch, Michael. On Being Here to Stay: Treaties and Aboriginal Rights in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014.
- Blair, Peggy. Lament for a First Nation: The Williams Treaties of Southern Ontario. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2008.
- Bohaker, Heidi. Doodem and Council Fire: Anishinaabe Governance Through Alliance . Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2020.
- Borrows, John and Michael Coyle, eds. The Right Relationship: Reimagining the Implementation of Historical Treaties. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017
- Calverley, David. Who Controls the Hunt? First Nations, Treaty Rights, and Wildlife Conservation in Ontario, 1783-1939 . Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2018.
- Fenge, Terry and Jim Aldrige, eds. Keeping Promises: The Royal Proclamation of 1763, Aboriginal Rights, and Treaties in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2015.
- Long, John S. Treaty No.: Making the Agreement to Share the Land in Far Northern Ontario in 1905. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2010.
- Luby, Brittany. Dammed: The Politics of Loss and Survival in Anishinaabe Territory. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 2020.
- Macklem, Patrick and Douglas Sanderson, eds. From Recognition to Reconciliation: Essays on the Constitutional Entrenchment of Aboriginal and Treaty Rights. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2015.
- McCabe, J. Timothy S. The Law of Treaties Between the Crown and Aboriginal Peoples. Markham: Lexis Nexis Canada Inc., 2010.
- Miller, J.R. Compact, Contract, Covenant: Aboriginal Treaty-Making in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.
- Morin, Jean-Pierre. Solemn Words and Foundational Documents: An Annotated Discussion of Indigenous-Crown Treaties in Canada, 1752-1923 . Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2018.
- Morris, Alexander (1880-1991) The Treaties of Canada with the Indians of Manitoba and the North-West Territories including the Negotiations on which they were based, Belfords, Clarke & Co, Toronto.
- Poetzer, Greg and Ken S. Coates. From Treaty Peoples to Treaty Nation: A Road Map for All Canadians. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2016.
- Rogers, Edward S. and Donald B. Smith, eds. Aboriginal Ontario: Historical Perspectives on First Nations. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1994.
- Switzer, Maurice. Nation to Nation, A Resource on Treaties in Ontario. North Bay: Union of Ontario Indians, 2013.
- Tidridge, Nathan. The Queen at the Council Fire: The Treaty of Niagara, Reconciliation, and the Dignified Crown in Canada. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2015.
Updated: November 02, 2021
Published: October 19, 2021