Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve Management Statement
This document provides policy direction for the protection, development and management of the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve and its resources.
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Statement of Conservation Interest
Updated April, 2012
Next Examination Due March 31, 2022
Prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
by Rebecca Zeran
OLL Resource Manager
Statement of Conservation Interest for Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve (C2222)
The purpose of this Statement of Conservation Interest is to identify the natural heritage values of the Conservation Reserve and to identify the activities which occur at this location. This Statement outlines the activities which will be permitted and those which will be prohibited. From this outline, the management direction for the site can be determined.
Approved and signed by:
Date: February 21, 2002
Acting Regional Director
Date: May 17, 2002
On July 16, 1999, the Ontario Government released Ontario’s Living Legacy (OLL) Land Use Strategy (LUS) to guide the planning and management of Crown Lands within a large part of northern and central Ontario. A major component of this Land Use Strategy was the establishment of 378 new protected areas in this part of Ontario. This commitment will be the largest expansion of Provincial Parks and other protected areas in the history of Ontario.
The Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve (C2222) is one site within this expansion of Ontario’s protected areas.
Conservation Reserves are areas of Crown land set aside by regulation under the Provincial Parks and Conservation Reserves Act, 2006 to complement provincial parks in protecting representative natural areas and specific landscape features. Most recreational activities (e.g. hiking, skiing, tourism related uses, nature appreciation) and non-industrial commercial activities (e.g. fur harvesting, bait fishing and commercial fishing) that have traditionally been enjoyed in the area will continue – provided that these uses do not impact upon the natural features requiring protection. Recreational hunting and fishing are permitted uses within all new conservation reserves identified through the OLL Land Use Strategy. Commercial timber harvesting, mining, aggregate extraction and hydroelectric development are prohibited in conservation reserves.
The Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve, which consists of three separate sites south of Highway 17 along the shore of Lake Superior, contains areas of rugged cliffs and bays with many representative landform and vegetation types, rugged coastal terrain, rare plant communities and various archaeological features (LUS, 1999; OLL Factsheet, 2001). More detail is available in the attached Earth Science Report and Life Science Report.
All three portions of the site are fairly accessible:
- Grant Point Section, located between Cypress Bay and Mountain Bay, is approximately 32 kilometres east-southeast of the Town of Nipigon. The northern end of the reserve runs alongside highway 17 and the Canadian Pacific Railway runs along the western, eastern, and southern boundaries of the reserve
- The Collingwood Bay Section is located just west of the Town of Schreiber. The CP railway forms much of the northern boundary of this Part of the Casque Isles Voyageur Hiking Trail also runs along the southern boundary of the reserve. An existing provincial nature reserve, the Schreiber Channel Provincial Park (P2673), exists inside the Collingwood Bay Section of the conservation reserve.
- The third Section is located in Death Valley, just east of Worthington Bay and west of the Town of Terrace Bay. Worthington Bay Road runs west of the site from highway 17 to Lake The Voyageur Hiking Trail also runs along the southern boundaries of the site. This site also includes the islands known as Les Petits Écrits
All sections of the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve can be accessed by boat from Lake Superior. It should be remembered however, that Lake Superior can be a dangerous waterbody and proper equipment and experience are necessary.
The purpose of this Statement of Conservation Interest is to identify the natural heritage values of the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve; this Statement also intends to identify the activities occurring within the reserve. Through a set of management guidelines, this statement will outline the activities which will be permitted and those which will be prohibited. From this outline, the management direction for the area can be determined.
2. Background information
|Name||Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve|
|Ecoregion/ Ecodistrict||3W-5, 3W-3|
|OMNR Administrative Region / District / Area||Northwest/ Nipigon/ Nipigon East|
|Total Area (ha)||1,447 ha|
|Regulation Date||April 6, 2001|
|Interested First Nations||Pays Plat, Lake Nipigon Ojibway, Rocky Bay, Red Rock, Sand Point and Ojibways of the Pic River.|
|Lat./Long.||Latitude: 48°47' N and Longitude: 87°19' W|
|FRI Stands||Specific numbers for the FRI stands occurring within the conservation reserve can be obtained by contacting the Information Management Team in Nipigon or Geraldton|
|General Location||Three sections: 1) Grant Point – located approx. 32 km east-southeast of the Town of Nipigon; 2) Collingwood Bay – located just west of the Town of Schreiber; 3) Worthington Bay/Death Valley – located just west of the Town of Terrace Bay. All sections are south of Hwy. 17.|
|Access||Lakeside portions of all three sites are best accessed by boat via Lake Superior or through the Casque Isles/Voyageur Hiking Trail. Northern portions of the Grant Point section can be accessed from Hwy. 17. A number of secondary and tertiary roads run near enough to the two other sections to provide reasonable access. It should be noted that Lake Superior can become dangerous quickly and the hiking trail is quite isolated, therefore proper equipment and adequate experience are necessary when using these avenues to access the site.|
3. Representation Targets
This section provides a summary of the earth science, life science and cultural resource values represented in the site. It also outlines existing and potential recreational opportunities available.
|Life Science Representation||The majority of the reserve is a white birch dominated mixedwood forest on shallow loamy medium sand. Most of the shoreline is a bedrock shelf, however, a provincially rare community type (Arctic-Alpine Bedrock Shoreline) exists within the site. The reserve also contains a good selection of Arctic-Alpine plant species, such as encrusted saxifrage, common butterwort and pearlwort. A series of waterfalls cascading over a 300 m vertical drop are also present along Blind Creek. This conservation reserve contains one provincially rare landform/vegetation association.|
|Earth Science Representation||Bedrock exposure is nearly continuous along the length of coastline – each section of the site demonstrates a different type of bedrock formation. A few locations in the reserve may be host to potentially important mineral deposits (the Schreiber-Hemlo Greenstone belt and the Terrace Bay Batholith rocks). A series of old gravel and cobble raised beaches are also present along the shoreline.|
|Cultural Resource Representation||One archeological remains site is documented to exist within the conservation reserve. There is also an unconfirmed report of old fishing camps located within the reserve.|
|Recreational Opportunities||Various opportunities exist for hiking, orienteering, picnicking, wildlife and landscape viewing, photography, hunting and fishing, as well as for a variety of nature activities, snow sports and water sports. The Casque Isles/Voyageur Hiking Trail runs along the lakeshore throughout much of the reserve.|
4. Survey Information
This section provides an overview of the inventories completed, their level of detail and any further inventory work required.
|Survey Level||Life Science||Earth Science||Cultural||Recreational|
|Reconnaissance||Yes, November 2001||Yes, November 2001||No||Yes, December 2001|
|Requirement||No further requirement||No further requirement||Yes||No further requirement|
5. Values to be Protected
This section provides a description of the key natural and cultural heritage values of the site and their condition relative to past and present resource use and management activities. It also addresses the sensitivity of these values to future land use and management activities.
The intent of this Statement is to protect those values identified in the site, by establishing guidelines for existing and potential uses of the area, given the level of past disturbances and the nature of existing features.
The entire forest area is to be protected from human disturbance. The forest cover on this site is representative of the surrounding area and is predominately fire origin mature stands. The majority of the site is white birch dominated mixedwood forest (Harris & Foster, 2001).
The north shore of Lake Superior is home to an array of plant species known as Arctic-Alpine disjuncts. These plants are species which have their principal populations and core ranges in alpine and arctic regions, but also occur elsewhere in open, colder-than normal microclimates – such as on the north shores and islands of Lake Superior. Arctic-Alpine species encountered within the conservation reserve include (Harris & Foster, 2001): Encrusted Saxifrage, Saxifraga paniculata; Bog Bilberry, Vaccinium uliginosum; Common Butterwort, Pinguicula vulgaris; Birdseye Primrose, Primula mistassinica; Black Crowberry, Empetrum nigrum; Pearlwort, Sagina nodosa; False Oats, Trisetum spicatum.
The Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve encompasses about 16 kilometres of shoreline and contains an excellent representation of Lake Superior shoreline types (Harris & Foster, 2001). Most of the shoreline is a bedrock shelf shoreline with low cliffs and is highly exposed to wave energy (Harris & Foster, 2001). Other shorelines include cobble beaches, raised gravel beaches, sand beaches and rock barrens. A narrow bedrock crevice with wet, seepy walls was observed in the Grant Point Section (Harris & Foster, 2001). The conservation reserve is also home to a provincially rare shoreline community type (an Arctic-Alpine Basic Bedrock Shoreline), found in a wave-washed rock barren on a small peninsula inside Les Petits Ecrits islands (Harris & Foster, 2001). A few locations in the reserve may be host to provincially significant mineral deposits (the Schreiber-Hemlo Greenstone belt and the Terrace Bay Batholith rocks).
Fish & wildlife values
The site is home to a variety of wildlife species, including common loons, bald eagles, ruffed grouse, herring gulls, alder flycatchers, common ravens, golden-crowned kinglets, black-throated green warblers and Canada warblers. The site is also home to the boreal chorus frog and to mammal species such as beaver, coyote, red fox, black bear, lynx, moose, river otter, marten, fisher, ermine, mink, and various species of small mammals.
Recreation & tourism values
All three sections of the reserve are bounded, in some capacity, by Lake Superior. The site is also in close proximity to Highway 17 and the towns of Nipigon, Schreiber and Terrace Bay. These factors, as well as the fact that the Voyageur Hiking Trail (part of the Trans-Canada Trail system) runs through portions of the reserve, give the site high recreation value. Recreational opportunities exist for a wide range of activities including: hiking, orienteering, picnicking, wildlife and landscape viewing, photography, hunting and fishing, as well as for a variety of nature activities, snow sports and water sports. The location of the site, sandwiched between highway 17 (part of the Lake Superior Circle Route Tour) and the scenic waters of Lake Superior (the largest freshwater lake in the world), give the conservation reserve high tourism value. The presence of the Casque Isles Hiking Trail, part of the widely promoted Voyageur Hiking Trail, also adds to the tourism value of this site.
The Collingwood Bay and Death Valley sections of the CR are considered to be part of a key area of cultural value on the north shore of Lake Superior. Several archaeological sites are reported in the areas surrounding the CR including sites from the Woodland period, pictographs, and historic aboriginal trails. One archeological remains site documented; potential exists for other such sites to be discovered. All such sites, once identified, will be given appropriate protection and treated as sensitive.
The site has probably been use historically by First Nation peoples for traditional hunting, gathering and cultural activities. The MNR has no record that would indicate the levels of historical use for these activities, however, should any be discovered, they will be given appropriate priority and protection. Current use of the site for hunting, trapping and gathering most certainly occurs. Pays Plat First Nation did identify a few locations within the reserve as having important fossil representation. Areas of the reserve may also contain burial sites and various sacred sites classified as sensitive. No definite locations of such sites have been recorded to date. Nothing in this Statement of Conservation Interest in any way affects existing or future aboriginal or treaty rights.
6. Management guidelines
The following topics briefly indicate the existing situation on Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve and the management guidelines to be implemented or continued.
6.1 Land tenure
Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve consists entirely of Crown land. No private land or development currently exists within the site; no future disposition or development will be permitted. Existing commercial development within the site (e.g., transmission lines) may be maintained; no future disposition or development will be permitted.
6.2 Existing and proposed development
The Canadian Pacific Railway runs through the southern end of the Grant Point Section. The railway also forms the northern boundary for the Collingwood Bay Section of the reserve. Highway 17 forms the northern boundary of the Grant Point Section. Private land and mining claims surround much of the Death Valley/Worthington Bay section of the reserve.
The only development known to exist within the boundaries of the conservation reserve is the Casque Isles/Voyageur Hiking Trail (part of the Trans-Canada Trail), which runs along much of the southern boundaries of the Collingwood Bay and Death Valley sections of the reserve.
Maintenance and continued usage of this trail is expected and will be permitted. No new development that would disturb the forest or the forest understory vegetation will be permitted. The area will be managed primarily for low-impact recreation, public nature appreciation, educational experiences and scientific study. Major tourism facilities and development will not be promoted for the area due to the potential for site degradation.
The Voyageur Trails Association has previously indicated a future intention to expand the hiking trail all along the north shore of Lake Superior. No discussion of such an expansion has been forthcoming at present and it is unclear of whether or not the Trails Association might wish to expand the trail through the Grant Point Section of the reserve. However, should this happen, any new trail development proposal would be closely examined by the Ministry and would be subject to the requirements of the Environmental Assessment Act including the need for public consultation as determined by the environmental assessment screening.
6.3 Recreational activities
|Tourism||The Casque-Isles Hiking Trail runs along the shoreline throughout much of the Collingwood Bay and Death Valley sections of the reserve. This hiking trail is part of the larger Voyageur Hiking Trail, a wilderness hiking trail running along the north shore of Lake Huron and Lake Superior. This trail has an existing high tourism value and is highly prized by nature and hiking enthusiasts.|
|Recreational Fishing||All three sections of the reserve are bounded, in some capacity, by Lake Superior. The reserves are also located in close proximity to the towns of Nipigon, Schreiber and Terrace Bay. Many people already use the waters along and nearby the conservation reserve for recreational fishing purposes.|
|Recreational Hunting||Hunting opportunities exist. The proximity of the sites to the highway, to the lake and to the towns of Nipigon, Schreiber and Terrace Bay make the reserve easily accessible to hunters. The area also hosts a variety of wildlife species prized by hunting enthusiasts.|
Low-intensity, non-structural activities that do not impact the health of the forest ecosystem (e.g. viewing, hiking, hunting etc.) are permitted. ATV access and snowmobile usage may be closely monitored for possible damage to the trees and to the site’s ability to regenerate. ATV use on raised cobble beaches in particular will be discouraged. If site degradation occurs, these activities may be excluded from the area. Access by non-mechanized means is the preferred method.
Maintenance and continued use of the hiking trail along the shorelines of the Collingwood Bay and Death Valley/Worthington Bay sections of the reserve will be permitted. The recreational use of this hiking trail will continue to be promoted as part of the Casque Isles and Voyageur Hiking Trails.
Potential and existing recreational activities include hiking (along the Casques Isles Hiking Trail), backpacking, orienteering, nature activities (such as nature study and interpretation, drawing/painting, photography, relaxation and solitude), water sports in Lake Superior (boating, canoeing, kayaking), fishing and hunting, landscape viewing, snow sports, and camping activities (picnicking and camping).
More information on the current use and recreational potential of this Conservation Reserve can be found in the Recreation Resource Assessment Report for the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve (Appendix 9).
6.4 Commercial activities
|Mining||Much of the land surrounding the Death Valley portion of the reserve has been identified as having mineral potential. Mining claims exist in these areas already. The area encompassed by the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve, however, has officially been withdrawn from staking by means of a withdrawal order.|
|Aggregate||No aggregate permits exist within the boundaries of the conservation reserve. Gravel Pits, however, do exist approximately 2 km north of the Death Valley Section of the reserve.|
|Forest Harvest||Mature forest cover on the site is commercially merchantable.|
|Wild Rice||None observed on site.|
|Trapping||Five traplines contain portions of the conservation reserve: TR02, TR09, TR10, TR11, TR13.|
|Bear Management Areas||No BMAs are currently active within the site.|
|Outpost Camps/Outfitters||No outpost camps are located within the site.|
|Commercial Fisheries||No commercial fisheries exist within the reserve. However, three active baitfish blocks do contain portions of the reserve.|
The site forms part of five active traplines and portions of the site are contained within two active Baitfish Harvest Areas. No Bear Management Areas are currently active within the proposed Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve. Trapping will be permitted to continue. No new trails, cabins or other development are permitted without specific authorization from the Ministry. However, the maintenance and repair of existing trails and cabins is permitted, as long as the scale and function of the trail or cabin is not significantly altered.
Various mining claims are present on parcels of land surrounding the conservation reserve. The boundaries of this reserve have already been modified as a result of public concern towards the mining potential of this area. These concerns were identified during the standard site regulation and boundary refinement process carried out from late 1999 to mid – 2000.
No other commercial activities are known to exist within the Conservation Reserve boundaries and no new commercial activities will be permitted (i.e., mining, hydroelectric development, logging, aggregate extraction, road development, utility corridors, peat development and topsoil removal).
The area encompassed by the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve has been permanently removed from the operable area of the Kenogami Forest Sustainable Forest License (the Death Valley and Collingwood Bay sections) and the Lake Nipigon Sustainable Forest License (the Grant Point section). The area has also been officially withdrawn from staking by means of a withdrawal order.
6.5 Aboriginal interests
Local First Nation communities were asked to provide input into the regulation of the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve. Meetings were held with Aroland, Pays Plat, Lake Nipigon Ojibway, Rocky Bay, and Red Rock First Nations to discuss the regulation of the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve (along with 7 other OLL sites).
Sand Point and Ojibways of the Pic River First Nation were contacted and invited to meet but either declined or did not respond. Pays Plat raised a concern about the impact OLL sites would have on their land claim and were reassured that the result of their land claim negotiations would take precedence over OLL. Pays Plat also identified the location of fossils along the lakeshore and requested their protection. There was a general concern for native values, the need to protect these values, and the desire to be notified of any development planned for the protected areas.
Nothing in this Statement of Conservation Interest in any way affects existing or future aboriginal or treaty rights.
6.6 Natural resources stewardship
6.6.1 Vegetation management and fire management
MNR recognizes fire as an essential ecosystem process, fundamental to restoring and maintaining the ecological integrity of protected areas in the Boreal Forest Region. Fire management involves the protection of values and the attainment of resource management objectives through fire response and fire use. The Forest Fire Management Strategy for Ontario (OMNR 2004) provides strategic direction for the management of wildfire across Ontario. The Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve is in the Boreal Fire Management Zone according to this provincial strategy. Fire management objectives within the CR will focus on preventing personal injury, value loss and social disruption, as well as using fire management techniques to perpetuate naturally occurring vegetation communities and help to restore and maintain ecological integrity. Fires that pose a threat to public health and safety, property and infrastructure, or other values will receive a full response and sustained action. “Light on the land” fire suppression techniques will be used whenever feasible. These minimal impact suppression techniques do not unduly disturb natural or cultural values. Examples may include limiting the use of heavy equipment or the felling of trees during fire response.
6.6.2 Fish and wildlife management
Fisheries and wildlife will be managed in accordance with existing policies. Opportunities for wildlife viewing will be encouraged.
No management requirements exist for this category, except that significant and unique landforms should be afforded continued protection as a natural resource.
The Schreiber Channel Nature Reserve, a 32 ha park, located along the Lake Superior’s shore, is bordered on three sides by the Collingwood Bay portion of the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve. Schreiber Channel Nature Reserve is home to what is “possibly North America’s most diverse, best preserved and internationally known collection of micro-fossils within Precambrian rock”.
A provincially rare community type, Arctic-Alpine Basic Bedrock Shoreline, was discovered in a wave-washed rock barren on a small peninsula inside Les Petits Écrits islands (Harris & Foster, 2001). This community, along with its associated Arctic-Alpine plant species (bog bilberry and encrusted saxifrage), should be afforded protection from disruption and human disturbance. Heavy use of these islands for recreation or commercial purposes should be strongly discouraged.
6.7 Cultural resource stewardship
The Ministry of Natural Resources will continue to work with the Ministry of Tourism and Culture’s regional chief archaeologist to identify archaeological sites requiring further protection. To date there has been no field survey to assess cultural resources in the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve, however one archeological remains site is documented within the conservation reserve. This site should be afforded protection from human disturbances. The potential exists that other such sites may be identified within the conservation reserve in the future.
6.8 Client services
Nipigon District and the Information Management Team staff will be the primary contact for responding to inquiries about the basic level of information such as access, nature appreciation, scientific study requests, wildlife viewing opportunities, hunting, permitted uses and boundaries.
Non-destructive scientific research by qualified/recognized institutions or organizations that will contribute to the Ministry of Natural Resources natural heritage information base will be encouraged. All research programs will require the approval of the Ministry of Natural Resources and will be subject to ministry policy and other relevant legislation.
Activities will include producing a fact sheet highlighting the importance of the reserve and responding to inquiries about the site. There are no other requirements at this time.
A brochure and trail map describing the 'Casques Isles Hiking Trail' has been produced and is available from the Terrace Bay Tourist Information Centre (phone: (807)-825-3315 ext. 235 , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ). A copy of this brochure can be found in Appendix D of the Recreation Resource Assessment Report for the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve.
Implementation of this Statement of Conservation Interest will primarily involve monitoring activities to ensure adherence to management guidelines. The conservation reserve will be managed under the supervision of the Information Management Team supervisor (Nipigon District) and the Nipigon East/Terrace Bay Area supervisor. Any affected clients will be notified of any amendments to this Statement of Conservation Interest.
The Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve was regulated on April 6, 2001 (by Ontario Regulation 86/01) under the Public Lands Act, following the process set out in the Ontario’s Living Legacy Protected Areas Regulation Implementation Manual (MNR, 2000) and is now governed by the Provincial Parks and Conservation Reserves Act, 2006.
8. Review and revisions
Any changes that may occur to the management direction outlined in this Statement of Conservation Interest for the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve will be evaluated for their significance. Minor changes, which do not alter the overall protection objectives, may be considered and approved by the Area Supervisor. Local consultation may also be required, as determined by the Area Supervisor. The need for a more comprehensive planning process will be considered in the case of major changes. Any major amendments to this document will require public consultation and the approval of the District Manager and Regional Director.
In accordance with the Provincial Parks and Conservation Reserves Act, 2006, MNR will examine management direction documents that have been in place for 10 years or more. The next scheduled examination for the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve will be in 2022.
9. Public consultation
9.1 Results of past consultation
Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve has been a part of the land use planning and consultation process:
- Lands for Life round table consultation (June 1997 to July 1998)
- Ontario Forest Accord (1999)
- Ontario’s Living Legacy round table discussions (1999)
- OLL Site Regulation and Public Consultation Process (Nov/Dec of 1999 and again in June/July of 2000)
During the Ontario’s Living Legacy Land Use Strategy site regulation and public consultation process for the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve, contact was made with local stakeholders. In November of 1999, letters from the District Manager were sent to First Nations, representatives from the forestry industry, trappers, municipalities, landowners, prospectors, fish and game clubs, trail and recreational clubs, and tourist operators/outfitters. Newspaper advertisements were also released at this time.
Seven written comments and one verbal comment were received regarding Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve. Most concerns regarded the mineral potential existing in and around the conservation reserve. (see Appendix 8 for a copy of the OLL Public and Aboriginal Consultation Documentation Form for Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve). Meetings were held with five First Nations: Aroland, Pays Plat, Lake Nipigon Ojibway, Rocky Bay, and Red Rock First Nations to discuss the regulation of the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve (along with 7 other OLL sites). Sand Point and Ojibways of the Pic River First Nation were contacted and invited to meet but either declined or did not respond. Please see section 6.5 for an account of the comments put forward by First Nations. Concerns that arose with respect to the establishment of the conservation reserve were addressed accordingly.
9.2 Present and future consultation
Further widespread consultation is not deemed necessary at this time because of the extensive consultation that has already occurred to date.
Following formal regulation of the site, Decision Notices were sent, in July 2001, to all members of the public who expressed interest in this site. Notices were also sent to all First Nations, industry and municipal organizations potentially affected by the regulation of this site.
In the event that a more comprehensive planning process takes place to renew the management direction for this conservation reserve, the appropriate amount of public consultation will take place.
Gauthier, Dave. 2001. Earth Science Inventory Checksheet and Report for the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve (C2222).
Harris, Allan and Rob Foster. 2001. Life Science Checksheet and Report for the Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve (C2222).
Ministry of Natural Resources. 1999. Ontario’s Living Legacy Land Use Strategy, Queen’s Printer for Ontario, Ontario Canada.
Ministry of Natural Resources. 2000. Protected Areas Regulation Implementation Manual, Internal Document.
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2001. Lake Superior North Shore Conservation Reserve (C2222) Fact Sheet, July 2001, Public Document.
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2011. Ontario Protected Areas Planning Manual. Peterborough. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. 50 pp.
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2004. Forest Fire Management Strategy for Ontario. Queen’s Printer for Ontario, Toronto. 64 pp.
Schreiber Channel Nature Reserve. 2001. https://www.ontarioparks.com/park/schreiberchannel
Appendix 1: Site location reference map
Appendix 2: Site and values maps of the lake superior north shore conservation reserve
Appendix 3: Permitted uses table
|Activity/Value||Permitted||Not Permitted||Modified||District Manager Approval|
|Boating / Canoeing / Kayaking||Yes|
|Commercial Wild Rice Harvest||N/A|
|Mineral Exploration & Extraction||Yes|
|Land Disposition for Private Purposes||Yes|
|Native Hunt Camps||Yes|
|Commercial Tourism Based Hunting||Yes|
|Commercial Native Trapping||Yes|
|Commercial Forest Operations||Yes|
|Vegetation Management (i.e. herbicides)||Yes|
|Timber Harvest for Personal Use||Yes|
|Insect & Disease Suppression||Yes|
|Water Control Structures||Yes|
|Bear Management Areas||Yes|
|Wild Rice Harvest||N/A|
|Wildlife / Vegetation Viewing||Yes|
|Roads / Bridges / Culverts||Yes|
"Modified" – refers to a use which may be permitted under certain circumstances where the use would not impact the values for which the Conservation Reserve was created to protect (e.g. new trails, clearings/docks for aircraft access, etc.)
Figure 1: Beach with gravel/cobble. Collingwood Bay Section. Photograph by Rebecca Zeran.
Figure 2: Small rock arch along shore. Collingwood Bay Section. Photograph by Rebecca Zeran.
Figure 3: Rocky shoreline with small gravel beach. Photograph by Allan Harris.
Figure 4: Rocky shore. Photograph by Allan Harris.
Figure 5: Typical shoreline along Lake Superior. Photograph by Allan Harris.
Figure 6: Les Petits Ecrits islands, across from the Death Valley Section of the Conservation Reserve. Photograph by Allan Harris.
Figure 7: Rocky shoreline, Les Petits Ecrits islands. Photograph by Allan Harris
Figure 8: View of Lake Superior from the Casques Isles Voyageur Hiking Trail. Photograph by Rebecca Zeran
Figure 9: Wave-washed rocky shoreline. Collingwood Bay Section. Photograph by Rebecca Zeran
Figure 10: Debris along the shoreline. Photograph by Allan Harris
Figure 11: Blind Creek Falls – cascades over a 300 m vertical drop in about a 1 km distance. Collingwood Bay Section. Photograph by Charles Faust
Figure 12: Shoreline view of the Schreiber Channel Nature Reserve – situated in the middle of the Collingwood Bay Section of the reserve. Photograph by Rebecca Zeran
Figure 13: Common Butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris), an arctic-alpine disjunct species, common along the north shores of Lake Superior. Photograph by Charles Faust
Figure 14: Encrusted Saxifrage. Photograph by Charles Faust
Figure 15: Encrusted Saxifrage. Photograph by Allan Harris.
Encrusted saxifrage (Saxifraga paniculata) is another arctic-alpine disjunct plant species commonly found along the north shore of Lake Superior.