Rationale (1)

Procedure F-5-5 is a supporting document for Guideline F-5 "Levels of Treatment for Municipal and Private Sewage Treatment Works Discharging to Surface Waters".

A Combined Sewer System (CSS) is a wastewater collection system designed to convey both sanitary wastewater and stormwater runoff through a single-pipe system to a sewage treatment works. During dry weather, it conveys sanitary wastewater. During a precipitation event (rainfall or snowmelt) the capacity of the CSS and/or treatment facility may be exceeded by the total wastewater flow. This results in the occurrence of a combined sewer overflow (CSO) which is an untreated mixture often containing high levels of floatables, pathogenic microorganisms, suspended solids, oxygen-demanding organic compounds, nutrients, oil and grease, toxic contaminants and other pollutants. The CSOs represent a potential health hazard and can have adverse effects on aquatic life, recreational uses and water supplies. The goals of this Procedure are to:

  1. eliminate the occurrence of dry weather overflows
  2. minimize the potential for impacts on human health and aquatic life resulting from CSOs
  3. achieve as a minimum, compliance with body contact recreational water quality objectives (Provincial Water Quality Objectives (PWQO) for Escherichia coli (E. coli)) at beaches impacted by CSOs for at least 95% ofthe four-month period (June 1 to September 30) for an average year.

Definitions (2)

combined sewer system (CSS)
a wastewater collection system which conveys sanitary wastewaters (domestic, commercial and industrial wastewaters) and stormwater runoff through a single­ pipe system to a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) or treatment works. Combined sewer systems which have been partially separated and in which roof leaders or foundation drains contribute stormwater inflow to the sewer system conveying sanitary flows are still defined as combined sewer systems in this Procedure.
combined sewer overflow (CSO)
a discharge to the environment from a combined sewer system that usually occurs as a result of a precipitation event when the capacity of the combined sewer is exceeded. Itconsists of a mixture of sanitary wastewater and stormwater runoff and often contains high levels of floatables, pathogenic microorganisms, suspended solids, oxygen-demanding organic compounds, nutrients, oil and grease, toxic contaminants and other pollutants.
overflow event
occurs when there is one or more CSOs from a combined sewer system, resulting from a precipitation event. An intervening time of twelve hours or greater separating a CSO from the last prior CSO at the same location is considered to separate one overflow event from another.
Dry weather flow
is sewage flow resulting from both:
  1. Sanitary wastewater (combined input of industrial, domestic and commercial flows); and
  2. Infiltration and inflows from foundation drains or other drains occurring during periods with an absence of rainfall or snowmelt.
Wet weather flow
is the combined sewage flow resulting from:
  1. Sanitary wastewater; and
  2. Infiltration and inflows from foundation drains or other drains resulting from rainfall or snowmelt; and
  3. Stormwater runoff generated by either rainfall or snowmelt that enters the combined sewer system.
is any structure that in dry weather permits the passage of all flows to treatment and in wet weather permits discharge to an outfall or relief sewer of all flows in excess of some specific flowrate.
average year
refers to:
  1. the long term average of flow based on using simulation of at least twenty years of rainfall data and/or
  2. a year in which the rainfall pattern (e.g. intensity, volume and frequency) is consistent with the long-term mean of the area; and/or
  3. a year inwhich the runoff pattern resulting from the rainfall (e.g. rate, volume and frequency) is consistent with the long-term mean of the area.
swimming and bathing beach
is a strip of shoreline with the physiographic, climatic, access, and ownership attributes necessary to accommodate significant water contact and non-contact recreation under favourable aquatic conditions.

Separate versus combined sewers (3)

The Ministry "Guidelines for the Design of Sanitary Sewage Systems, July 1985" states that

"All new sewer construction within the Province of Ontario should be of the 'separate' type, with all forms of storm and groundwater flow being excluded to the greatest possible extent. New 'combined' sewer systems will not be approved."

However, existing combined sewers may undergo rehabilitation or be replaced by new combined sewers provided the municipality or operating authority has met the Ministry requirements as set out in this document.

Ministry requirements for municipal & private combined sewer systems (4)

To meet the goals of this Procedure each municipality or operating authority of a combined sewer system will be expected to:

  1. develop a Pollution Prevention and Control Plan (PPCP) as outlined in Section 5;
  2. meet minimum CSO controls as outlined in Section 6; and
  3. provide additional controls
    • for beaches impaired by CSOs where water quality is not meeting the PWQO for E. coli as outlined in Section 9
    • where required by receiving water quality conditions as specified in Procedure B-1-1 "Water Management - Policies, Guidelines, Provincial Water Quality Objectives of the Ministry of Environment and Energy, July 1994".

The site-specific nature and impacts of CSOs are recognized in this Procedure. There is flexibility for selecting controls for local situations.

Pollution prevention and control plan (PPCP) (5)

A Pollution Prevention and Control Plan (PPCP) should be developed to meet the goals of the Procedure by:

  • outlining the nature, cause and extent of pollution problems;
  • examining alternatives and proposing remedial measures; and,
  • recommending an implementation program.

Water quality problems may be caused primarily by combined sewer overflows or by a combination of sources including CSOs. Where the pollution problem is due to a combination of sources, the discharges will be investigated and prioritized based on the relevant significance of the various discharges. Insome cases the receiving water quality and pollutant transport mechanisms will be assessed in the PPCP.

To address the impact of CSOs the components of the PPCP shall include:

  1. characterization of the combined sewer system (CSS);

    Monitoring, modelling and other appropriate means shall be used to characterize the CSS and the response ofthe CSS to precipitation events. The characterization shall include the determination of the location, frequency and volume of the CSOs as well as the concentrations and mass of pollutants resulting from CSOs. Through this process the existence and severity of suspected deficiencies will be confirmed. Records shall be kept for combined sewer systems including the following:

    • location and physical description of CSO outfalls in the collection system, emergency overflows at pumping stations, and bypass locations at STPs;
    • location and identification of receiving water bodies for all combined sewer outfalls;
    • combined sewer system flow and STP treatment capacities; present and future expected peak flow rates during dry weather and wet weather;
    • capacity of all regulators; and
    • location of cross-connections.

    Operational procedures shall be developed for combined sewer systems including the following:

    • combined sewer maintenance programs; and,
    • regulator inspection and maintenance programs.
  2. an examination of non-structural and structural CSO control alternatives that may include:
    • source control;
    • inflow/infiltration reduction;
    • operation and maintenance improvements;
    • control structure improvements; collection system improvements; storage technologies;
    • treatment technologies;
    • sewer separation.
  3. an implementation plan with cost estimates and schedule of all practical measures to eliminate dry weather overflows and minimize wet weather overflows.

    The implementation plan should show how the minimum CSO prevention and control requirements and other criteria in this Procedure are being achieved.

Minimum combined sewer overflow (CSO) controls (6)

The minimum CSO controls consist of the following :

  1. Eliminate CSOs during dry-weather periods except under emergency conditions.

    Each municipality shall demonstrate that the combined sewer system, including the regulators, and associated treatment facilities are adequate for the transmission and treatment of all peak dry weather flows from the service area. An emergency condition would exist when e.g. basement flooding, damage to equipment at treatment works or pumping stations, or treatment process washout was occurring or was imminent.

  2. Establish and implement Pollution Prevention programs that focus on pollutant reduction activities at source e.g. reduced use of potential pollutants like fertilizer and pesticides in parks; public education programs on e.g. anti-littering and illegal dumping of used motor oil and other materials into catchbasins; water conservation to reduce dry weather sanitary flow and hence CSOs; street cleaning to reduce CSO floatables; roof-leader disconnection and installing rain barrels to reduce flows into the sewer system; education/assistance for industries to minimize the use/discharge of pollutants; and enforcement of municipal by-laws or regulations.
  3. Establish and implement proper operation and regular inspection and maintenance programs for the combined sewer system in order to ensure continued proper system operation.
  4. Establish and implement a floatables control program to control coarse solids and floatable materials e.g. by reducing the amount of street litter that enters the catchbasins and the CSS; by removing debris from CSOs at the outfalls using measures such as trash racks and screens; and by removing floatables from the surface of the receiving water after a CSO occurs.
  5. Maximize the use ofthe collection system for the storage of wet weather flows which are conveyed to the Sewage Treatment Plant for treatment when capacity is available e.g. by adjusting regulator settings.
  6. Maximize the flow to the Sewage Treatment Plant for the treatment of wet weather flows e.g. by removing obstructions to flow.

    The secondary treatment capacity should be utilized as much as possible for treating wet weather flows with the balance of flows being subject to primary treatment. Measures to increase the wet weather hydraulic capacity at the Sewage Treatment Plant (e.g. Step Feed operation) should be investigated.

  7. During a seven-month period commencing within 15 days of April 1, capture and treat for an average year all the dry weather flow plus 90% of the volume resulting from wet weather flow that is above the dry weather flow. The volumetric control criterion is applied to the flows collected by the sewer system immediately above each overflow location unless it can be shown through modelling and on-going monitoring that the criterion is being achieved on a system-wide basis. No increases in CSO volumes above existing levels at each outfall will be allowed except where the increase is due to the elimination of upstream CSO outfalls. During the remainder of the year, at least the same storage and treatment capacity should be maintained for treating wet weather flow. The treatment level for the controlled volume is described in Section 7.

Level of treatment (7)

The treatment processes of the sewage treatment plants should be optimized to minimize the pollutant loadings under wet weather conditions. The Pollution Prevention and Control Planning study should evaluate the operation ofthe Sewage Treatment Plant under wet weather conditions in consultation with Ministry Regional staff This may lead to wet weather-specific operating conditions which may produce lower overall pollutant loadings.

During wet weather, the minimum level of treatment required for flows above the dry weather flow (as specified in sections 6 and 9) from combined sewer systems is primary treatment or equivalent. The effluent guideline for primary treatment is 30% carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal and 50% total suspended solids (TSS) removal for an average year during the seven month period as specified in section 6(g). The baseline for the calculation of the average pollutant removal is the influent passing the headworks of the treatment facility under wet weather conditions.

The dry weather flow from combined sewer systems is subject to the process effluent concentration criteria of the STP whether they are primary treatment plants or secondary treatment plants. During wet weather, for secondary treatment plants, the flows through the secondary treatment capacity will be subject to the process effluent concentration criteria of the STP. The flows in the STP which bypass the secondary treatment will be subject to a minimum level of primary treatment.

The treatment of wet weather flows from combined sewer systems may occur at the central Sewage Treatment Plant or at other locations such as satellite treatment facilities. Satellite treatment facilities may be built to treat wet weather flows where there are space limitations or limited capacity in the collection system to get the wet weather flows to the STP. There are a number of satellite treatment technologies some examples of which are vortex separators, high-rate sedimentation, dissolved air flotation and high-rate filtration. Satellite treatment facilities when used to treat wet weather flows from combined sewer systems are subject to the minimum level of primary treatment requirements specified above. In addition, for satellite treatment facilities the effluent concentration for total suspended solids should not exceed 90 mg/l for more than 50 % of the time for an average year during the seven-month period as specified in section 6(g).

Effluent disinfection (8)

Effiuent disinfection is required where the effluent affects swimming and bathing beaches and other areas where there are public health concerns. The local Medical Officer of Health identifies public health concerns such as e.g. whether recreational beaches are safe for swimming.

The interim effluent quality criterion for disinfected combined sewage during wet weather is a monthly geometric mean not exceeding 1000 E. coli per 100 ml. This criterion may be modified by the Regional staff of the Ministry on a case-by-case basis due to site-specific conditions.

In cases where chlorination is used as the disinfection process, subsequent dechlorination of the sewage works effluents shall be used to minimize the adverse effects of chlorine residuals on public health and the aquatic environment where necessary.

All bypasses at the Sewage Treatment Plant should be subjected to the disinfection process where available in order to reduce the bacterial loadings at discharge.

Beach protection (9)

Additional controls above the minimum CSO controls (section 6) are required for swimming and bathing beaches affected by CSOs and consist of the following:

  1. There should be no violation of the body contact recreational water quality objective (Provincial Water Quality Objectives (PWQO)) for E. coli of 100 E. coli per 100 ml. based on a geometric mean at swimming and bathing beaches as a result of CSOs for at least 95% of the four-month season (June 1 to September 30) for an average year.
  2. Controlling to not more than two overflow events per season (June 1 to September 30) for an average year in a combined sewer system with the combined total duration of the CSOs at any single CSO location being less than 48 hours and ensuring that the controlled combined sewage which does not overflow receives a level of treatment (as specified in section 7) plus disinfection (as specified in section 8) is deemed to satisfy section 9(a). An additional overflow event per season may be allowed if the proponent can demonstrate that section 9(a) will still be satisfied and the combined total duration of the CSOs at any single CSO location will be less than 48 hours.

Monitoring (10)

Monitoring of wastewater flows and overflows should be undertaken at locations within the sewer system for the purposes of assessing upgrading requirements and determining compliance with Ministry requirements. The nature of monitoring programs shall be specified in the Pollution Prevention and Control Plan or as determined by the Ministry through its Regional staff The responsibility for providing monitoring shall rest with the municipality or operating authority of the combined sewer system.

New sanitary connections to combined sewer systems (11)

When and where significant combined sewer system deficiencies exist, the Regional Office of the Ministry shall require that the provision of sanitary servicing for additional development tributary to the deficient system be curtailed to prevent aggravation of the problem until the necessary upgrading, as outlined by a Pollution Prevention and Control Plan is carried out in keeping with the requirements of this Procedure. Some development is allowed as upgrading proceeds, conditional upon its progress. The staged upgrading should at a minimum provide for the transmission and treatment of all flows from the additional development. This provision applies to significant development i.e. not to simple, one lot infill cases.

New storm connections to combined sewer systems (12)

New storm drainage systems shall not be pennitted to connect to existing combined systems if that increases the gross area serviced by the combined sewer system except where evaluations indicate that circumstances allow no other practical alternative. The evaluations must be documented as part of a Pollution Prevention and Control Plan.

"Piece-meal" construction on existing combined sewer systems will be permitted only with overridingjustification such as for the purpose of relocation (e.g., to accommodate underground utilities, subway structures, new buildings and pedestrian tunnels, etc.) or for the purpose of capacity improvement (e.g., to relieve basement flooding or to provide emergency additional conveyance capacity to treatment works to reduce overflows) or for rehabilitating deteriorated sewer conditions.

Enforcement (13)

Procedure F-5-5 will be used to:

  1. review applications for approval to ensure that the proponent is in compliance with the Procedure prior to the issuance of a Certificate of Approval.
  2. assist regional staff in setting minimum requirements in preparing Control Orders to bring systems into compliance with the Procedure.
  3. assist enforcement staff in evaluating a combined sewer system operator’s due diligence when investigating violations of the Environmental Protection Act and/or the Ontario Water Resources Act.

Any deviation or relaxation from this Procedure should be reviewed by the Regional Director and the Director, Program Development Branch.