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Additional copies of this publication are available from the Ministry of Natural Resources at the following location:

Neys Provincial Park
c/o Ontario Parks
Northwest Zone
Suite 221d 435 James St. S.
Thunder Bay, Ontario
P7E 6S8
807-475-1231

51751-1
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ISBN – 0-7794-6492-3

Statement of Environmental Values and the Environmental Bill of Rights

In accordance with the provisions of the Environmental Bill of Rights, the Ministry of Natural Resources prepared a Statement of Environmental Values. It describes how the purposes of the Environmental Bill of Rights are to be considered whenever decisions are made which might significantly affect the environment. This includes decisions made as a result of the park management planning process.

The primary purpose of the Environmental Bill of Rights is "to protect conserve and, wherever reasonable, restore the integrity of the environment." From the Ministry’s perspective, that broad statement of purpose translates into four objectives in its Statement of Environmental Values:

  • To ensure the long-term health of ecosystems by protecting and conserving our valuable soil, aquatic resources, forest and wildlife resources as well as their biological foundations
  • To ensure the continuing availability of natural resources for the long-term benefit of the people of Ontario
  • To protect natural heritage and biological features of provincial significance; and
  • To protect human life, the resource base and the physical property from the threats of forest fires, floods and erosion

The Ministry’s Statement of Environmental Values has been considered in the development of this preliminary park management plan for Neys Provincial Park.

1.0 Introduction

Neys Provincial Park was established in 1965, and is classified as a natural environment park. In 2000, the islands of the Coldwell Peninsula (1,939 hectares) were added to Neys as part of Ontario’s Living Legacy Land Use Strategy. The total area of the park is now 5,383 hectares (Figures 1, 2).

The park is located on the north shore of Lake Superior between the towns of Marathon (population 4,791 in 1996 and 4,416 in 2001) and Terrace Bay / Schreiber (combined populations 4,112 in 1996 and 3,398 in 2001). Nearby First Nations include the Ojibways of the Pic River First Nation at Heron Bay North (400 in 1999), and Pic Mobert (350 in 1998) and Pays Plat (population 80 in 2000). These First Nations are within the boundary described by the Robinson-Superior Treaty of 1850. The total local area population is close to 10,000. Other nearby communities include White River (population 1,022 in 1996 and 993 in 2001) and Manitouwadge (3,395 in 1996 and 2,949 in 2001). The nearest large regional centre is Thunder Bay (population 113,662 in 1996 and 109,016 in 2001). These towns and cities show on average a 10% decline in population between the two census years.

The park incorporates the entire Coldwell Peninsula, a dramatic landscape that figures prominently in the work of Canada’s Group of Seven, specifically A.Y. Jackson, Franklin Carmichael, and Lawren Harris.

Neys provides opportunities for camping, picnicking, boating, scenic walking, viewing, nature interpretation and hiking. Although many swimmers find Lake Superior too cold, the 1.5-km long Neys Beach is the park’s most outstanding and accessible natural attraction. The park’s facilities are concentrated on its northwestern corner in close association with this natural feature. Facilities include day use areas, campgrounds, hiking trails and an activity centre (Figures 4A and 4B).

Visitors access the park via the Trans-Canada Highway (#17), and use the park as a stopover on their journey along the north shore. Residents of the nearby communities of Marathon, Terrace Bay, and Schreiber also use the park for camping and day-use. Some destination camping originates in the Thunder Bay area. Access to the park may also be gained from Lake Superior by boaters and sea kayakers.

Most visitors are from northwestern Ontario and from western Canada (approximately 40%), with substantial visitation from the American Midwest (about 30%), specifically Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. This is in contrast to the origins of park users on a province-wide basis where the majority of park visitors originate in the eastern and central parts of the province (approximately 65%) and only about 9% of visitors come from the United States (Van Wagoner 2000).

In recognition of the Aboriginal archeological features located within the park, Ontario Parks will have special regard for local First Nations' particular interests. Respect and protection of archeological and cultural features are integral to this park management plan. The Ojibways of the Pic River First Nation, Pic Mobert First Nation and Pays Plat First Nation will be consulted on related issues of concern during the implementation of this plan.

Nothing in this document shall be construed so as to derogate from, or abrogate from any existing Aboriginal, treaty, constitutional or any other First Nation rights; or the powers or privileges of the Province of Ontario. Nothing in this document shall be construed as an acknowledgement of any rights asserted or any claim asserted by First Nations.

The park management planfootnote 1 has evolved from the public review of the background information, issues and options tabloid during the summer/fall of 2001 and the review of the preliminary management plan during the summer of 2003. This document replaces the 1977 Master Plan and sets direction for the next 20 years by establishing policy and identifying appropriate development consistent with Ontario Parks goals and objectives.

2.0 Summary of significant issues (not ranked)

Park users, local residents, park staff, as well as other groups and individuals, identified the following concerns related to the management of Neys. Each of these issues is addressed in specific section of the document, as indicated by the bracketed references.

2.1 Greater ecosystem

Within the context of the greater ecosystem, it is important to consider the ecological, social and economic relationships that Neys Provincial Park has with the surrounding area. Ontario Parks will play a part in land use activities that affect Neys Provincial Park.

Examples include the need to address park values with regard to any use of Port Coldwell for industrial shipping, the need to address park values with CP Rail and its spills response program, and the impacts of work on the railway corridor adjacent to the park boundary, as well as the acquisition of inholdings and the eventual phase-out of non-conforming uses such as the CBC tower and access road.

Ontario Parks will also support the provision of information to connect recreational activities and economic benefits both within and around the park. The Park’s Natural Heritage Education program will provide information about the park, the parks system and local attractions. Ontario Parks will also work with area First Nations to engage them in the delivery of the NHE program. (Refer to sections 6.0, 8.1, 8.1.2, 9.1 and 9.2.6).

2.2 Zoning

Ontario’s provincial parks are zoned on the basis of resource significance and recreational potential; various types of zones ensure that users get the most out of individual parks. Wilderness zones include wilderness landscapes of appropriate size and integrity to protect natural and cultural values, and to support extensive types of back-country recreation, such as canoeing or hiking. Development is limited, in keeping with the character of the landscape which the zone protects (Ontario Provincial Parks Planning and Management Policies 1992).

Zoning of the Ontario’s Living Legacy (OLL) additions to Neys was based on the values requiring protection as well as the associated recreational activities. Nature reserve zoning recognizes provincially and regionally significant values. Wilderness zoning recognizes the need for protection while also accommodating low impact recreation activity.

Zoning for the OLL additions included the designation of wilderness for most of the islands, with nature reserve designation for Detention Island and for Guse Point.

Ontario Parks will develop and implement a protocol for monitoring the woodland caribou population of Pic Island and the Coldwell Peninsula, as well as the use of the natural harbour areas in W2. If the recreational use of the shoreline and natural harbours appears to compromise the continued existence of the population, camping will be prohibited and zone designation changed to nature reserve through an amendment to the park plan. (Refer to sections 7.0, 8.1, 9.2.3, 9.2.4, 10.1 and 10.5).

2.3 Interior camping and natural harbours

To date, the Coldwell Peninsula and the shorelines of the islands receive very light recreational use, however with the growing popularity of sea kayaking and the heightened profile of Lake Superior’s north shore, it is anticipated that the use of these areas will increase.

Ontario Parks will limit/restrict any additional development of interior campsites on the Coastal Trail. Ontario Parks will also monitor the recreational use of natural harbours and may provide a minimal level of development (designated sites, pit privies, fire pits) to mitigate impacts of increased use. Incursions into the interior of Pic Island and the other offshore islands will be discouraged. Trail development in the W2 zone will not occur. Ontario Parks will monitor the woodland caribou population of Pic Island and the Coldwell peninsula, as well as the use of the natural harbour areas in W2. If the recreational use of the shoreline and natural harbours appears to compromise the continued existence of the population, camping will be prohibited and zone designation changed to nature reserve through an amendment to the park plan. (Refer to sections 7.2.1, 9.2.3, and 9.2.4)

2.4 Interior management and Coastal Trail expansion

The preliminary plan identified the potential expansion of the Coastal Trail to include the balance of the shoreline of the Coldwell Peninsula from Guse Point to Port Coldwell. During the public consultation for the preliminary plan, concerns were expressed about this expansion including the impacts on woodland caribou using the peninsula, the need for adequate resources for maintenance and enforcement, seasonal use restrictions, and the need for a trail/backcountry management plan.

Future expansion of the Coastal Trail will avoid the coast to continue inland to Port Coldwell (Figures 3 and 4B). Ontario Parks will monitor the woodland caribou population of Pic Island and the Coldwell peninsula, as well as the use of the natural harbour areas in W2. If the recreational use of the shoreline and natural harbours appears to compromise the continued existence of the population, camping will be prohibited. (Refer to sections 7.0, 8.1, 9.2.3, 9.2.4, 10.1 and 10.5).

2.5 New development

The preliminary plan identified the potential expansion of the existing campground by up to 30 sites as well as the potential for the development of alternative roofed accommodation in Prisoner’s Cove, or the Area 2 or Area 3 campgrounds. During the public consultation for the preliminary plan, concerns were expressed about additional development in the campground including providing electricity to additional sites, the ecological and social impacts of seasonal sites, as well as the development of alternative accommodation and the need to consider the ecological impacts, and the resources for maintenance and cost effectiveness.

Should the need for additional / replacement campsites be justified, development of up to 30 sites north of the Area 2 and Area 3 campgrounds will be undertaken supported by site inventory and in accordance with a site plan. Electrification of existing sites in the Area 4 campground may also occur.

Neys offers a designated number of seasonal leases for sites. Leases are awarded annually through a draw. This practice will be reviewed annually to ensure its continued feasibility for economic return to the Crown. Lease sites will be rotated to minimize cumulative impacts to the sites. (Refer to sections 9.2, 9.2.2, 9.2.7 and 11.4).

2.6 The POW camp and other cultural heritage

The preliminary plan identified the need to undertake a comprehensive investigation of the POW camp as well as archeological investigations of the sand dunes and of Pic Island. During the public consultation for the preliminary plan, concerns were expressed about the need to undertake any POW source collection expeditiously as the internees and workers are aging. Other cultural heritage concerns included the need to recognize the importance of the park’s archeological resources, to engage area First Nations in the NHE program and to support the NHE program with appropriate infrastructure and staffing resources. (Refer to sections 8.2, 9.1, 9.1.2, 10.8, and 11.1).

2.7 Resource stewardship

The preliminary plan identified the need to develop vegetation, fire and wildlife management plans for the park. During the public consultation for the preliminary plan, concerns were expressed about the need for ecological monitoring and research, vegetation management for the development zone to restore the lichen heath community to the red pine plantation area, vegetation/fire and wildlife management plans for the Coldwell Peninsula and Pic Island, and the decommissioning of the dam on the creek that served as a former source of potable water. (Refer to sections 8.0, 8.1, and 11.1).

2.8 Permitted activities

The preliminary plan identified the limited use of snow machines on park roads as a permitted activity. During the public consultation for the preliminary plan, concerns were expressed about allowing the use of snowmachines. Snow machine use in the park is not permitted, (Refer to sections 9.2.1, and 9.2.5).

3.0 Park classification

All provincial parks in Ontario fall into one of six classes: wilderness, nature reserve, historical, natural environment, waterway and recreation. Natural environment parks incorporate "outstanding recreational landscapes with representative natural features and historical resources to provide high quality recreational and educational experiences" (Ontario Provincial Parks: Planning and Management Policies, 1992).

Neys Provincial Park is classified as a natural environment park. The natural environment status reflects the park’s provincially significant natural features, as well as its rich historical legacy and recreational values.

4.0 Goal

To protect the outstanding landscape and provincially significant natural and cultural features of Neys Provincial Park and to provide opportunities for compatible non-consumptive heritage appreciation, recreation, and tourism activities within the scenic landscape of the north shore of Lake Superior.

5.0 Objectives

Ontario’s provincial park system has four objectives: protection, recreation, heritage appreciation, and tourism. Each park in the system contributes in some way to each of these objectives, depending on its resource base. Neys Provincial Park contributes to the achievement of all four objectives.

5.1 Protection objective

To protect the provincially significant natural and cultural features of the park including woodland caribou, arctic-alpine disjuncts, the Port Coldwell Alkalic Complex, and the Neys sand beach-dune complex.

Neys Provincial Park contains a variety of natural and cultural resources that are provincially significant. These include:

  • Port Coldwell Alkalic complex
  • The raised cobble beaches and associated lichen communities
  • Arctic-alpine disjuncts, and
  • Woodland caribou

The protection objective will be accomplished through appropriate park zoning, resource management policies (land use controls), research, monitoring, and an ecosystem approach to park planning and management. The greater ecosystem is defined as the area of influence surrounding the park from an ecological, social and economic perspective. It is the area where most of the cross-boundary impacts affecting the park and the surrounding area will occur, and vice versa (Figure 2).

5.1.1 Earth science

Neys Provincial Park and the offshore islands of the addition occur within the southern portion of the Superior Structural Province of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Regionally, Archean-aged metavolcanics form the "host" or country rock. In the Neys area, these are intruded by a younger Late Precambrian igneous stock, or ring complex, known as the Port Coldwell Alkalic Complex. This intrusion of alkalic magma is of Keweenawan age about 1.108 billion years old, making it contemporaneous with the magma intrusion that formed the diabase sills and dike swarms that characterize the Nipigon area in the adjacent Southern Structural Province.

The Port Coldwell Alkalic Complex is the area’s most striking Precambrian feature and Neys is central in it. The rugged physiography of the park was created by downfaulting during continental rifting which, resulted in a variable, high relief landscape that distinguishes the Superior shoreline from the rest of the Shield. Quaternary glaciations augmented the relief by deepening the many fault-related valleys that exist throughout the area. Some of the highest hills in the province are in this general area and within the park specifically (e.g. Premier Mountain, and Microwave Hill).

The last ice advance to extend across Lake Superior was the Marquette Advance, roughly 10,000 years ago. Ice-carved grooves and striations on otherwise smoothly abraded bedrock reflect this southwesterly advance. In addition to scattered expanses of bare bedrock, the subsequent retreat left behind a thin discontinuous veneer of primarily stony silty sand till.

As the ice margin retreated north, heavily laden meltwater streams poured sands, silts and clays into the lake basin. The clays compose much of the present offshore lake floor and the basal deposits in many of the river valleys. Glacial Lake Minong was followed by a lengthily period of primarily falling water levels, of which today’s Lake Superior is the most recent. The lowering lakes as well as the later rising Nipissing phase, washed much of the rock surface of the Neys area. Loose debris was worked, sorted and transported along the shores of the respective lake levels. These processes are evident in Neys as both modern and older raised sand and cobble beaches, spits, and bars. The best examples of Nipissing and post-Nipissing raised beaches occur on Detention Island. Beach sands were in turn reworked by the wind to form extensive sand dune areas. Evidence of the continued evolution of the Neys shoreline is readily visible at the mouth of the Little Pic River where sands and silts spewing into the nearshore area are forming bars just offshore.

The Neys landscape provides an excellent portrayal of the geomorphological events and processes that have impacted the north shore over the past 10,000 years. Of particular significance is the large, well-developed sand beach-dune complex located downshore (i.e. south) from the mouth of the Little Pic River. Sand complexes of this extent are relatively rare along Lake Superior’s north shore, however, most of this feature supports park development (e.g. campgrounds).

Earth science values are protected within nature reserve, wilderness, and natural environment zones.

5.1.2 Life science

Neys is situated in Ecodistrict 3W-5. The major terrain features of the park as described above, include rugged bedrock uplands, deep river valleys, and the Lake Superior shoreline. White spruce, balsam fir, trembling aspen, and white birch dominate the forests in this region. Red pine and white pine may also occur in upland areas on well-drained soils. Neys also falls within the Superior Section (B.9) of the Boreal Forest Region. Rowe (1972) describes the forest in this Section as being highly variable, ranging from "multi-species mixedwood types with luxuriant shrub undergrowth", to floristically poor single-species dominated coniferous forests. This high variability in forest types is a product of the compounding effects of variation in soils and the highly variable microclimate created by rugged local topography (Hutchinson 2001).

Deciduous forest (white birch and trembling aspen, with balsam fir, white spruce and mountain ash) with rock outcrops dominates much of the central portion of the Coldwell Peninsula. This forest type covers that portion of the park burned over in the 1930s.

Coniferous (white spruce mixedwood) dominated forests with rock outcrops occur in large areas of the park. Where soils have accumulated, the vegetation cover may be relatively luxuriant. However, large areas of rugged terrain have either very thin soils or exposed bedrock, with sparse tree cover that never forms a closed canopy. Trees are confined to rock fissures in which soil has accumulated.

The sand ridges of the northwest corner of the park and the south valley area are characterized by associations of white spruce, balsam fir, Labrador tea and alder on stabilized dunes where organic soils have accumulated. Less stabilized dunes support widely scattered trees, herbs and lichens. Sand ridges in wet areas support a sparse cover of black spruce, with an understory of herbs, lichens and mosses.

The rocky shore vegetation (lichen dominated cobble beach ridges) is an association of lichens, mosses and herbs that can tolerate the severe growing conditions of this habitat. These plants are able to survive a cooler, more exposed and moister microclimate. Lichens cover the bare, wave-washed rocks, while the herbs are restricted to cracks and crevices in the rocks where soil has been able to accumulate. Many of these plants, such as the butterwort, crowberry and bird’s eye primrose, which are not found elsewhere in the park, are part of a vegetation association known as an arctic-alpine disjunct community.

The occurrence of an arctic-alpine disjunct community on the exposed bedrock shoreline of Lake Superior in Neys Provincial Park is of special significance. Plants of the arctic-alpine disjunct community have a normal range that includes alpine habitat in British Columbia, the Yukon Territory, or subarctic habitat like that found around Hudson Bay, James Bay and areas south to 63º North. Occurrence of these species in the area is of special significance due to the distance of these plants from their normal range.

The provincial target for the establishment of natural environment class parks is set at the Ecodistrict level (OMNR 1992) and therefore, the representation analysis for Neys Provincial Park was conducted in relation to the Ecodistrict in which the park is located (i.e. Ecodistrict 3W-5). Neys is the largest park of any class in Ecodistrict 3W-5 and as such, it makes a substantial contribution to the protection of several of the landform/vegetation combinations (LV types) that the OMNR targets for representation in the Provincial Parks system. Twenty of the 65 landform/vegetation combinations found in Ecodistrict 3W-5 are contained within the boundaries of Neys Provincial Park. Of these twenty, Neys makes a considerable contribution (i.e. greater than 10%) to achieving the representation benchmark set for Ecodistrict 3W-5 for nine LV types and a highly substantial contribution (i.e. greater than 20%) to the Eco-district representation benchmarks set for "glaciofluvial outwash deposits-mixed forest - mainly deciduous" (59% of the total benchmark); and "glaciofluvial outwash deposits-mixed forest - mainly coniferous" (21.5% of the total benchmark). Both of these LV types are located on the mainland section of Neys, in the vicinity of the northern boundary of the park.

The wildlife of Neys is representative of the Boreal Forest Region. Mammals include: moose, white-tailed deer and woodland caribou, black bear, timber wolf, lynx, pine marten, red fox, snowshoe hare, river otter, beaver, red squirrel, least chipmunk and northern flying squirrel. Avifauna include: ruffed grouse and spruce grouse, ravens, jays and crows, hairy and downy woodpeckers, titmice, nuthatches, creepers, wrens, waxwings, vireos, wood warblers, grosbeaks, finches, buntings, thrushes, and sparrows. Beaches, rivers and creeks provide habitat for sandpiper, great blue heron, belted kingfisher, ducks and loons, double-crested cormorants, herring gulls and migrating geese. Raptors include bald eagle footnote 2 and osprey. The eastern garter snake is the only reptile found in the park. Amphibians include the leopard frog, boreal chorus frog, spring peeper and American toad.

The population of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus) on Pic Island at Neys is of significance because the species is designated as threatened in Schedule 1 of the federal Species at Risk Act (2002, c. 29,s.2). The species is also recommended as Threatened (S3/S4) provincially, by the Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO). Although these animals once ranged throughout Ontario to areas as far south as Lake Nipissing, their occurrence in the southern sections of their range has decreased substantially since early European settlement (Dobbyn 1994). Numerous theories have been proposed to explain this decline including habitat destruction, predation and over-hunting. Legal hunting was closed in 1929 and remains so to date, however this measure has not resulted in expansion of caribou populations. The Pic Island population, like that on the Slate Islands, represents an isolated population. It is important to maintain this population as a means of conserving genetic diversity of the species, and biological diversity in the forests of Ontario. Life science values are protected within nature reserve, wilderness, and natural environment zones.

5.1.3 Cultural features

A large number of significant historical and cultural values representative of several of Ontario’s historical themes have been documented at Neys Provincial Park. Many of these values are in the form of recognized archeological sites, the earliest of which contain extensive remains of the Laurel Culture (200-500 AD) (DeIp-2, DeIp-4). The Laurel Culture has been described as 'Indigenous Settlers, Traders and Potters' in A Topical Organization of Ontario History (OMNR, 1975), which outlines the provincially significant cultural and historical themes used in parks system planning. Most of the cultures included in the 'Northern Hunters & Fishers' theme have also been linked to Neys, as clay vessel fragments characteristic of both the Peoples of the Blackduck (DeIp-3, DeIp-4) and Michigan Zone and the cultures of northeastern Wisconsin have been found at other archeological sites within the park. Other cultural values include Pukaskwa Pits (shallow, circular depressions excavated into raised cobble beaches that are believed to have been used for spiritual activities) (DeIp-6, DeIp-7, DeIp-8, DeIp-9, DeIp-10) and the historical ties of the Ojibways of the Pic River First Nation / Pays Plat First Nation to the Neys-Port Coldwell area (Barry, 2002).

Neys Provincial Park provides representation of some of the historical themes associated with European settlement. Fur trading and fur trading communities dominated the area from 1793 to 1865, as the North West Company, and later the Hudson’s Bay Company, maintained a post at the mouth of the Little Pic River. Two decades later, the railroad exerted its influence, as employment with the CPR led to the establishment of the towns of Jackfish and Port Coldwell. The railroad also allowed for the growth of commercial fishing villages, such as the one at Port Coldwell. More recently, a Prisoner of War camp was established near the mouth of the Little Pic River in the 1940s, remnants of which are still visible in the park. This German Officers' Camp, and similar camps along the north shore of Lake Superior, provided the labour for pulp cutting during the Second World War (Barry, 2002). The Group of Seven, and especially Lawren Harris, also immortalized many of the landscapes found at Neys.

Cultural features are protected within nature reserve, development and natural environment zones.

5.2 Heritage appreciation objective

To provide both structured and individual opportunities for exploration and appreciation of the natural and cultural heritage of Neys Provincial Park, including the variety of human occupations in the area, as well as the earth and life science features of the park.

Neys Provincial Park offers a "seasonal activity" level of Natural Heritage Education (NHE) programming. Staff-led interpretation programs based from the activity centre during July and August will provide park visitors with the opportunity to appreciate and understand the area’s natural and cultural resources. The primary interpretive themes include: the ruggedly scenic landscape of the north shore of Lake Superior; the formation of the Port Coldwell Alkalic Complex; the unique ecological characteristics of the Superior shoreline as well as the presence of woodland caribou in the park; and the prehistoric and historic relationship between humans and the rugged north shore landscape.

Self-use facilities such as trails and displays allow users to experience the dramatic landscape of the north shore of Lake Superior. The park’s variable terrain provides excellent vantage points. This objective will be achieved through the provision of accurate up-to-date information to park visitors regarding the natural, cultural and recreational resources of the park using signage, park literature, trail guides and interpretive displays.

A Natural Heritage Education Plan will be developed to guide the operation of the park’s activity centre.

5.3 Tourism objective

To provide both Ontario residents and out-of-province visitors with opportunities to discover and to experience the unique natural and cultural features of Neys Provincial Park, through the provision of seasonal day-use, car-camping and tourism facilities and services.

The principal user group for Neys is comprised of travellers on the Trans-Canada Highway who stop in to the park intentionally or by chance, while travelling the north shore of Lake Superior. Park visitors can also gain access from Lake Superior in motorboats and sea kayaks. Most visitors are from northwestern Ontario and from western Canada (approximately 40%), with substantial visitation from the American Midwest (about 30%), specifically Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. This is in contrast to the origins of park users on a province-wide basis where the majority of park visitors originate in the eastern and central parts of the province (approximately 65%) and only about 9% of visitors come from the United States. Some destination camping originates in the Thunder Bay area as well as day-use and camping by residents of the nearby communities (Van Wagoner 2000).

Tourism industry trends such as an aging population, increasing concern for the environment, and interest in educational experiences, indicate market growth potential for soft adventure and ecotourism. Examples of products include experiences in natural environments/cultural heritage with packaging of wildlife/scenic viewing, water-and land-based recreation. Trend analyses of visitors from overseas (Europe and Asia) indicates strong interest in the outdoors, natural and cultural heritage, especially that of First Nations. Neys Provincial Park and the surrounding locale especially within the context of the Great Lakes Heritage Coast are well positioned as part of an international attraction where there is opportunity for growth with independent tourists, package tours, bus tours, and Great Lakes cruises (Van Wagoner 2000).

The tourism objective is achieved by having outstanding natural features with the high quality infrastructure and customer service that will optimize opportunities to attract and retain visitors.

5.4 Recreation objective

To provide park visitors with opportunities for recreation such as camping, picnicking, hiking, swimming, boating, sea kayaking and viewing, through the provision of appropriate facilities and services.

Neys Provincial Park provides opportunities for a variety of high quality recreational uses compatible with the character of the park.

The park provides car camping, interior camping and day-use opportunities for viewing Lake Superior from Neys Beach or by hiking along the trails, as well as using the beach area for picnics and swimming. The park also provides a small number of natural harbours for watercraft on Lake Superior.

The recreation objective will be achieved through appropriate park zoning; the identification of management policies to prevent any compromise of significant natural and/or cultural heritage values; market research and monitoring; and mitigating impacts of recreational use. Any outdoor recreation skills programs will be compatible with the park’s resource base and will relate to the park’s themes.

6.0 Park boundary

Neys is bordered by the Little Pic River to the west and by the eastern shore of Port Coldwell to the east, while the Canadian Pacific Railway and Lake Superior form the north and south boundaries, respectively. The park also includes the islands of the Coldwell Peninsula and the waters of Lake Superior 183 metres from waters' edge from both the mainland and the islands, including most of the waters of Port Coldwell.

Neys Provincial Park is surrounded by Crown land, with the following exceptions. Two patented lots are located north of Highway 17; a 2.3 hectare lot containing a snack bar-store-service station complex (FD 58) and a 3.8 hectare lot containing a Bell Telephone tower (PP 815). An additional lot containing one dwelling is occupied under a land-use permit. Port Coldwell borders the park to the east. Once a thriving fishing village, the population has since dwindled to a few summer residents. Port Coldwell contains three patented lots of 0.2 hectare (WG 66), 0.27 hectare (DC 56) and 0.27 hectare (DC 55) in the northern part of the harbour. Outward Bound holds a land-use permit for a temporary camp set-up during the summer at a location approximately 100 metres north of WG 66 just east of Neys creek. There are three patent parcels with both surface and mineral rights granted situated immediately southeast of Port Coldwell: 17.66 hectare (TB 28703), 13.38 hectare (TB 28704) and 10.73 hectare (TB 28705). TB 28703 has a 0.4 hectare water lot associated with it. The mining claims immediately north of Port Coldwell and the Coldwell Peninsula (TB 1192592, TB 1151236, TB 1151237, TB 1151239 and TB 1192593) are held by one person and are presently active. The holder of these claims is proposing to develop a quarry (in 2001) and to develop Port Coldwell as a docking facility. Three other active mining claims are located adjacent to the north and west boundaries of the park (TB 1233955, TB 1233954 and TB 1239696).

There are two alienated lots located within the park. DC 54 is owned by a summer resident and occupies 0.3 hectare on the northwest shore of Coldwell Bay. PP 816 occupies 3.3 hectares in the middle of the Coldwell Peninsula, and is occupied by a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) relay tower. The CBC maintains an access road and hydro line, under License of Occupation #8046, to service the tower. (Figure 2).

If any lands within, nearby or adjacent to the park become available for acquisition, they will be evaluated with regard to their contribution to park objectives and available funding. Consideration will be given to the acquisition of the Barclay Islands located northwest of Pic Island, to protect a great blue heron rookery that is sensitive to disturbance and that would benefit from the increased protection of inclusion within a provincial park. Consideration will also be given to the acquisition of the Neys Lake area (the parcel between Highway 17 and the railway right-of-way) as well as the north side of the Little Pic River opposite the day-use area.

No land disposition for the private use of individuals is permitted. Land disposition in the development zone for commercial use may occur, under the authority of a land use permit or lease, subject to approval through planning. Ontario Parks will liaise with CP Rail with regard to park boundary signage as well as the monitoring/enforcement of trespass of that portion of the park boundary that abuts the railway right-of-way.

7.0 Park zoning

Zoning is a key part of a park management plan. Zones fulfill a variety of functions that include:

  • Providing recognition of the features and attributes of a park
  • Delineating areas on the basis of their requirements to protect and buffer provincially significant representative features
  • Delineating areas on the basis of their ability to support various recreational activities; and
  • Identifying uses that will protect significant features, yet allow opportunities for recreation and heritage education. (Tables 1 and 2)

Zoning includes confirmation of zones for the original park area as well as proposed zoning for the OLL additions and the offshore waters of Lake Superior. The four zones, which will guide the resource management and development of Neys Provincial Park, are development, natural environment, nature reserve and wilderness (Figure 3).

NR1 (Dune Lichen Woodland nature reserve zone), W1 (Coldwell Peninsula wilderness zone), and D1 (development zone) are zone designations for the original Neys Provincial Park. NR2 (Detention Island nature reserve zone), W2 (Offshore Islands wilderness zone) and NE1 (Lake Superior natural environment zone) are zoning designations for the additions to Neys as well the waters offshore from the original park. NR3 (Guse Pont) and NE2 (Sand Dune/ridge Complex) are new zoning designations for areas in the original park.

7.1 Nature Reserve zones

Nature reserve (NR) zones include significant earth and life science features that require management distinct from that in adjacent zones as well as a protective buffer with a minimum of development. Development is limited to trails, signs and temporary facilities for research and management.

Nature Reserve zone 1 (27 hectares) Dune Lichen Woodland

NR1 (Dune Lichen Woodland nature reserve zone) is located at the eastern end of Neys Beach and incorporates fragile dune formations and open lichen woodland. The zone also protects an archaeological site (DeIp-3) which represents a major single component Blackduck occupation. The nature reserve zone designation recognizes the fragility of these resources and the proximity of adjacent development. Only scientific, educational and interpretive use is permitted in this zone. The trail traversing the zone’s southern margin provides access to the zone itself and the western shoreline of the Coldwell Peninsula.

Nature Reserve zone 2 (58 hectares) (Detention Island)

NR2 (Detention Island nature reserve zone) includes all of Detention Island, and is designated to protect earth science and cultural features. Detention Island is regionally significant for its raised shoreline features. This includes remnant raised features associated with higher historic lake levels starting with the Nipissing level (raised cobble beaches and stacks) as well as those associated with the present day Lake Superior lakeshore (stacks, water-worn cavities and caves). Archaeologically important "Pukaskwa Pits" add to the significance of the raised cobble beaches. The zone also protects five known archaeological sites (DeIp-6, DeIp-7, DeIp-8, DeIp-9, and DeIp-10).

The lichen-covered cobble matrix that makes up these ridges, as well as the associated human-made Pukaskwa Pits, are susceptible to damage from too much foot traffic. Their relative isolation should provide continued protection; however, the pits will be assessed from time to time for damage related to over-use.

Nature Reserve zone 3 (102 hectares) (Guse Point)

NR3 (Guse Point nature reserve zone) includes all of Guse Point and is designated to protect life science features associated with the West Coast Rock association (part of the Great Lakes Arctic-Alpine Basic Open Bedrock Shoreline vegetation community recognized by the OMNR's Natural Heritage Information Centre), as well as a caribou travel corridor between Pic Island and the Coldwell peninsula.

The West Coast Rock association is a lichen-forb community that occurs on most of the park’s shoreline and supports an Arctic disjunct flora. The greatest diversity of these plants is found at Guse Point. At this southwest tip of the Coldwell Peninsula, the most exposed portion of the park to southwesterly winds, a high bedrock knoll slopes directly down to the lake. Disjunct species include three-tooth cinquefoil (Potentilla tridentata), bird’s-eye primrose (Primula mistassinica), pearlwort (Sagina nodosa), and butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris). The dominant cover is ground juniper (Juniperus communis var. depressa) which is the only occurrence of this species in the park (Noble 1977). Although none of these individual species have an "at risk" designation, the vegetation community to which they belong (Great Lakes Arctic-Alpine Basic Open Bedrock Shoreline) has been assigned a provincial rank of "rare to uncommon" (S3–NHIC 2003).

Additionally, these species are of considerable research interest, due to the information their occurrence provides with regards to glacial retreat patterns, the impacts of climatic change on vegetation development and local variability in microclimate (Given & Soper 1981).

Guse Point also serves as the closest point of land to Moss Point on Pic Island. The Pic Island Woodland caribou population may use this corridor to move between the island and the adjacent mainland.

7.1.1 Nature Reserve zone management policies

The nature reserve zone designation recognizes the fragility of these resources. Only scientific, educational and interpretive use is permitted in this zone. Camping is not permitted in nature reserve zones. Management will be directed towards the support of an evolving natural succession, unless the rationale for an alternative approach can be documented.

7.2 Wilderness zones

Wilderness (W) zones include wilderness landscapes of appropriate size (2000 hectares is the recommended minimum) and integrity to protect natural and cultural values, and to support low-impact types of backcountry recreation, such as hiking. Development is limited to trails, backcountry campsites and signs necessary for route identification.

Wilderness zone 1 (2,680 hectares) Coldwell Peninsula

W1 (Coldwell Peninsula wilderness zone) encompasses the Coldwell Peninsula. The primary biophysical resources include a dramatically scenic segment of Lake Superior shoreline, the Port Coldwell Alkalic Complex, the occurrence of woodland caribou and their supporting habitat, a lichen heath beach ridge association, alpine vegetation on wind-swept mountain tops and arctic-alpine disjunct flora on exposed rock shorelines. Opportunities for extensive (low impact) recreation include hiking, viewing, nature study and backcountry camping. Development is limited to the coastal trail system and complementary interior camping areas with primitive stone fire pits and privies. Future expansion of this trail system will be subject to ecological impact assessment and will avoid the coast to continue inland to Port Coldwell (Figures 3 and 4B).

Developments associated with a number of uses within the wilderness zone 1 are permitted as non-conforming uses until their removal can be effected. Such developments include a CBC microwave tower and its associated access road and hydro line.

Wilderness zone 2 (1,109 hectares) Offshore Islands

W2 (Offshore Islands wilderness zone) encompasses the offshore islands of the Coldwell Peninsula, including Pic Island, Foster Island, Allouez Island, Sullivan and McDonald Islands. The primary biophysical resources include a dramatically scenic segment of Lake Superior shoreline, the Port Coldwell Alkalic Complex, the occurrence of woodland caribou and their supporting habitat, a lichen heath beach ridge association, alpine vegetation on wind-swept mountain tops and arctic-alpine disjunct flora on exposed rock shorelines. In comparison with the adjacent mainland of Neys Provincial Park, the offshore islands, because of their lack of surficial materials, better depict the events and processes that resulted in the establishment of the Port Coldwell alkalic complex. The joint and bedding plains related to the intrusion of magma and their subsequent reaction to erosional forces (e.g., wave-impact, freeze and thaw, shore ice, etc.,) associated with historic lake levels are particularly well illustrated on Pic Island. For these reasons, the island’s bedrock geology is considered provincially significant.

This zoning designation for the islands recognizes the sensitivity of the woodland caribou and aims to minimize disturbance and habitat alteration. It also recognizes the recreational use of the shoreline and natural harbours by boaters and sea kayakers.

There is no development associated with the offshore islands. However, they do provide several natural harbours in the vicinity of which the shoreline is used for picnicking and camping.

7.2.1 Wilderness zone management policies

Management will normally be directed towards the support of an evolving natural succession, unless the rationale for an alternative approach can be documented. Incursions into the interior of Pic Island and the other offshore islands will be discouraged. Trail development will not occur. Existing and new development is limited to backcountry campsites (fire ring and pit privy) associated with the identified natural harbour areas and appropriate signage. Development will be supported by a resource inventory and will be undertaken in accordance with approved site plans.

Ontario Parks will develop and implement a protocol for monitoring the woodland caribou population of Pic Island and the Coldwell Peninsula, as well as the use of the natural harbour areas in W2. If the recreational use of the shoreline and natural harbours appears to compromise the continued existence of the population, camping will be prohibited and zone designation changed to nature reserve through an amendment to the park plan.

7.3 Natural Environment zones

Natural environment (NE) zones include natural landscapes, which permit the minimum level of development required to support low-intensity recreational activities. Natural environment zones often serve as buffers between development or access zones and the more protective wilderness or nature reserve zones. Development is limited to trails, necessary signs and minimal interpretive facilities.

Natural Environment zone 1 (1,105 hectares) Lake Superior

NE1 (Lake Superior natural environment zone) includes the waters of Lake Superior, from water’s edge, for a distance of 183 metres, where it abuts the existing and proposed wilderness zones, the development zone as well as the existing and proposed nature reserve zones. This includes all of the park’s shorelines including the entire Coldwell Peninsula, most of the waters of Port Coldwell and the offshore islands. The purpose of this zone is to provide:

  • Protection to the shoreline earth science, life science, and cultural features
  • Harbours of refuge such as Port Coldwell, Windy Bay and Allouez Island
  • Recreational boating and scenic viewing for boaters
  • Control of use of and access to the park

Natural Environment zone 2 (171 hectares) (Sand Dune/Ridge Complex)

NE2 includes most of the area which lies between the northern boundary of the park and the boundary of the development zone which extends northwards from the main access road (between 50 and 100 metres). The natural environment designation is intended to protect the sensitive life science features associated with the large sand dune/ridge complex that occurs throughout the area. The complex is recognized by the Natural Heritage Information Centre (NHIC) as a significant vegetation community (i.e. "American Dune Grass-Beach Pea-Sand Cherry-Dune Grassland") that is very rare (designated S2) in Ontario. It is comprised of wind-modified lacustrine sand deposits over a glaciated rock platform and is covered by white spruce/balsam fir/Labrador tea/alder associations on the more stable dunes and blueberry/bearberry/lichens associations (with only widely scattered trees) on the less stable dune formations (Kor 1978) Additional plant species within the dune communities include: beach heather, wormwood, beach pea, sand cherry, beach grass and dune grass, various moss species and scattered patches of planted red pine (Lesley Ng pers. comm. 2003). The provincial significance of the dune complex and its associated vegetation, in combination with its relative fragility and consequent sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbance, merits a zoning change from Development to Natural Environment.

7.3.1 Natural Environment zone management policies

Management will normally be directed towards the maintenance of an evolving natural succession, unless the rationale for an alternative approach can be documented. There is no development associated with the NE1 zone at present. Development in the NE2 zone is limited to two interpretive trails (the Dune Trail and the Lookout Trail). Any new or additional development will be supported by a resource inventory and will be undertaken in accordance with approved site and development plans.

7.4 Development zone

Development zones provide the main access to the park and facilities for a wide range of day-use and camping activities. They constitute a relatively small portion of most parks. Development may include roads, visitor control structures, beaches, picnic areas, campgrounds, commercial service facilities, and orientation, interpretive, educational, research and management facilities. One development zone is designated in Neys Provincial Park.

Development zone (123 ha)

User activity and facility development is concentrated in the D1 (development zone) in the northwestern corner of the park. This zone is bordered to the north and to the east by a 50 to 100 metre buffer north of the park access road, and to the west and south by the Little Pic River and Lake Superior shoreline, respectively. Recreational opportunities provided within the zone include viewing, interpretation, education, swimming, picnicking, hiking, car camping, and group camping. Judicious site selection and facility design will be the principal agents for effective integration of such diverse and potentially conflicting activities.

7.4.1 Development zone management policies

Resource management in the development zone will emphasize the maintenance of the integrity of the resource base and the quality of the recreational experience. A specific area of concern is the zone’s generally unstable sand dune and abandoned beach ridge formations, some of which have been planted with red pine. Three known archaeological sites (DeIp-2, DeIp-4, and DeIp-5) are situated within the development zone. Additional sites are situated immediately north of the existing development. The management of these sites is discussed in sections 5.1.3, 10.0 and 11.1.

Development will be subject to a site inventory to mitigate detrimental impacts on the values of the park. All development will be carried out in accordance with approved site and development plans. Archeological sites will be protected. Restoration management for rehabilitation to lichen-heath of the dunes in the development zone that have been planted with red pine will be undertaken (e.g. restoration of the shrub layer to stabilize soils).

New development may include signs, roads, park administration and maintenance facilities, utilities, staff facilities, picnic areas, alternative roofed accommodation, campgrounds, stores, displays and facilities for natural heritage education such as visitor centre expansion and an outdoor amphitheatre, or for research and management.

8.0 Resource stewardship policies

The management of Neys Provincial Park natural and cultural resources will conform with the policies identified for natural environment class parks in Ontario Provincial Parks: Planning and Management Guidelines 1992 as amended by Ontario’s Living Legacy Land Use Strategy (1999). Additional policy direction is provided in the following section.footnote 3

8.1 Natural resources

8.1.1 Land Use

The management of the park’s land base will be directed towards maintaining the natural landscape.

Aggregate extraction from sources within the park is also prohibited. Aggregate for park purposes will be acquired from sources outside the park wherever possible.

8.1.2 Water

Lake Superior is the significant aquatic resource for Neys providing beach and shoreline for water based recreation as well as for viewing opportunities. Neys' small streams and lakes contain brook trout, rainbow trout and coho salmon. The Little Pic River also features northern pike, white sucker, johnny darter, yellow perch, slimy sculpin, threespine and brook stickleback, long nosed and pearl dace, and blacknose and spottail shiner. Fish species in Lake Superior include lake trout, smelt, lake and round whitefish, herring, northern pike, trout perch and white sucker, Chinook and Coho salmon and sturgeon.

Surrounding land use does not presently have a direct impact on the water quality either for recreation or for human consumption.

Until recently, drinking water for Neys has been obtained from surface water from a creek. A new well was drilled and became operational for the 2003 operating season. Neys complies with Ministry of the Environment standards for safe drinking water.

The dam that formed the impoundment for the former source of surface drinking water will be decommissioned subject to consultation with MNR Fisheries Section and the Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans.

Water quality for fisheries habitat and recreational purposes will be maintained.

Water quality, adjacent to development zones and where camping occurs, will be monitored on a regular basis in accordance with provincial health standards.

Commercial hydro development is not permitted.

Ontario Parks will not dispose of the bed of Lake Superior that is regulated as park for industrial purposes.

8.1.3 Vegetation

Management of vegetation within the park will be directed towards the maintenance of an evolving natural succession of communities. A vegetation stewardship plan will be prepared for the Coldwell Peninsula and the offshore islands of Neys. Restoration management for rehabilitation of the dunes in the development zone that have been planted with red pine will be undertaken (e.g. restoration of the shrub layer to stabilize soils, followed by removal of planted pines).

Commercial timber harvesting is prohibited within the park. Infestations of forest insects and diseases will be monitored and assessed. Non-native species will be controlled in all zones, and native species may be controlled only in the development zone. If control measures are undertaken, they will be applied to minimize effects on the general park environment. Biological controls will be used wherever possible.

The removal of hazard trees will be permitted in all zones where safety is a concern (e.g. trails, and campgrounds). Areas experiencing adverse use impacts will be rehabilitated whenever possible using plant species native to the park. Landscaping will be permitted in the development zone.

Brushing along primary and secondary roads as well as along hiking trails will be permitted to improve sight lines and/or traffic flow.

Herbicide applications will be discouraged for vegetation management.

Any development that requires the removal of vegetation will be supported by a vegetation inventory in accordance with approved site plans.

8.1.4 Fire

MNR and Ontario Parks recognize fire as an essential ecosystem process, fundamental to restoring and maintaining the ecological integrity of protected areas in the Boreal Forest Region.

A fire management plan will be prepared for Neys Provincial Park in co-operation with MNR's fire program to determine approaches to fire management. This plan will identify management objectives, protection priorities, the potential use of prescribed fire and/or prescribed burning, and fire response activities. The plan will advance the use of fire to meet ecosystem management objectives while ensuring the appropriate response to forest fires to prevent personal injury, value loss, and social disruption. The plan will examine the historical role of fire in the eco-district, and its potential beneficial effects, particularly with regard to maintenance of ecosystems and critical woodland caribou wintering habitat.

Before an approved fire management plan is in place, fire management will be carried out in accordance with the Forest Fire Management Strategy for Ontario and Ontario Parks policy.

The fire management response for fires in the park will depend on the zone in which they occur.

In the developed areas of the park, fires will be managed to protect park visitors, to minimize the loss or damage to provincial park property and infrastructure, and to prevent socio-economic disruption to adjacent landowners and communities. All fires that threaten park visitor safety or park infrastructure will receive full response and sustained action until extinguished.

In the wilderness and nature reserve zones, the ecological role of fire as an agent of disturbance for the maintenance of ecosystems and critical woodland caribou wintering habitat will be promoted. Fire management will promote a "naturalness" objective to approximate a natural forest and wildlife habitat condition. Prescribed fires will be managed to minimize impacts on adjacent land users and communities through proper planning and sound decision-making. Prescribed burning may be used in the wilderness and nature reserve zones to achieve ecosystem management or hazard reduction objectives.

Prior to the development of an approved fire management plan for the park, the park will receive a:

  • Full Response and Sustained Action until extinguished in the developed areas of the mainland where there is extensive infrastructure and human use
  • Modified Response in the wilderness and nature reserve zones on the mainland. Consultation between the Park Superintendent and the Sector Response Officer – Geraldton will determine the magnitude of disturbance permitted and successive disturbance events to be permitted
  • Monitored Response on the offshore islands. Consultation between the Park Superintendent and the Sector Response Officer – Geraldton will ensure adequate caribou habitat is maintained and not adversely impacted by successive fire disturbance events. The use of any Suppression Action requires the approval of a Fire Assessment Report (FAR)

"Light on the land" fire suppression techniques, which do not unduly disturb the landscape, will be used when protecting sensitive features wherever feasible. Examples of light on the land techniques may include limiting the use of heavy equipment and foam, and limiting the number of trees felled during fire response efforts. In accordance with OMNR Prescribed Burning Planning guidelines, individual plans will be developed and approved for each prescribed burn conducted.

8.1.5 Wildlife

Wildlife management may be undertaken on an "as required" basis in order to protect the health and safety of the park visitors or to protect park facilities. Wildlife management plans will be prepared for the Coldwell Peninsula and the offshore islands of Neys.

Due to the logistical difficulties associated with consistent monitoring of recreational use levels on the OLL additions, as well as the lack of systematically collected baseline caribou population information; establishing a causal link between recreational activities and caribou population responses is exceedingly difficult. Considering the priority status of woodland caribou as a species-at-risk, the noted significance of the Lake Superior Coast populations with respect to provincial recovery efforts (OMNR 2003), and the recognized importance of provincial parks for the protection and recovery of the species; a precautionary approach will be adopted with respect to the potential rezoning of Pic Island and the Coldwell Peninsula. Any indication (conclusive or otherwise) that the caribou population is experiencing stress in response to recreational activities should be treated as adequate cause for consideration of a zoning designation change to nature reserve.

Hunting is prohibited, by regulation, within the boundaries of the original Neys Provincial Park.

Within the boundaries of the W2 (Offshore Islands wilderness zone) and NR2 (Detention Island nature reserve zone) of the additions to Neys, hunting will be prohibited by regulation. This is due to the presence of a federally designated and provincially recommended for designation threatened species – woodland caribou – as well as the absence of big game species, such as moose, on the islands of Neys.

Commercial fur trapping is prohibited within the boundaries of Neys Provincial Park and addition. No new operations are permitted.

Nuisance animals will be trapped, removed and or destroyed under the supervision of, or directly by Ontario Parks staff. This control will be used as a last resort when it is essential for the protection of human health and safety, the health of animal species, or the protection of park infrastructure.

Status Indians having Aboriginal and Treaty rights to carry out traditional natural resource harvesting activities shall be permitted to carry on these activities in accordance with the terms of their treaty within their treaty areas.

8.1.6 Fisheries

Sport fishing is permitted in the park. The use and possession of baitfish is prohibited in park waters. All fishing activity will be subject to the policies and regulations of the Ontario Fishing Regulations. The Park Superintendent may take steps to restrict sport fishing at certain times and locations for the purposes of fisheries management and/or public safety.

Rehabilitation of degraded fisheries habitat may occur.

Commercial fishing (license TR1105) occurs in Ashburton Bay and in the waters of the park addition around Pic Island Detention Island and Port Coldwell. Species include whitefish and lake trout and the activity occurs in the summer and autumn. Commercial fishing in park waters is an existing use that is permitted to continue.

There are no commercial baitfish blocks in the inland lakes of the park or in the addition. Commercial bait fishing is prohibited in park waters.

Status Indians having Aboriginal and Treaty rights to carry out traditional natural resource harvesting activities shall be permitted to carry on these activities in accordance with the terms of their treaty within their treaty areas.

8.2 Cultural resources

The focus of cultural/heritage representation in Ontario Parks is the protection of significant landscape-related cultural resources. Neys contains several (10) archaeological sites, representing the Laurel and Blackduck cultures. Cultural resources will be managed to ensure their protection, and to provide opportunities for heritage appreciation and research where these activities do not impair the resource. This will be achieved through zoning and by controlling any recreational activities, development and research that may occur in these areas.

Ontario Parks will continue to work with the Ministry of Culture in the inventory, protection and maintenance of archaeological and historic sites. If deemed appropriate for the protection and preservation of cultural resources, such inventory may include excavations of archaeological sites. Excavations by authorized licensed personnel with appropriate research permits will be conducted under the approval and supervision of the above ministries. Upon completion of an excavation, the site or portions of the site will be returned to their original condition, or will be developed for the purposes of interpreting the cultural resources of the site. The type and extent of such development will be determined by the findings from the excavation.

Periodic inspection of significant sites will occur with protective controls established as required. The removal of artifacts or destruction of historical features is illegal and is prohibited. Additional significant archaeological discoveries may necessitate alterations to future development plans.

Ontario Parks will consult with the Ojibways of the Pic River First Nation at Heron Bay North and Pic Mobert First Nation on matters pertaining to Aboriginal history, sites in the park associated with Aboriginal culture, interpretation of First Nation’s history, and appropriate use of cultural artifacts. Every reasonable effort will be made to avoid disturbance of Aboriginal burial sites. The precise location of Aboriginal cultural sites, including burial sites will not be disclosed to the public.

Planning considerations as identified by the Ministry of Culture for Neys include a comprehensive archaeological survey of the sand dunes for prehistoric cultural values. A full investigation of the Prisoner of War camp site to determine its exact location and extent, as well as primary source collection from former internees and workers at the camp will be undertaken as funds permit. A comprehensive archaeological survey of the sand dunes as well as Pic Island for prehistoric cultural values will be undertaken as resources permit.

9.0 Operational policies

Operations policies deal with topics such as natural heritage education, recreation management, and the provision of recreation services, business planning and research. The park operating plan provides park staff with the necessary information required to operate the park on a day-to-day basis. In addition to addressing operations policies, the operating plan will include such topics as budget, staffing, and maintenance schedules, enforcement and emergency services. The provisions of the operating plan will be consistent with the approved Ontario Provincial Parks Minimum Operating Standards (1992). The operating plan will be reviewed annually and revised as required.

9.1 Natural heritage education

As outlined in the Strategic Plan for Natural Heritage Education in Ontario Parks (1997), the goal of the natural heritage education (NHE) program is to develop visitor awareness and appreciation of Ontario Parks' natural and cultural heritage, fostering a commitment to its protection for all generations. Opportunities to do so will be educational and recreational, formal and informal, and accessible to all people.

The objectives of the NHE program are to provide basic information in all parks; interpretation of Ontario’s natural and cultural heritage in provincial parks; and outdoor recreation in representative landscapes in Ontario. There are three levels of NHE service in the provincial park’s system: Self-use, Seasonal Activity, and Major Activity. Neys presently offers a seasonal activity level of programming.

A Natural Heritage Education Plan will be prepared for Neys. Direction will be taken from provincial policy, the Northwest Zone Natural Heritage Education Plan, and the park management plan. The Neys Natural Heritage Education Plan will be reviewed and updated annually. The scope and intent of all NHE activities will be carefully defined to ensure their compatibility with park features.

The activity centre offers a central location for NHE programs and self-guided heritage appreciation and recreation opportunities. The park store is presently located in the activity centre. The activity centre may be expanded or replaced by a facility to enhance the park’s natural heritage education program and its role within the Great Lakes Heritage Coast. This may include the development of an indoor / outdoor amphitheatre. Alternative facilities for a park store will be investigated.

9.1.1 Park information

The public information program (Parks Guide, park tabloid and the Ontario Parks website) will be continued. It will provide visitors with information about the park and its resources, environment and facilities. This information emphasizes the visitor’s role in maintaining the natural environment of the park, appropriate behaviour in the park, safety in the outdoors, and nuisance animals. Park literature will also advise visitors about commercial services and attractions in the local area and other provincial parks. A Sign Plan will be prepared.

The park map and brochures enable visitors to explore and use the park. A "respect the environment" ethic is promoted in order to minimize human impact on the park environment. The importance of respecting other users is also stressed.

9.1.2 Interpretation

Interpretive programs and facilities provide park visitors with a greater appreciation for and understanding of the natural and cultural features of Neys Provincial Park. Interpretive programs, printed material, self-use facilities and informal personal contact will be the primary means of interpretation. The park’s primary interpretive theme relates to the geological significance of the Port Coldwell Alkalic Complex (Geology and Landscape) and the ruggedly scenic landscape of the north shore of Lake Superior. Other themes include the unique ecological characteristics of the Superior shoreline; its arctic-alpine disjuncts and the presence of woodland caribou as well as the relationship between humans and the rugged north shore landscape; both prehistorically and historically. Innovative ways of cooperative portrayal of these themes will be pursued with other agencies.

Neys Provincial Park shall work with Pays Plat, the Ojibways of the Pic Heron and Pic Mobert First Nations to ensure that any interpretation of Aboriginal cultural features is accurate and appropriate. The direct involvement of local First Nations in interpretive programs and activities will be invited.

9.1.3 Recreation

Basic recreation information provided on the park map will acquaint visitors with the attributes of the park, its dangers (e.g. cold water of Lake Superior) and safety considerations.

Outdoor recreation skills programs will be compatible with the park’s resource base and the park’s themes, and may include hiking, backpacking, cross-country skiing, snowshoeing, camping and orienteering.

9.2 Recreation management

Recreation management provides a variety of recreational opportunities while aspiring to minimize negative environmental impacts in recognition of the park’s significant landscape. Recreational activities that are incompatible with the park goal or with specific zones are prohibited or restricted. Prevention and control of such activities will be achieved through education of park visitors concerning appropriate uses in the park in general and within specific zones (Figure 3 and Appendix A Table 2).

9.2.1 Day-use areas

Day-use opportunities are provided at two sites adjacent to Neys Beach. The Little Pic River site is situated at the mouth of the river. The Prisoner’s Cove site is situated near the eastern end of the beach. Services provided at both sites include picnic tables, fireplace grills, and water and vault privies. A picnic shelter and playground equipment are situated at the Little Pic River site. The adjacent beach provides opportunities for swimming, beach play and boating. Prisoner’s Cove is the trailhead for the coastal hiking and interpretive trails.

A boat launch is located approximately 400 metres upstream from the mouth of the Little Pic River providing access to Lake Superior as well as to the river. Parking and a fish-cleaning hut are also present.

Rental of recreational equipment may be considered.

A pay and display fee collection system may be installed in order to collect fees on a year-round basis.

Winter day-use for Neys is minimal, consisting of some cross-country skiing and snowshoeing on park road corridors. Winter day-use is primarily local in origin. The use of snow machines is not permitted in Neys Provincial Park.

Aircraft landing is not permitted in Neys Provincial Park.

9.2.2 Campgrounds

Neys Provincial Park provides four car camping areas located along Neys Beach and the Little Pic River, with a total of 144 campsites, 61 of which provide electrical service. The July/August occupancy of 70% (2000) is greater than the Northwest Zone average (54%). Neys has a higher than average proportion of recreational vehicle users compared to other provincial parks.

All campgrounds, campsites, backcountry sites and camping areas associated with natural harbours will be monitored to ensure their continued viability; this will include necessary improvements to bring them to Ontario Parks' operating standards. Should the need for additional / replacement car camping sites be justified, development of up to 30 sites between the Area 2 and Area 3 campgrounds and the access road will be undertaken supported by site inventory and in accordance with a site plan. Electrification of existing sites in the Area 4 campground may also occur.

Backcountry camping is permitted on a stopover basis at seven sites on the coastal trail of the Coldwell Peninsula. Camping on a stopover basis is permitted on the shorelines of the natural harbours as identified in Section 9.2.4.

Development of additional backcountry campsites will be subject to the development of a interior trail system management strategy and will consider the ecological impacts to Woodland caribou. New campsites will be considered/undertaken if/when new trail development occurs in the W1 zone (Coldwell Peninsula) or if/when the use levels of the natural harbours in W2 zone (Offshore Islands) requires such to mitigate impacts of shoreline use. Neys offers a designated number of seasonal leases for sites. Leases are awarded annually through a draw. This practice will be reviewed annually to ensure its continued feasibility for economic return to the Crown. Lease sites will be rotated to minimize cumulative impacts to the sites. Waste disposal sites and dumping are prohibited within the park. Garbage collection facilities will be located in the development zones only. Waste generated by park users will be disposed outside the park at an established facility.

The length of the operating season for Neys will be monitored and adjusted to ensure its feasibility for economic return to the Crown.

9.2.3 Trails

The mainland trail system at Neys (Figure 4B) experiences moderate use by campers and day-use visitors. Many of the trails have interpretative signage highlighting the park’s natural and historical features. The trails are maintained by park staff and have been landscaped to help prevent trail degradation and erosion. New trails may be developed in the W1 zone (Coldwell Peninsula) if supported by site inventory and in accordance with a trail site plan. Future expansion of this trail system will be subject to ecological impact assessment and will avoid the coast to continue inland to Port Coldwell (Figures 3 and 4B). Incursions into the interior of Pic Island and the other offshore islands will be discouraged. Trail development in the W2 zone will not occur.

  • The Dune Trail (1.0 km) is a self-guided interpretive loop trail that originates near the Prisoner’s Cove day use area, traverses the dunes and winds through the red pine plantation to illustrate the theme of vegetation succession. The Dune Trail permits hiking only
  • The Point Trail (1.5 km) also begins at the Prisoner’s Cove day use area, extends to a rocky point on the southern edge of Prisoner’s Cove and provides spectacular views of Lake Superior and remnants of boom boats at the point. The Point trail permits hiking only
  • The Under the Volcano Trail (1.0 km) extends from the terminus of the Point trail and extends along the shoreline, providing a self-guided interpretation of the geology and geomorphology of the park. The Under the Volcano Trail permits hiking only
  • The Lookout Trail, a self-guided interpretive trail, (2.0 km) begins at the north end of the Area 4 campground and provides a loop through the boreal forest with spectacular views of Lake Superior. The Lookout Trail permits hiking only
  • The Coastal Trail (15.0 km) travels through the southwest portion of the Coldwell Peninsula and is intended for overnight trips. Backcountry campsites along the trail are limited to fire pits and privies. Tent pads may be developed. Work on this trail system began in the fall of 2000 and is ongoing. The Coastal Trail permits hiking/backpacking and overnight camping at designated sites

Ontario Parks may post trail courtesy signage as required. Interpretive signs will be reviewed and replaced when required.

Ontario Parks will restrict the use of mountain bikes to the roads in the development zone. The use of mountain bikes is not permitted on hiking trails; off-trail biking is not permitted.

Rock climbing is not permitted.

Motorized vehicle use on the trails is prohibited with the exception of service and emergency vehicles.

New non-park road, rail and utility line corridors will not be permitted within the park boundary subject to the provisions of provincial park policy.

9.2.4 Natural harbours

Neys Provincial Park includes a number of natural harbours that offer protection and anchorage for both small and large watercraft:

  • Port Coldwell, whose waters were included within the original park boundary, is perhaps the most significant harbour at Neys, as it was used as a port prior to the establishment of Neys in 1965, and as a natural harbour for over 100 years
  • At Allouez Island, the harbour is located inside a channel that, in high water, completely bisects the island. This harbour, which is characterized by a flat rock bottom, is accessible from the north shore of the island and is often used by larger boats
  • Johnson Harbour is located on the west side of Foster Island, and another small harbour is located on the east side of the island. The water is shallow in both these areas, limiting use to smaller craft
  • Windy Bay is located on the northwest shore of Pic Island and is used by smaller watercraft

Ontario Parks will monitor the recreational use of natural harbours and may provide a minimal level of development (designated sites, pit privies, fire pits) to mitigate impacts of the use of the shoreline for camping and for shore lunches. Ontario Parks will consider the implementation of a can and bottle ban and party size restrictions if necessary. Users of natural harbours will be required to purchase day use or camping permits as per regulation under the Provincial Parks Act 952/01,3(3).

9.2.5 Winter use

Winter use of Neys is very limited due to the relative inaccessibility of the park because the roads are not plowed. However, there is potential for day-use cross-country skiing on park roads and trails.

Snow machine use in the park is not permitted.

Ontario Parks will monitor the level of winter day-use in Neys. In the event that winter day-use grows to an economically sustainable level, Ontario Parks will consider (business plan) facilitating access to the park for winter day use through road plowing and use of the activity centre as a trailhead facility/warming hut.

9.2.6 Greater ecosystem

Within the context of the greater ecosystem, it is important to consider the ecological, social and economic relationships that Neys Provincial Park has with the surrounding area. Especially important is the ecological link between the park and Lake Superior. Social and economic links include the area First Nations, and the local communities of Terrace Bay/Schreiber and Marathon whose residents and businesses either visit the park and/or utilize the park as an anchor/draw for recreation activities and/or for business opportunities.

Neys is located in an outstanding recreational environment linked by the spectacular shoreline of Lake Superior and by transportation corridors, including highways, railroads, non-mechanized and mechanized trails, as well as by water.

The importance of Lake Superior’s north shore is gaining recognition through the Great Lakes Heritage Coast Signature Site (GLHC). The GLHC is one of nine Ontario’s Living Legacy Signature Sites with a range of significant natural features and world-class tourism and recreation values that warrant special strategies.

The GLHC extends 4,200 kilometres from Port Severn on Georgian Bay, including Manitoulin Cockburn and St. Joseph islands, to Pigeon River Provincial Park at the Ontario-Minnesota Border. Neys Provincial Park is one of 71 new and existing provincial parks and conservation areas along the coast.

The protected areas of Lake Superior’s northwest shore (Rainbow Falls, Neys, Sleeping Giant, Pigeon River, Ruby Lake, Gravel River, and the Slate Islands, to name a few), are noted for their rugged scenery and their range of low to moderate impact outdoor recreation opportunities. These parks provide exceptional opportunities for viewing, photography, nature study, hiking, car camping and interior camping, as well as boating, sailing, and sea kayaking. In addition to incorporating spectacular segments of shoreline, these parks are also highly accessible as stopovers for travellers on the Lake Superior Circle Route via Highway 17.

Examples of recreation activities that traverse park boundaries include the use of park waters for harbour by motorized and non-motorized watercraft for day-use and overnight use.

Examples of industrial activities that occur adjacent to the park and may have impacts that cross park boundaries include the adjacent CPR corridor with train shipment of a vast array of goods ranging from automobiles to timber and industrial chemicals. Ontario Parks will liaise with CP Rail in order to ensure that park values are addressed by its spills response program and its track maintenance activities, as well as with regard to monitoring and enforcement of the park boundary that abuts the railway right-of-way.

Ontario Parks will provide support, in the form of information to park visitors and participation by staff in local and regional initiatives, to assist in the coordination of recreation opportunities that are compatible with park values. Ontario Parks will seek to maintain a supportive working relationship/dialogue with individuals, groups and agencies that share the greater park ecosystem.

9.2.7 Alternative accommodation

A variety of factors will, over time, affect the demographic profile of park users. Those factors include the influence of the aging 'baby boomers', immigration, recreation, and travel preferences. The 1997 Ontario Consumer Survey for Ontario Parks, undertaken by COMPAS Inc., investigated a variety of factors that might encourage Ontario residents to visit a provincial park. The survey indicated that the provision of accommodations and a convenience store were motivations among non-park users. It also indicated that the provision of cabins/shelters would motivate visitors to use parks more in the autumn, winter and spring.

Ontario Parks will consider the feasibility of alternative roofed accommodation (e.g. yurts, rustic cabins) in Neys, in the development zone within the vicinity of the Prisoner’s Cove, Area 2 or Area 3 campgrounds. The feasibility assessment will include consideration of the type, number and siting of structures, ecological impacts, impacts on other recreational uses, profitability, water source, waste disposal, access, and maintenance. If the outcome of the feasibility assessment is positive, Ontario Parks will pursue the development of alternative roofed accommodation, in the context of a business plan (Figure 4).

9.3 Tourism services

Tourist information centres are located in Terrace Bay and in Marathon to provide service to the north shore of Lake Superior. The centres provide both residents and visitors with information about recreation opportunities, accommodation, and regional information. Ontario Parks will continue to work in co-operation with the Ministry of Tourism and Recreation regional tourism organizations, and the local municipalities to optimize this development and to fulfill park promotion and marketing objectives.

The development of Ontario Park’s or private commercial tourism operations such as alternative accommodation, food and beverage services, recreation equipment rental/sales and retail sales will be determined through business planning, in conjunction with the zone and park marketing plan.

9.4 Marketing

A marketing plan will be developed for Neys Provincial Park in accordance with established Ontario Parks policy. It will be reviewed and revised as required. Marketing activities will be consistent with the zone and provincial marketing plan. The objectives of the marketing plan are protection of the park values as well as:

  • To capitalize on the park’s natural and cultural features and to provide visitors with a unique outdoor experience within the park goal and objectives
  • To increase awareness of Ontario’s species at risk
  • To optimize the local, regional, provincial, national, and international markets for the park
  • To encourage park visitation and the use of the park as a catalyst to stimulate the local and regional economy
  • To encourage park shoulder season use and visitation to low use areas of the park but in keeping with the park goal and objectives
  • To work cooperatively with local commercial establishments
  • To encourage visitors to enjoy the attractions of the surrounding area
  • To work cooperatively with municipal, regional, and provincial marketing travel and tourism associations
  • To increase awareness of Ontario Parks' seasonal day- use permits
  • To encourage use by non-park users, and
  • To maintain existing levels of park use by park visitors and to increase their scope of usage of the park

9.5 Research

Ontario Parks' research and information needs relate directly to the Ministry of Natural Resources' mandate and the provincial park’s goal and objectives. Park-based research needs to address the wide range of environmental, social and economic factors necessary to administer an ecologically sustainable system of parks. It is also important that research activities address the demand for good quality outdoor recreation experiences and customer satisfaction. Research information needs are diverse. They cover the full spectrum of geological, biological, ecological, cultural and social sciences.

Scientific research and monitoring by qualified groups and individuals which contributes to the knowledge, inventory and identification of natural and cultural features and to environmental and recreational management objectives will be encouraged where appropriate. Subjects of particular interest to Neys Provincial Park include archaeology, geomorphology (e.g. raised shorelines) and geology, as well as life science studies (e.g. woodland caribou and arctic disjuncts).

All research programs must be compatible with the park’s goal, objectives and zoning prescriptions. Research projects require prior approval and must be conducted in accordance with Ontario Parks Research and Information Strategy that addresses research in provincial parks. Research must also meet all other applicable provincial requirements. Park staff at the zone office will monitor these research programs. Any archaeological research will also require approval and monitoring by the Ministry of Culture. Should provincially or nationally significant features/resources be found, the management plan may be amended to ensure that protection will be provided through appropriate zoning or revision of plan policies.

Park user surveys will address levels of satisfaction, needs assessment, demographics, spending patterns and user profiles.

10.0 Development policies

Development policies identify priorities for new development as well as redevelopment of existing facilities. Development is implemented through business and work program planning, based on priority and subject to the availability of funds, and in accordance with approved site and development plans that detail the location, type and extent of development permitted.

Ontario Parks will:

  • Work with the Ministry of Culture to conduct archaeological site assessments in the area of the proposed development. Should sites be known or discovered to exist in an area, inventory of the site(s) will occur; and
  • Undertake earth and life science inventories so that developmental impacts can be mitigated

Development will be limited to necessary signs and trails in nature reserve zones and fire pits and privies at backcountry campsites within wilderness zones.

10.1 Access and circulation

The construction of new roads, bridges and utility corridors for park purposes will be directed by approved implementation and site plans. Such projects will be permitted in the development zones only. Construction will be closely monitored.

The construction of new trails in the wilderness and nature reserve zones will be subject to approved site plans.

10.2 Campgrounds

Ontario Parks will continue to assess the viability of the campgrounds to determine if they should be expanded, or closed, or retained at appropriate maintenance levels. The requirement for additional capacity will be monitored on an ongoing basis. Development of additional sites will comply with Ontario Parks' standards, guidelines governing capital development, business planning, and be in accordance with approved site plans and Environmental Assessment Act requirements.

10.3 Comfort stations

Ontario Parks will assess the viability of existing comfort stations. The comfort stations will be upgraded and/or replaced/relocated as required, including the development of additional comfort stations, in the most cost-effective and environmentally sensitive manner.

10.4 Day-use areas

Day-users are local residents, mostly from Terrace Bay/Schreiber and Marathon. A considerable proportion of day-users are tourists travelling the north shore who visit the park as one of several destinations or as an unplanned stopover en route. Day-users visiting Neys are members of family groups participating in picnicking, relaxing, walking on the beach, swimming or wading. Corporate and other groups also use the park for picnics and other events.

Ontario Parks will continue to monitor the quality of the Little Pic River and Prisoners Cove day use areas. Development in the day use areas will focus on:

  • Re-design and re-development to improve quality and operational effectiveness; and
  • A limited amount of new development to provide additional day use opportunities, i.e. picnic shelters

Where user conflicts or operational inefficiencies exist, separation of day use and camper activity will be undertaken. Dogs are not permitted on Neys Beach.

10.5 Trails

The expansion of permitted uses (for e.g. to include cross-country skiing) will be subject to trail/site inventories and in accordance with trail/site plans, which will include trial periods for impact assessment. Trail courtesy signage will be posted to minimize potential conflict between trail users. New trails may be developed in the W1 zone (Coldwell Peninsula) within the context of an interior trail system management strategy, supported by site inventory and in accordance with a trail site plan (Figure 4B). Trail development will not occur in the W2 zone.

10.6 Utilities

Ontario Parks will continue to assess the viability of the park’s water, sewage, and electrical facilities. All upgrading and/or replacement will be undertaken in accordance with the Ontario Parks Operating Standards and all applicable Acts and Regulations.

Existing utility corridors that pass through the park will continue to be a permitted non-conforming use and are required to remain in present locations. New utility corridors will not be permitted subject to the provisions of provincial park policy.

10.7 Recreation and tourism services

Ontario Parks will continue to operate in a business-like way. Park staff will monitor visitor needs and customer service. Any new or additional services, such as the development of alternative accommodation, will be implemented through the normal business and work planning processes. Analysis will include the review of impacts of new services on the surrounding municipalities and businesses.

10.8 Interpretive facilities

The combination of provincially significant features and the visitation level requires that Neys Provincial Park provides a "seasonal activity" level of service. Ontario Parks will upgrade or expand the activity centre and develop an indoor/outdoor amphitheatre as funding permits.

10.9 Park maintenance and operation

Ontario Parks will monitor the performance of the operations and maintenance facilities. This will include facilities such as the park office, the entry control office, the warehouse, the staffhouse and the water facility. Upgrading, relocation, and/or replacement of these facilities will occur as funds permit or as required to ensure public and staff health and safety.

11.0 Plan implementation and review

In the implementation of the approved park management plan, Ontario Parks may pursue opportunities for partnerships involving other agencies and groups. Park development, operations and resource stewardship will be contingent upon the availability of funding and unforeseeable changes in priority or policy. Funding may be derived from a variety of sources, including corporate sponsorships and donations. Implementation of the management plan and the operation of the park will meet the requirements of the Environmental Assessment Act, Provincial Parks Act and other applicable legislation.

Unless otherwise identified in this document, implementation priorities may be established in subsidiary operating and resource stewardship plans. Preparation of these plans will involve the appropriate level of public and Aboriginal consultation. A list of implementation priorities follows.

11.1 Resource stewardship

  • Decommissioning of the dam subject to consultation with MNR Fisheries Section and the Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans
  • Preparation of a natural heritage education plan
  • Preparation of an interior trail system management strategy
  • Preparation of trail/site inventories and trail/site plans to identify and minimize impact upon alpine /arctic disjuncts and woodland caribou
  • Development and implementation of a protocol in consultation with the Woodland Caribou Recovery Team and /or the Species at Risk Section for monitoring the woodland caribou population of Pic Island and the Coldwell Peninsula, to include consideration of the recreational use of the natural harbour areas in W2, to monitor the impacts of recreation on the population as well as to inform the development of vegetation and wildlife management plans for the Colwell Peninsula and Pic Island
  • Further field sampling of the shoreline and the interior of the Coldwell peninsula and the southern shoreline and eastern half of Pic Island and the other islands of the addition, to inform the development of vegetation and wildlife management plans for the Coldwell Peninsula and Pic Island
  • Development of vegetation management plans for the Coldwell Peninsula and the offshore islands
  • Development of wildlife management plans for the Coldwell Peninsula and the offshore islands
  • Development of a fire management plan within the context of The Interim Fire Response Strategy for the Islands of Lake Superior and Ontario’s Forest Fire Management Strategy, the Fire Management Policy for Provincial Parks and Conservation Reserves, and the Fire Management Planning Guidelines for Provincial Parks and Conservation Reserves
  • Development of a vegetation rehabilitation plan for restoration management to lichen-heath of the sand dunes that have been planted with red pine in the development zone and the natural environment zone 2
  • A comprehensive archaeological survey of the sand dunes for prehistoric cultural values
  • An investigation of the Prisoner of War camp to determine its exact location and extent, as well as primary source collection from former internees and workers at the camp
  • A comprehensive archaeological survey of Pic Island for prehistoric cultural values
  • Boundary delineation along the CP Rail right-of-way with signage for access/trespass

11.2 Development

  • Preparation of a sign plan
  • Expansion plans for the activity centre
  • Development of an indoor/outdoor amphitheatre
  • Preparation of an assessment of feasibility for alternative accommodation
  • Relocation of entry control office
  • Development of up to 30 campsites between the Area 2 and Area 3 campgrounds and the access road
  • Expansion of the Coastal Trail and development of interior and natural harbour campsites as required subject of an interior trail system management strategy.
  • Replacement and or upgrading of park facilities as required

11.3 Operations/administration

  • Preparation of a park marketing plan/strategy
  • Annual review of the operating plan and the business plan and natural heritage education plan

11.4 Project screening

The Environmental Assessment Act requires that all park management activities conform to approved legislation, policy, procedures, guidelines and standards, including provisions for public notice. The preparation of this park management plan constitutes the principal public review opportunity for activities and projects. Exceptions to this are projects where further study is required, or where a decision has been deferred to a subsidiary plan.

Preparation of a concept plan for alternative accommodation requires the preparation of a separate project plan.

12.0 Social and economic impact analysis

Neys Provincial Park is an important part of the region’s tourism infrastructure. The projects and activities identified provide a wide range of social and economic benefits both within the park and in the surrounding area.

12.1 Benefits of provincial parks

Provincial parks provide a wide range of social, economic and environmental benefits. Some of the benefits can be measured in economic terms other benefits cannot. Traditionally, Ontario Parks has reported on the economic impacts associated with park and visitor expenditures.

12.2 Economic impacts (benefits from expenditures)

Economic impact is one way to demonstrate the flow of park and visitor expenditures in the economy. Ontario Parks calculates the economic impacts associated with park expenditures and the estimated visitor spending at provincial parks. The following is the most recent estimate (fiscal 2000/01) of the economic impacts of associated with park and visitor spending for Neys Provincial Park.

The estimated total initial expenditures at Neys Provincial Park for fiscal 2000/01 were $1,084,280. Park operations accounted for $190,134, park visitors (campers and day use) spent $811,146, and capital expenditures amounted to $83,000.

Ontario Parks reports on the following indicators of economic impact (Appendix B):

  • Value Added
  • Provincial Gross Sales (or Provincial Gross Output)
  • Wages & Salaries
  • Provincial Person Years of Employment

Economic impacts are based on expenditures. The expenditures made by the park on operations and capital as well as average visitor trip expenditures (camper and day visitor) compose the initial expenditure. Visitor expenditure information is taken from the 2000 Park User Survey. Park operating and capital expenditures are taken from the unit cost analysis sheets. This information is entered into an input-output model licensed to MNR for economic analysis.

Based on an initial expenditure of $1,084,280 million the following impacts were sustained at Neys Provincial Park. The figures are for total economic effects, (direct + indirect + induced effects):

  • Value Added (a conservative and more accepted measure of impact) - $1,371,527 million
  • Provincial Gross Sales (or Provincial Gross Output)- $2,635,209 million (this figure includes some double counting)
  • Wages & Salaries - $888,970 million
  • Provincial Person Years of Employment - 24.8

There are other benefits which provincial parks and protected areas provide to local communities, to the province and to society as a whole. The following are important benefits and help to demonstrate how the park supports our quality of life:

  • Protection and contribution to ecological functions (water & soil production)
  • Protection of resource integrity (some of the last green spaces left in the province)
  • Health effects from use of parks (mental, physical, spiritual benefits)
  • Worker productivity (healthy and happy workers tend to be more productive - a visit to a provincial park can contribute)
  • Educational benefits (young and old learning about our environment)
  • Scientific benefits (research in provincial parks)
  • International responsibilities to protect natural settings, features and wildlife
  • Business location decisions (quality of life/business) and community cohesion

As well, the public and municipal officials should be aware that provincial parks help to make their communities attractive for business as well as for tourists and retirees. The retirement community brings in pension income, which is often indexed to inflation and is recession proof. Communities with attractive waterfronts, low crime, recreational activities and healthy environments are sought out by the retirement community. The community may also receive grants in lieu of taxes.

The bottom line is often jobs…the combined economic activity at Neys Provincial Park supports approximately 25 person years of employment in the province each year. This activity provides the area with employment opportunities and contributes to a stable local economy and community.

13.0 Plan review and amendment

The management plan for Neys Provincial Park may be reviewed to address changing issues or conditions as necessary. This may involve a reassessment of all or part of the plan, including classification, zoning, goal, objectives and all resource management, operations and development. A variety of programs will provide essential information concerning the implementation of the management plan and the effectiveness of approved policies. Such mechanisms as the collection of user statistics, periodic user surveys, park management audits, ecological monitoring and user impact assessments will provide valuable information to ensure that policies remain current and relevant. Research findings and resource inventory work may aid in conducting plan reviews.

14.0 Summary of public and aboriginal consultation

Public consultation was a very important part of the Neys Provincial Park Management Plan review process. The four phases of the park management plan review consisted of:

Phase 1 Invitation to participate March 28 – May 12, 2001

The Invitation to Participate and to Inspect the Approved Terms of Reference stage included newspaper advertisements, distribution to the mandatory contact list as well as to known stakeholders, posting the Environmental Bill of Rights electronic registry (EBR) proposal notice, distribution to park, zone and district offices, and Ministry of Natural Resources Information Centres in Toronto and Peterborough. Two written comments were received at the northwest zone office from March 28 to May 12. The following issues /concerns were identified related to the management of Neys:

  • Ojibways of the Pic River First Nation indicated that it was very difficult for First Nations to submit Native Values information to MNR for management plans, due to a variety of circumstances. This First Nation also expressed an interest in an open house session on their First Nation to update them on MNR plans for Neys Provincial Park
  • Consideration of vegetation management of the dunes in Neys to restore the ecosystem. All park activities should recognize the sensitivity of Woodland Caribou and minimize disturbance and habitat alteration

Phase 2 Background information, issues and options August 7 – September 21, 2001

This stage included distribution of approximately 215 copies of the Background Information, Issues and Options tabloid to the mandatory contact list and to known stakeholders, as well as the EBR notices listed above. The tabloid was also available to visitors at the park from early August until September 21, in order to provide the opportunity to participate to the greatest number of people.

A workshop was held at the Terrace Bay Recreation Centre for stakeholders and interested members of the public on September 19, 2001. This workshop was preceded by newspaper advertisements. Twelve people attended the workshop. Another meeting was held at the Pays Plat First Nation on September 26. Three people attended this meeting.

Eleven written comments were received from individuals and groups including the Wildlands League, Earthroots, Neys campers, an adjacent mining claim holder and business owners, and community representatives from Terrace Bay. Park users, local residents, park staff, as well as other groups and individuals, identified the following issues /concerns related to the management of Neys:

  • Appropriate zoning for the OLL additions to protect woodland caribou, arctic disjuncts, earth science and cultural features, for the dune communities with plantation pine in the development zone, and for the waters of Lake Superior in the original park and the OLL additions
  • Recognition of ecological integrity and the sensitivity of woodland caribou and other threatened / rare species for park management decisions with emphasis on minimizing disturbance and habitat alteration
  • The greater ecosystem and the potential for industrial development adjacent to the park boundary and the industrial use/development of Port Coldwell, as well as recognition of the relationship between Neys and the Great Lakes Heritage Coast
  • Vegetation management/restoration for the dune communities with plantation pine in the development zone
  • Permitted activities specifically that of sport hunting on the OLL additions, as well as shoreline access and the use of natural harbours in the OLL addition for motorized and non-motorized watercraft
  • Development of additional car campsites, alternative roofed accommodation, the electrification of existing campsites and the cumulative site impacts of seasonal leasing, as well as limiting/minimizing development of interior/natural harbour campsites
  • The length of the operating season, the need for target marketing in the Thunder Bay and Sault Ste. Marie areas and the perception that Ontario Parks retail sales are in competition with the private sector
  • The role of the NHE program and development /expansion of the Visitors Centre with an outdoor amphitheater
  • Pays Plat First Nation expressed interest regarding park planning and sharing of First Nation values information as well as interest in economic development opportunities and partnerships including training programs and capacity building opportunities for youth

Phase 3 Preliminary Park Management Plan July 3 – September 26 2003

This phase included distribution of approximately 224 copies of the Preliminary Park Management Plan to the mandatory contact list and to known stakeholders, as well as the EBR notices listed above.

An open house was held for interested members of the public at the Terrace Bay Recreation Centre on September 18, 2003 to discuss the content of the Preliminary Plan. Nine people attended the open house.

Twenty two written comments were received from individuals and groups including campers, boaters, Ontario Parks staff, the Ontario Archeological Society, the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and the Thunder Bay Hiking Association. The dominant themes in the comments are reflected in the content of this park management plan. Concerns and suggestions that were raised by respondents are summarized below:

  • Concerns were expressed regarding the greater ecosystem including the proposed use of Port Coldwell for industrial shipping, the need to address park values with CP Rail and its spills response program, as well as the impacts of work on the railway corridor adjacent to the park boundary, the acquisition of inholdings and the phase-out of non- conforming uses such as the CBC tower and access road. (Refer to sections 6.0, 8.1, 8.1.2, 9.1 and 9.2.6)
  • Concerns were expressed regarding zoning for the OLL additions including the designation of nature reserve zoning for all of the OLL additions and for Guse Point, and the re-designation of the northern part of the development zone to natural environment. (Refer to sections 7.0, 8.1, 9.2.3, 9.2.4, 10.1 and 10.5)
  • Concerns were expressed regarding interior camping and the use of safe (natural) harbours including the limitation/restriction of any additional development of campsites on the Coldwell Peninsula and no development of campsites in association with natural harbours in the OLL addition. Enforcement and monitoring of shoreline use were also identified. (Refer to sections 9.2.3, and 9.2.4).
  • Concerns were expressed regarding the expansion of the Coastal Trail including not completing the expansion identified in the preliminary plan and monitoring the effects of recreation on park values such as woodland caribou and arctic disjuncts, resources for maintenance and enforcement, seasonal use restrictions, and the need for a trail/backcountry management plan. (Refer to sections 7.0, 8.1, 9.2.3, 9.2.4, 10.1 and 10.5).
  • Concerns were expressed regarding any additional development in the campground including not developing additional sites or providing electricity to additional sites, the impacts of seasonal sites and the need to reduce/eliminate the program, or to rotate the sites that are used, as well as the development of alternative accommodation and the need to consider the ecological impacts, the resources for maintenance and cost effectiveness. Refer to sections 9.2, 9.2.2, 9.2.7 and 11.4).
  • Concerns were expressed regarding the POW camp and other cultural heritage concerns including the need to allocate resources to collect oral history in a timely way, to recognize the importance of archeological resources, to engage area First Nations in the NHE program and to support the NHE program with appropriate infrastructure and staffing resources. (Refer to sections 8.2, 9.1, 9.1.2, 10.8, and 11.1)
  • Concerns were expressed regarding resource stewardship and the need for ecological monitoring and research, vegetation management for the development zone to restore the lichen heath community to the red pine plantation area, vegetation/fire and wildlife management plans for the Coldwell Peninsula and Pic Island, and the decommissioning of the dam on the creek that served as a former source of potable water. (Refer to sections 8.0, 8.1, and 11.1)

Phase 4 Approved Park Management Plan August 19-October 3, 2004

This is the final opportunity to review the approved management plan. For a period of forty-five (45) days, interested participants in the planning program have a final opportunity to determine if their concerns have been considered and addressed and to initiate an appeal concerning the plan contents where appropriate.

Ontario Parks will retain on file reference copies of relevant background information, terms of reference, preliminary management plan and the approved park management plan.

12.0 References

Barry, J. Recreation Inventory Report – Neys Provincial Park and Addition (P2212) Version 1 March 2002. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Parks.

Billings, M.D. Geology and Geomorphology of Neys Provincial Park. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Park Planning Branch, Environmental Planning Series, 1974.

Canadian Heritage Parks Canada. May 2001. A National Marine Conservation Area Proposal for Lake Superior Newsletter Issue 5.

Chapman, L.J. and M.C. Thomas. The Climate of Northern Ontario. Climatological Studies, No. 6, Department of Transport, Meteorological Branch, 1968.

Currie, K.L. "A contribution to the petrology of the Coldwell Alkaline Complex, northern Ontario". Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 287.

Farrand W.R. 1960. Former Shorelines in Western and Northern Lake Superior Basin. Unpublished PHD thesis. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Given, DR, and JH Soper. 1981. The Arctic-Alpine Element of the Vascular Flora at Lake Superior. National Museum of Canada, Publications in Botany, No. 10.

Hutchison C. L. 2001. Neys Provincial Park and the Neys Provincial Park Additions Life Science Inventory (draft). Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Ontario Parks.

Hearman, L.M. and Machedo, H. 1987. Isotope Chemistry of the Port Coldwell Complex I – U-Pb Studies on Accessory Minerals: in Program with abstracts. Geological Association of Canada – Mineralogical Association of Canada, Vol. 12 p. 54.

Kor, P. 1978. Ontario Nature Reserve Program Environmental Data Card: Neys Provincial Park - Beach/Dunes. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Park Planning Branch, Environmental Planning Branch

McGregor, C. 1974. A Vegetation Inventory of Neys Provincial Park. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Park Planning Branch, Environmental Planning Series.

Mountain, J.A. 1976. The Inhospitable Shore: An Historical Resource Study of Neys Provincial Park. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, North Central Region.

Newton, B. et al. 1975. North Central Region Archaeological Survey. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Historical Sites Branch.

Ng Lesley pers. comm. 2003

Noble, T. 1977. Ontario Nature Reserves Program - Life Science Inventory Check-sheet: Neys Provincial Park - West Coast Rock Association. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Division of Parks, Park Planning Branch. [6 pp.].

Noble T.W. 2001. Earth Science Inventory P2212 Neys Provincial Park Additions (Offshore Islands). Open File Earth Science Report 2001-2. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Parks.

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2003. Recovery Strategy for the Forest-dwelling Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Ontario. Draft (July 18, 2003 version). Prepared by: The Ontario Woodland Caribou Recovery Team, Species at Risk Section, Ontario Parks: Peterborough, Ontario.

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Draft Forest Fire Management Strategy for Ontario. Aviation and Forest Fire Management Branch. January 2002.

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Interim Fire Response strategy for the Islands of Lake Superior Working Draft 4. Aviation and Forest Fire Management Branch. January 2003.

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. January 2000. The Great Lakes Heritage Coast Imagine the Possibilities. News Release.

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. January 1995. Forest Values Sustainable Forestry Social Economic Impact Model. Technical Manual.

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1974. Neys Camper Survey. North Central Region.

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1992. Ontario Provincial Parks: Planning and Management Policies.

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1996. Ontario Parks Camper Survey.

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1996. Ontario Parks Day-Use Survey.

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1975. A Topical Organization of Ontario History.

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1972-1976. Ontario Provincial Parks Statistical Reports.

Ontario Parks. 1992. Ontario Provincial Parks Minimum Operating Standards.

Ontario Parks. 1997. Strategic Plan for Natural Heritage Education in Ontario Parks.

Ontario Parks. 1989. Northwest Zone Natural Heritage Education Plan.

Ontario Parks. 1999. Park Visitor Demographic Profile 1998. Planning and Research section.

Parks Statistics 2000 – 1996. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Ministry of Natural Resources Operations and Development Section Ontario Parks.

Prest, V.K. 1970. "Quaternary Geology of Canada" in Geology and Economic Minerals of Canada by J.W. Douglas (ed.), Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report No. 1.

Puskas, F.P. 1967. Geology of the Port Coldwell Complex, District of Thunder Bay. Ontario Department of Mines, Open File Report 5014.

Puskas, F.P. 1967. Port Coldwell Area. Ontario Department of Mines, Preliminary Map P.114, scale 1:31680.

Pye, E.G. 1969. Geology and Scenery, North Shore of Lake Superior. Ontario Department of Mines, Guide Book. Rowe, J.S. 1972. Forest Regions of Canada. Ottawa Department of the Environment, Canadian Forestry Service, Publication Number 1300.

Saarnisto, M. 1974. "The Deglaciation History of the Lake Superior Region and its Climate Implications", Quaternary Research. Vol. 4.

Sage, R.P. 1991. Alkalic Rock, Carbonatite and Kimberlite Complexes of Ontario, Superior Province; in Geology of Ontario, Ontario Geological Survey, Special Volume 4 Part 1 p. 683-709.

Shuter, J. Hutchison, C. Lipsett-Moore, G. Kingston, S. 2003. Neys Provincial Park Detailed Life Science Repo (Draft).Ontario Parks Northwest Zone.

Sims, R.A., W.D. Towill, K.A. Baldwin, P. Ahlig, and G.M. Wickware. 1997. Field Guide to the forest ecosystem classification for northwestern Ontario. Prolific Graphics Inc. Winnipeg. and Queen’s Printer for Ontario, Toronto.

Sutcliffe, R.H. 1991. Proterozoic Geology of the Lake Superior Area; in Geology of Ontario, Ontario Geological Survey, Special Volume 4 Part 1 p. 627-658.

Van Wagoner, D. August 2000 Tourism Trends and Opportunities in the North of Superior Region. Ministry of Northern Development and Mines

Appendix A Table 1 policy report – Neys Provincial Park and addition

Commercial activities

ActivityPermittedGuidelines
Aggregate ExtractionNoRefer to Section 8.1.1 for more information.
Bait Fishing Existing:NoRefer to Section 8.1.6 for more information.
Bait Fishing New:No 
Commercial Fishing Existing:YesActivity does not occur within inland lakes in the park. The activity may occur as part of the commercial fishery on Lake Superior.
Commercial Fishing New:NoRefer to Section 8.1.6 for more information.
Commercial Fur Harvesting Existing:YesActivity does not occur.
Commercial Fur Harvesting New:No 
Commercial Hydro DevelopmentNoNew commercial hydro development is not permitted. Please see Section 8.1.2 for more information.
Commercial Timber HarvestNoCommercial timber harvesting is not permitted. Please see Section 8.1.3 for more information.
Commercial Tourism (e.g. outfitting services, outpost camps, resorts/lodges) Existing:NoActivity does not presently occur.
Commercial Tourism (e.g. outfitting services, outpost camps, resorts/lodges) New:MaybeNew commercial tourism in the development zone may be permitted. Proposals will be reviewed through future planning. Refer to Section 9.3 for more information.
Energy Transmission and Communications Corridors (new):NoThese facilities should avoid park lands whenever possible. Refer to Section 10.6 for more information.
Mineral Exploration and Development:No 
Wild Rice Harvesting Existing:NoActivity does not presently occur.
Wild Rice Harvesting New:No 

Land and resource management activities

ActivityPermittedGuidelines
Crown Land Disposition Private Use:NoNo land disposition for the private use of individuals is permitted.
Crown Land Disposition Commercial Use:YesLand disposition in the development zone for commercial use may occur, under the authority of a land use permit or lease, subject to approval through planning.
Fire SuppressionMaybeNatural and human caused fires in the development zone will be suppressed. Human caused fires in the wilderness and nature reserve zones will be suppressed. Natural fires in the wilderness and nature reserve zones may not be suppressed subject to wildlife and vegetation management planning as well as Interim fire response strategy / fire management plan. Fire suppression techniques which have the least residual impact on the park’s natural environment will be used whenever possible. Refer to Section 8.1.4 for more information.
Fish Habitat ManagementYesRefer to Section 8.1.6 for more information.
Fish Stocking Native Species:YesPermitted in development and natural environment zones.
Fish Stocking Non-native Species:NoRefer to Section 8.1.6 for more information.
Insect/disease Suppression:YesRefer to Section 8.1.3 for more information.
Inventory/Monitoring:Yes 
Prescribed Burning:YesPrescribed burning may be used to meet ecosystem management objectives in the wilderness and nature reserve zones. Refer to Section 8.1.4 for more information.
Roads (non-park use) Existing:YesWhere existing access roads are essential to continued access to in-holdings (i.e. CBC license of occupation) within the park boundary and alternative road access does not exist, existing roads will continue to be available for access.
Roads (non-park use) New:NoContinued use includes maintenance.
Vegetation Management:YesRefer to Section 8.1.3 for more information.
Water Control Structure Existing:No 
Water Control Structure New:No 
Wildlife Population Management:YesRefer to Section 8.1.5 for more information

Science, education and heritage appreciation

ActivityPermittedGuidelines
Demonstration Areas:MaybeIn development zone only.
Historical Appreciation - self guided:Yes 
Nature Appreciation - self guided:Yes 
Photography and Painting:Yes 
Research:YesSubject to authorization by Ontario Parks.
Wildlife Viewing:Yes 

Recreation activities and facilities

ActivityPermittedGuidelines
Aircraft Landing (water):NoRefer to Section 9.2.1 for more information
All Terrain Vehicle Use On Trails:No 
All Terrain Vehicle Use Off Trails:No 
Camping:YesRefer to Sections 9.2.2, 9.2.3 and 9.2.4 for more information.
Horseback Riding (trail):No 
Hunting:No 
Mountain Bike Use:YesMay occur only in development zone on designated roadways.
Motor Boat Use Private:YesMotorized boats are allowed on Lake Superior, within the park boundary.
Motor Boat Use Commercial:Yes 
Non-motorized Recreation Travel (canoeing, kayaking, hiking, cross-country skiing, snowshoeing):YesMay be restricted in nature reserve zones. Refer to Section 7.1 for more information.
Private Recreation Camps (Hunt Camps) Existing:YesThere are two alienated lots located within the park. DC 54 is owned by a summer resident and occupies 0.3 ha on the northwest shore of Coldwell Bay. The other (PP 816), occupies 3.3 ha in the middle of the Coldwell Peninsula, and is occupied by a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) relay tower. Refer to Section 9.2.1 for more information
Private Recreation Camps (Hunt Camps) New:No 
Rock Climbing:NoActivity does not presently occur. Refer to section 9.2.3 for more information.
Sailing and Sailboarding:YesActivity is permitted on Lake Superior only.
Scuba and Skin Diving:YesActivity is permitted on Lake Superior only.
Snowmobiling On Trails:YesSnowmobile use is restricted to existing road corridors in the development zone.
Snowmobiling Off Trails:No 
Sport Fishing:YesConsult the Ontario Recreational Fishing Regulations Summary for specific local details.
Trail Development:YesRefer to 10.5 and 9.2.3 for more information.
Can and bottle restrictionsMaybeRefer to 9.2.4 for more information.
Party size restrictions and access quotasMaybeRefer to 9.2.4 for more information.

Note: The policies outlined in this table do not supersede any Aboriginal or Treaty rights.

Appendix B Social and economic analysis notes and definitions

Notes on total effects

As measured by economic impact, expenditures have different rounds or levels of effect on the economy. An example, using the value added indicator, of the levels of effect for the park management expenditure is provided below:

For example, from an initial park management expenditure of $376,520 the direct effect is calculated at $340,003 and the indirect and induced effects are calculated at $301,078. The direct + indirect + induced effects of the park management expenditure total $641,081 value added. The same calculation would be done for capital and visitor expenditures.

Value Added: "This is a measure of net output. It avoids double counting of products sold during the accounting period by including only final goods. For instance, only chairs are included, whereas the wood that goes into making them does not appear separately. It is equal to income (GPI) [Gross Provincial Income]. It may be calculated by adding wages, interest, rent and profits. Alternatively, it is equal to revenues minus the total cost of purchased inputs." (OMNR, Social and Economic Model, Technical Manual, 1995, p. 35)

Gross Output (Gross Sales): "This is the total value of goods and services sold by businesses during the year in sustaining the projects normal year operations. Direct sales include all the value of goods and services bought for on-site operations. They include only a portion of the revenues of the project - excluded are taxes, depreciation, wages and salaries, and net profits. Total sales include all the turnover of goods and services needed to sustain the project on-site and off-site." (OMNR, Social and Economic Model, Technical Manual, 1995, p. 35)

Wages and Salaries: "This is the wages and salaries component of income." (OMNR, Social and Economic Model, Technical Manual, 1995, p. 35).

Figure 3 Park Zoning

This map shows detailed information about Park Zoning in Neys.

Enlarge Figure 3 Park Zoning

Figure 2 Adjacent Land Use

This photo shows detailed information about Adjacent Land Use in Neys.

Enlarge Figure 2 Adjacent Land Use

Figure 4B Existing and Proposed Development

This photo shows detailed information about Existing and Proposed Development in Neys.

Enlarge Figure 4B Existing and Proposed Development

Figure 4A Existing Development

This photo shows detailed information about Existing Development in Neys.

Enlarge Figure 4A Existing Development