Protecting and recovering species at risk in Ontario

Species at risk recovery is a key part of protecting Ontario’s biodiversity. The Endangered Species Act, 2007 (ESA) is the Ontario government’s legislative commitment to protecting and recovering species at risk and their habitats.

Under the ESA, the government must ensure that a recovery strategy is prepared for each species that is listed as endangered or threatened. A recovery strategy provides science-based advice to government on what is required to achieve recovery of a species.

Generally, within nine months after a recovery strategy is prepared, the ESA requires the government to publish a statement summarizing the government’s intended actions and priorities in response to the recovery strategy. The response statement is the government’s policy response to the scientific advice provided in the recovery strategy. In addition to the strategy, the government response statement considers (where available) input from Indigenous communities and organizations, stakeholders, other jurisdictions, and members of the public. It reflects the best available local and scientific knowledge, including Indigenous Knowledge where it has been shared by communities and Knowledge Holders, as appropriate, and may be adapted if new information becomes available. In implementing the actions in the response statement, the ESA allows the government to determine what is feasible, taking into account social, cultural and economic factors.

The Recovery Strategy for the Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra) in Ontario was completed on September 6, 2022.

Black Ash is a deciduous tree that reaches heights of 15 to 27 m. It has compound leaves with 7 to 11 leaflets and corky bark. It is found in moist to wet habitats through much of the province. The species is culturally important to many Indigenous peoples and is used for a variety of purposes.

Protecting and recovering Black Ash

Black Ash is listed as an endangered species under the ESA. The ESA prohibits harm or harassment and possession, transportation and trade (including buying, selling, or offering to buy or sell) of endangered species, as well as damage or destruction of their habitat, without authorization or complying with the requirements of a regulatory exemption. However, all ESA protections for Black Ash were temporarily suspended through a Minister’s regulation for a two-year period beginning January 26, 2022, to allow time to develop an approach to support Black Ash protection and recovery.

Globally, Black Ash is found only in North America. Black Ash occurs from northern Ontario, Canada ranging southward to Illinois, Virginia, and Delaware in the United States (U.S.), and longitudinally from southeastern Manitoba in the west to western Newfoundland. In Canada, the species is common over much of its range, and is found in Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and in Newfoundland. The species is found farther north than any other ash species, and approximately half of the species’ global range is located within Canada, with one quarter of the global range being in Ontario.

In Ontario, the species is widespread and distributed throughout much of the province, reaching its northern limit at approximately 53°N, near the community of Wunnumin Lake First Nation, approximately 500 km north of Thunder Bay. Based on information in a 2018 report from the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), the Ontario population is currently estimated at over 80 million reproductively mature individual trees, distributed over approximately 1.2  million hectares. A large proportion of the Ontario population is located on Crown lands, including in managed Crown forests and provincial parks and protected areas, however the species also occurs on privately owned lands. Forest management activities within the Crown managed forest are required by law to be managed sustainably (i.e. for long-term forest health).

Black Ash is a medium-sized tree typically found in moist to wet habitats including swamps, fens, floodplain forest and shorelines, although it occasionally occurs in moist microsites within upland habitats. Black Ash is moderately shade tolerant when young (as seedlings and young saplings), but its light requirements increase as it ages. Although it occurs at low densities across much of its range, Black Ash can be a keystone, foundational species in some wet forested ecosystems and plays an important role in regulating hydrology and maintaining site conditions for associated species. It can also support wildlife species, including several species at risk, by providing food, shelter and habitat. One insect species, the Canadian Sphinx Moth (Sphinx canadensis), is thought to rely almost exclusively on Black Ash as its larval food source.

Black Ash is a long-lived tree that generally does not begin to produce fruit until it is between 30 and 40 years of age, although fruiting has been observed at younger ages in some circumstances. Each seed is housed within the fruit (samara) that is dispersed by wind and water. Black Ash is generally considered to be polygamo-dioecious, meaning it can produce male flowers, female flowers and bisexual flowers on the same tree; however, some trees may have solely male or female flowers. The latter condition is reportedly more common in Ontario. Black Ash seed production is considered to be low in most years, with information from one part of its range suggesting the interval between relatively large seed crops averages about 3.6 years and ranges from one to eight years. After dispersal, the seeds generally remain viable for a few years, but, if dormancy is prolonged, can remain viable for longer periods (for example, as many as eight years). Seed viability may be a limiting factor for recovery. Black Ash readily produces vegetative sprouts from cut stumps, stems and root crowns, especially following fire, browsing or cutting, and can also produce epicormic shoots (shoots produced from dormant buds under the bark of the trunk, stems or branches) when affected by pests or pathogens.

Black Ash trees are used for a variety of purposes including lumber, fuelwood, and industrial biomass material. The wood is strong and highly pliable, making it commercially valuable for items such as tool handles, furniture, cabinets, interior finishes and flooring. It can also be used for electric guitar bodies, traditional bows and is well-known for its use in woven baskets.

Black Ash is culturally important to many Indigenous peoples. The species has been used for centuries in the production of woven baskets, snowshoe frames, canoe ribs and other items. Other historical and current uses by Indigenous peoples include dyes, bows and arrow shafts, hoops for tanning beaver hides, and traditional medicines. Black Ash basketry is an important component of the history, cultures and economies of many Indigenous peoples. Baskets are woven using thin, flexible strips of wood which are produced by pounding a Black Ash log with a mallet or axe until its growth rings separate. Basket making skills are traditionally passed from weaver to weaver. Reduced availability of Black Ash trees in an area impacts the ability of local Indigenous communities to continue to pass skills and knowledge on to future generations and may hinder cultural revitalization efforts.

The primary threat to Black Ash is the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis), or EAB, a wood-boring beetle that feeds on trees of all ash species in Canada. This insect is native to northeastern Asia and was first detected in southeast Michigan in 2002. It is estimated that it was introduced to North America in the 1990s and has been detected in five Canadian provinces and more than 30 U.S. states. EAB is now widespread in southern and central Ontario and has been detected in the Sault Ste. Marie and Thunder Bay areas. It causes large-scale mortality of ash trees within 4 to 10 years of its arrival in an area. Based on COSEWICs 2018 assessment, mortality rates are projected to exceed 90%. As EAB can affect both mature trees and younger saplings, it has the potential to cause mortality of regenerating ash trees before they are able to reach maturity and produce seed. Of the Ontario ash species, Black Ash is thought to be particularly vulnerable to EAB and has experienced considerable declines and local extirpation in the most affected parts of its range. The loss of Black Ash trees can also impact the surrounding ecological community by increasing susceptibility to invasive species and raising water levels. This may impact habitat suitability for Black Ash and other co-occurring species. In some cases, dead and dying Black Ash trees may present human safety concerns and require removal as a result.

Although EAB can cause high Black Ash mortality rates, some trees do appear to survive EAB infestation and remain in a healthy condition. Some trees also may decline more slowly than others when affected by EAB. There is uncertainty as to why some trees survive or decline more slowly, and it is thought that the genetic make-up of individual trees may play a role in some circumstances.

Most of the species’ range in Ontario is currently unaffected by EAB. However, the Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario’s species evaluation report (2020) indicates that it is estimated that 53% of the Ontario range of Black Ash is currently susceptible to EAB invasion. This estimate is based on analyses that suggest EAB is limited by seasonal low winter temperatures in the north (between −26°C and −35°C). Recent research has demonstrated that EAB can survive in colder temperatures than initially thought (down to −50°C), and this is likely to affect the amount of the Ontario range that is susceptible to invasion. Furthermore, more of the species’ range may become vulnerable to EAB as winter temperatures rise due to climate change. Declines caused by EAB are predicted to exceed 70% over the next 100 years.

Invasive species may impact Black Ash trees directly as well as impact the suitability of habitat. Introduced pathogens are suspected to be responsible for ash declines in Atlantic Canada and may present a future threat to the species in Ontario. Sustainable forest practices are not considered a main threat to Black Ash. However, if clearcutting of areas occurs, it may affect habitat conditions by raising water levels, which may result in changes to habitat suitability, including colonization by invasive species. Incidental and targeted harvest of Black Ash is known to occur and may have local impacts, but it is not believed to be significantly affecting populations on a large scale.

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)

In Canada, EAB is regulated by the federal Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), which has the lead role in respect of this insect pest, addressing the environmental and economic threat of EAB on native ash trees in Ontario.

Although the initial response to the detection of EAB in North America involved removal of ash trees to create a quarantine zone and prevent further spread, this practice has not proven to be successful and removal of ash trees for this purpose is no longer recommended. Eradication of EAB from Ontario is not considered likely, and current management efforts are focused on slowing its spread.

CFIA regulations restrict the movement of ash trees, logs, wood, and firewood of all tree species out of regulated areas. As part of a long-term strategy to reduce the effects of EAB on native ash trees, the CFIA approved the release of four species of parasitoid wasps as biological control agents to reduce the EAB population and destruction of Canada’s ash trees. These wasp species are small and do not sting. The specific species of wasps differ in their ability to parasitize EAB larvae and eggs in sapling and mature ash trees, and a decision was made to approve four species to ensure their presence even if weather events may favour one species over another. In collaboration with the province, the Canadian Forest Service (CFS) initiated parasitoid wasp releases in Ontario in 2013, and the results of these efforts are being monitored through scientific studies. While there are early positive signs from these biological control efforts, they require significant financial investment, and the long-term success of the program and its contribution to EAB management is still being evaluated. Other native predators and parasitoids (for example, woodpeckers and other insects) may also play a role in contributing to EAB control in Ontario.

Ontario has also supported the development and approval of pesticides (for example, TreeAzin) to reduce or delay the impacts of EAB on native ash trees. These pesticides have been injected in the base of some ash trees. While these methods have shown positive results, they are costly, require repeated treatment, and are likely not feasible for large-scale application.

In addition to the contributions outlined above, the Ontario government is also undertaking action through efforts that include conducting and refining techniques for surveying for EAB, monitoring ash declines, and undertaking outreach and communications to limit the spread of EAB.

Due to the economic and environmental threat of EAB to ash trees in Canada, the National Tree Seed Centre has taken the lead in Canada in preserving native ash seeds for genetic conservation, including Black Ash. The National Tree Seed Centre is a national facility that collects, processes, tests, and stores the seeds of Canadian tree and shrub species for conservation and research purposes. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry (MNRF) is playing a role in the conservation of Ontario ash species through involvement in ash seed collection efforts.

Despite efforts to address the threat of EAB, Black Ash is predicted to continue to decline in Ontario for the foreseeable future. Recovery approaches will therefore focus on continuing to reduce the severity of the threat posed by EAB and other co-occurring threats, and on increasing knowledge and improving our understanding of Black Ash and ways to mitigate threats, in order to support the future restoration of Black Ash populations when and where feasible. Restoration of Black Ash in areas where it has experienced significant decline will be critical to support maintaining or restoring cultural relationships and use of the species.

Conservation partners are encouraged to collaborate with appropriate agencies and other jurisdictions to research and implement recovery efforts and techniques for Black Ash. The National Tree Seed Centre in New Brunswick is currently providing leadership in the preservation of ash seed for genetic conservation. The CFS and CFIA continue to lead federal EAB research and management initiatives, the former leading Canada’s biocontrol program with collaboration from the MNRF. Ontario will continue to collaborate with other jurisdictions to mitigate the threat of EAB to native ash trees, including Black Ash. In addition to these province-wide recovery initiatives, local or regional recovery efforts should be implemented to address threats and conserve the species at a local scale. Conducting research associated with threat mitigation techniques, as well as investigating biological characteristics and responses of the species to recovery efforts, will assist in filling knowledge gaps. Continuing to monitor populations, as well as the severity and scope of threats and their impacts, will also support effective implementation of recovery actions.

Government’s recovery goal

The government’s short-term goal for the recovery of Black Ash is:

  • In areas under current or imminent threat of EAB, to:
    • reduce the severity and mitigate the impacts of the threat of EAB
    • preserve remaining genetic diversity
    • maintain or improve habitat conditions
  • In areas not under current or imminent threat of EAB, to:
    • improve the resilience of Black Ash populations and their habitat to the threat of EAB
    • reduce the severity and mitigate the impacts of the threat of EAB
    • preserve the genetic diversity currently present
    • maintain abundance and distribution of Black Ash where feasible

The long-term goal is to reduce the severity of the threat of EAB and other threats to Black Ash, and, when and where feasible and appropriate, to restore Black Ash in areas where it was locally extirpated or experienced significant declines. As appropriate, the government supports facilitating population increases to restore cultural relationships.


Protecting and recovering species at risk is a shared responsibility. No single agency or organization has the knowledge, authority or financial resources to protect and recover all of Ontario’s species at risk. Successful recovery requires inter-governmental co-operation and the involvement of many individuals, organizations and communities. In developing the government response statement, the government considered what actions are feasible for the government to lead directly and what actions are feasible for the government to support its conservation partners to undertake.

Government-led actions

To help protect and recover Black Ash, the government will directly undertake the following actions:


  • Develop and implement policy and regulatory tools under the ESA, as appropriate, that consider the best way to protect and recover Black Ash and manage EAB while taking into account social and economic realities of Ontarians.
  • Support actions to mitigate the threat of EAB on species at risk, including Black Ash, through strategic funding opportunities.
  • Continue to collaborate with federal partners, such as Natural Resources Canada‘s Canadian Forest Service, in implementing actions related to the genetic conservation of native ash trees, and to mitigate the impact of EAB on native ash trees.
  • Conserve the genetic diversity of Ontario’s forest tree species, including Black Ash, through actions such as the establishment of the Ontario Tree Seed Genetic Archive and/or by contributing to other seed archiving efforts.
  • Continue to undertake communications and outreach to increase public awareness of species at risk and invasive species in Ontario (for example, through Ontario Parks Discovery Program, where appropriate).
  • Continue to monitor populations and mitigate threats to Black Ash and its habitat in provincially protected areas, where feasible and appropriate.
  • Educate other agencies and authorities involved in planning and environmental assessment processes on the protection requirements under the ESA.
  • Encourage the submission of Black Ash data to Ontario’s central repository through the NHIC (Rare species of Ontario) project in iNaturalist or directly through the Natural Heritage Information Centre.
  • Continue to support conservation, agency, municipal and industry partners, and Indigenous communities and organizations to undertake activities to protect and recover Black Ash. Support will be provided where appropriate through funding, agreements, permits and/or advisory services.
  • Work with all levels of government, communities and sectors to take action on climate change, and to report on progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Continue to manage Crown forests in a manner that minimizes adverse impacts to species at risk and their habitats.
  • Continue to implement the Ontario Invasive Species Strategic Plan (2012) to address the invasive species (for example, EAB) that threaten Black Ash and its habitat.
  • Conduct a review of progress toward the protection and recovery of Black Ash within 10 years of the publication of this document.

Government-supported actions

The government endorses the following actions as being necessary for the protection and recovery of Black Ash. Actions identified as “high” may be given priority consideration for funding under the Species at Risk Stewardship Program. Where reasonable, the government will also consider the priority assigned to these actions when reviewing and issuing authorizations under the ESA. Other organizations are encouraged to consider these priorities when developing projects or mitigation plans related to species at risk.

Focus area: Management and protection

Objective: Mitigate threats to Black Ash, improve its resilience to the threat of EAB, and maintain or improve the quality of its habitat.

For the foreseeable future, Black Ash is expected to continue to decline in the areas of its range that are affected by EAB. Archiving and preserving genetic material and managing Black Ash habitat will allow for the future restoration of Black Ash populations once mitigation efforts for EAB and other threats have progressed. It may also allow for production of trees with improved resistance to EAB. While archiving of genetic material across the species’ range is important, these actions are particularly high priority in areas under current or imminent threat of EAB, to ensure important genetic variations or adaptive potential is not lost. Accordingly, it is important to identify Black Ash trees that may have higher EAB resistance or cultural value to Indigenous communities, to preserve the genetic material and implement site scale mitigation measures to address the threat of EAB to these trees.

Developing, updating, and implementing new and existing best management practices will help to mitigate the effects certain activities may have on Black Ash and its habitat, and can also provide guidance on actions that can be taken to support its recovery. In circumstances where Black Ash trees are harvested or must be removed, providing guidance on the handling of EAB-infested wood will help to reduce the risk of furthering the spread of EAB.

When and where deemed appropriate and feasible, implementation of efforts to restore Black Ash populations in areas where they have been lost will be necessary to achieve Ontario’s recovery goal for the species. Black Ash augmentation or reintroduction is generally not recommended in areas where EAB is still abundant however, there may be circumstances in which these are appropriate recovery actions. This could include when the severity of the threat of EAB has been appropriately reduced or if individuals with improved EAB resistance are available for planting. Implementation of the recovery efforts identified below will require collaboration between jurisdictions, Indigenous peoples, science experts, landowners, land managers, stewardship organizations, and industry stakeholders to be successful.

Working with interested Indigenous communities and Knowledge Holders to understand Indigenous Knowledge of, and relationships with, the species and to encourage its consideration and integration into collaborative recovery actions will be particularly important to foster continued cultural relationships with Black Ash.


  1. (High) Work collaboratively to preserve Black Ash genetic material, with a focus on individuals with potential EAB resistance, in the form of tissue, seeds, vegetative parts or trees. This action may include preserving material in-situ (where it is growing naturally), or ex-situ (in artificial seed banks or in arboreta). In undertaking this action:
    1. efforts should be made to coordinate the collection of genetic material to collectively achieve the conservation of genetic diversity of ecodistricts across the species’ Ontario range (for example, from at least 15 trees per occupied ecodistrict)
    2. priority should be given to areas under current or imminent threat of EAB
  2. (High – areas under current or imminent threat of EAB) Work collaboratively to implement and evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of measures to mitigate the impacts of EAB on Black Ash. Mitigation measures may include:
    1. release of federally-approved biological controls, such as parasitoid wasps
    2. treatment of Black Ash trees identified through Action 3 with systemic insecticides that have been regulated and classified for use in Ontario, such as TreeAzin
    3. strategies to eliminate or reduce spread of EAB (for example, restrictions on movement of ash trees, logs, wood products and firewood)
    4. planting of Black Ash with improved EAB resistance if the results of Action 7 below indicate this is feasible and appropriate
  3. (High – areas under current or imminent threat of EAB) Work collaboratively to develop and implement protocols for identifying and reporting on Black Ash trees that may have higher EAB resistance or cultural value for Indigenous communities and take appropriate action to preserve them. This action may include supporting the securement of the habitat of these trees on privately owned lands through existing land securement and stewardship programs as opportunities arise.
  4. (High – areas under current or imminent threat of EAB) Work collaboratively to develop or update (as necessary) and implement new and existing best management practices (BMPs) to minimize threats to Black Ash and its habitat and/or support its recovery. Actions should be implemented as appropriate for local circumstances, adapted based on feasibility and effectiveness, and may include implementing and evaluating:
    1. measures that improve the resilience of Black Ash and its habitat to the threat of EAB and other stressors, including reporting of potentially resistant trees
    2. management techniques (for example, silviculture) that improve tree and ecosystem health, and increase seed germination and seedling establishment
    3. techniques to control invasive species in areas where they currently pose a direct threat or are likely to become a direct threat to Black Ash or its habitat
  5. Develop and communicate guidance for handling of EAB-infested wood to reduce the risk of furthering the spread of EAB.
  6. Longer-term, and when and where feasible and appropriate, collaboratively implement techniques to restore Black Ash in areas where it was locally extirpated or experienced significant declines as a result of EAB and other contemporary threats. These efforts should be informed by Indigenous Knowledge and perspectives, the outcomes of actions under the Research and Monitoring focus area below, and be in alignment with provincial policies for reforestation activities (for example, Ontario Tree Seed Transfer Policy).

Focus area: Research and monitoring

Objective: Improve understanding of Black Ash, including its distribution, abundance, condition, and the best way to mitigate threats.

Investigating the traits and conditions that allow Black Ash to persist following an EAB invasion may provide important information for ash conservation and recovery. More generally, advancing understanding of Black Ash ecology and of the ecosystems of which it is a component will inform the implementation of recovery actions now and in the future. Monitoring Black Ash and its threats is important for understanding the species’ status and the effectiveness of recovery efforts. Recovery efforts for Black Ash will be further improved by working with interested Indigenous communities and Knowledge Holders to collect and understand Indigenous Knowledge of the species and encourage its integration into collaborative management actions.


  1. (High) In collaboration with other jurisdictions, investigate factors that may improve Black Ash resistance or resilience to EAB infestation and the feasibility of implementing related actions as potential recovery tools. This action may include research into:
    1. whether genetics play a role in EAB resistance (i.e. whether some Black Ash exhibit resistance to EAB that can be passed on to offspring to increase their probability of survival)
    2. whether improved EAB resistance can be developed through intra- or inter-specific breeding or genetic modification
    3. whether certain ecological conditions (including the presence of native parasitoids and predators) may increase resilience to EAB infestation
  2. Conduct research on the biology and ecology of Black Ash, including:
    1. (High) studying reproductive and seed biology, including the potential contribution of vegetative sprouts/shoots to species’ recovery, variables influencing productivity, seed dispersal distance, seed dormancy and viability
    2. (High) genetic variation and adaptive potential within the species’ range
    3. effectiveness of methods to undertake preservation of Black Ash genetic materials other than seeds, and the feasibility of their use as potential recovery tools
    4. impacts of habitat fragmentation, patch size reduction and eutrophication (process by which aquatic ecosystems become enriched with nutrients over time)
    5. optimal site conditions at different stages of Black Ash development, including hydrology and associated vegetation communities
    6. potential effects of climate change on the spread of EAB (for example, through modelling)
  3. Work collaboratively to develop and implement standardized survey and monitoring programs that refine knowledge of current distribution and abundance of Black Ash in Ontario, as well as threats impacting the species through:
    1. monitoring the species and emerging and existing threats
    2. collection of community, local knowledge and collection of Indigenous Knowledge where it is shared by Indigenous communities
    3. increasing public awareness and encouraging the reporting of Black Ash and EAB infestations
  4. As appropriate, work collaboratively with Indigenous communities to encourage and support the sharing and recording of Indigenous Knowledge on Black Ash to increase knowledge of the species, support recovery efforts and to preserve it for future generations.

Focus area: Awareness

Objective: Increase local awareness of the species and ways to minimize threats to Black Ash.

Municipalities, community members, land managers, landowners and Indigenous communities all have a vital role to play in reducing threats to Black Ash and its habitat. By increasing local awareness, individuals will become more knowledgeable about the circumstances in which ESA protections apply to Black Ash, the types of activities that may inadvertently impact the species, and its conservation value. Increasing public awareness will help reduce the movement of ash wood products and firewood and minimize the threat of EAB. Additionally, Black Ash may be mistaken for other ash trees, and increasing awareness will ensure consideration of the species during regular vegetation and EAB management by land managers (for example, utility companies and municipalities).


  1. Promote awareness about Black Ash among municipalities, local landowners, land managers and interested Indigenous communities and organizations and promote community involvement by sharing information on:
    1. how to identify the species
    2. the species’ habitat requirements
    3. protection afforded to the species and its habitat under the ESA
    4. actions that can be taken to identify and reduce threats to the species, including EAB, and its habitat

Implementing actions

Financial support for the implementation of actions may be available through the Species at Risk Stewardship Program. Conservation partners are encouraged to discuss project proposals related to the actions in this response statement with Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks staff. The Ontario government can also provide guidance about the requirements of the ESA, whether an authorization or regulatory exemption may be required for the project and, if so, the authorization types and/or conditional exemptions for which the activity may be eligible. Implementation of the actions may be subject to changing priorities across the multitude of species at risk, available resources and the capacity of partners to undertake recovery activities. Where appropriate, the implementation of actions for multiple species will be co-ordinated across government response statements.

Performance measures

Progress towards achieving the government’s goal for the recovery of Black Ash will be measured against the following performance measures:

  • By 2034, genetic material from at least 15 Black Ash trees in each Ontario ecodistrict has been collected and preserved for future restoration efforts.
  • By 2034, in areas not affected by EAB, population abundance and distribution are maintained.
  • By 2054, Black Ash continues to occur in each Ontario ecodistrict where it currently occurs, and, where feasible and appropriate, efforts to restore the species in areas affected by EAB are underway.
  • By 2054, in areas not affected by EAB, population abundance and distribution are maintained.

Reviewing progress

The ESA requires the Ontario government to conduct a review of progress towards protecting and recovering a species no later than the time specified in the species’ government response statement, which has been identified as 10 years. The review will help identify if adjustments are needed to achieve the protection and recovery of Black Ash.


We would like to thank all those who participated in the development of the Recovery Strategy and Government Response Statement for the Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra) in Ontario for their dedication to protecting and recovering species at risk.

For additional information

Visit the species at risk website 
Contact the Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks