Claims being researched and assessed

Beaverhouse First Nation Community (Treaty 9)

Location: Northeast of Kirkland Lake
Claim type: Reserve Land

Beaverhouse First Nation Community submitted a claim to Ontario on July 5, 2018, asserting the community is a distinct First Nation and did not sign Treaty 9, or any other treaty.  The assessment of the claim submission is ongoing.

Henvey Inlet (Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850)

Location: Approximately 90 kilometres south of Sudbury
Claim type: Boundary

Henvey Inlet First Nation filed a claim with Ontario on July 15, 2021, asserting that the boundaries of the reserve surveyed under the Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850 differ from what the First Nation understood they were to receive. On July 29, 2021, Henvey Inlet First Nation was advised that Ontario will complete an assessment of the claim submission within three years.

Magnetawan (Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850)

Location: Approximately 100 kilometres south of Sudbury
Claim type: Boundary

Magnetawan First Nation filed a claim with Ontario on June 28, 2022, asserting that the boundaries of the reserve surveyed under the Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850 differ from what the First Nation understood it was to receive. On July 13, 2022, Magnetawan First Nation was advised that Ontario will complete an assessment of the claim submission within three years.

Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation - Rouge River Tract

Location: Rouge River watershed
Claim type: Aboriginal Title

Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation submitted a claim on July 13, 2015, asserting Aboriginal Title to lands in the Rouge River Tract. Ontario’s review of the claim is ongoing.

Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation - Aboriginal Title to water

Location: Region of northeastern Lake Erie and northwestern Lake Ontario
Claim type: Aboriginal Title

Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation submitted a claim on September 21, 2016, asserting title to the waters, beds of waters, ground water and floodplains in their territory. The First Nation requested that Ontario pause its review of the claim.

Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation (Treaty 22 and Treaty 23)

Location: Mississauga and Oakville
Claim type: Reserve land

Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation submitted a claim to Canada and Ontario on May 28, 2018 and provided a supplemental legal opinion and additional historical report clarifying it in August 2020. In the claim, the Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation asserts that there was no meeting of the minds regarding Treaty 22 in 1820, and that the lands ceded under Treaty 23 were sold at undervalue. Ontario’s review of the claim is ongoing.

Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte (Treaty 24 - sometimes referred to as “Surrender 24”)

Location: Northern shore of Lake Ontario, approximately 20 kilometres east of Belleville and 60 kilometres west of Kingston
Claim type: Reserve land

Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte submitted a claim to Ontario on March 12, 2020, asserting that Surrender 24 of July 20,1820, is invalid. On May 12, 2020, Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte was advised that Ontario will complete an assessment of the claim submission within three years.

Red Rock First Nation (Robinson-Superior Treaty 1850)

Location: Southern Lake Nipigon area
Claim type: Reserve land

Ontario has notice of a claim by Red Rock First Nation for additional reserve lands under the Robinson-Superior Treaty 1850. The claim was commenced in the Superior Court of Justice in 2019.

Whitesand First Nation (Robinson-Superior Treaty 1850)

Location: Northwestern Lake Nipigon area
Claim type: Reserve land

Ontario has notice of a claim by Whitesand First Nation for additional reserve lands under the Robinson-Superior Treaty 1850. The claim was commenced in the Superior Court of Justice in 2019.

Claims accepted by Ontario for negotiation

Agency One (Treaty 3)

Location: Fort Frances area
Claim type: Unsold Surrendered Land

In 2017, Canada, Ontario and beneficiaries of Agency 1 Reserve (Couchiching, Mitaanjigamiing, Naicatchewenin and Nigigoonsiminikaaning) agreed to enter into discussions about the First Nations’ proposal to have three parcels of unsold surrendered land, outside of the Point Park, returned to reserve status. In August 2022, the Town of Fort Frances filed a motion for summary judgment seeking an order declaring that the Agency One Reserve lands that were surrendered in 1908, including the three parcels of unsold surrendered land, are the exclusive property of the town to be used for park purposes. The motion for summary judgment and the cross motions will be heard in December 2023. No negotiation meetings are currently scheduled. 

Algonquins of Ontario

Location: Eastern Ontario (Ottawa River Watershed)
Claim type: Aboriginal Rights and Title

The Algonquins of Ontario negotiations are the only modern treaty negotiations currently underway in Ontario. The Algonquin rights and title assertions cover a territory of 36,000 square kilometres in eastern Ontario, an area with more than 1.2 million people. Following the successful negotiation of an agreement-in-principle signed in 2016, Ontario, Canada and the Algonquins of Ontario are now engaged in the final stage of treaty negotiations which will be followed by a ratification process and multi-year implementation plan. If successful, the negotiations will produce the province’s first modern-day, constitutionally protected treaty.

More information: The Algonquin land claim

Animakee Wa Zhing #37 (Northwest Angle #37) (Treaty No. 3)

Location: Lake of the Woods area
Claim type: Treaty land entitlement

Animakee Wa Zhing #37 filed a claim with Canada and Ontario in March 1999 and May 2010, respectively, asserting that they did not receive all the reserve lands to which they are entitled under Treaty 3. Canada accepted the claim for negotiation in March 2009 and Ontario accepted the claim for negotiation in May 2013. A bilateral settlement between Canada and the First Nation was finalized in November 2020. Ontario and Animakee Wa Zhing #37 continue to negotiate a settlement, including engaging in public and Indigenous consultation on the First Nation’s areas of interest.

Animbiigoo Zaagi’igan Anishinaabek (Lake Nipigon) (Robinson-Superior Treaty 1850)

Location: Northeastern Lake Nipigon Area
Claim type: Reserve Land Entitlement

Animbiigoo Zaagi’igan Anishinaabek submitted a claim to Ontario on June 5, 2018, asserting they did not sign or adhere to the Robinson-Superior Treaty of 1850. Ontario accepted the claim for negotiation in January 2022, conditional on Canada also accepting the claim.

Asubpeeschoseewagong Netum Anishinabek (ANA – Grassy Narrows) and Wabauskang (Treaty 3)

Location: Dryden area
Claim type: Treaty land entitlement

Asubpeeschoseewagong Netum Anishinabek (ANA) and Wabauskang First Nations submitted a joint claim to Ontario and Canada in 1993, asserting that they did not receive all the land to which the original English River First Nation was entitled under Treaty 3. Ontario accepted the claim for negotiation in March 2011 and negotiations proceeded between Ontario, ANA and Wabauskang. In October 2019, Canada notified ANA and Wabauskang First Nations of its acceptance of the claim, and negotiations between the four parties began in early 2020.

Bkejwanong Territory (Walpole Island)

Location: Amherstberg area
Claim type: Unsold surrendered land

Walpole Island First Nation submitted a claim in 1985, alleging a continuing interest in the shore and road allowances located within and along the external boundaries of the lands identified as the former Lower Indian Reserve in Moore Township. This file is inactive.

Biigtigong Nishnaabeg (Pic River First Nation) (Robinson-Superior Treaty 1850)

Location: North of Lake Superior
Claim Type: Aboriginal Rights and Title

In 2003, Biigtigong Nishnaabeg brought legal action (Pic River action, also known as the Michano litigation) against Canada and Ontario seeking a declaration of unextinguished exclusive Aboriginal Title to an area north of Lake Superior, claiming they did not enter the Robinson Superior Treaty in 1850 and did not adhere to the Robinson Superior Treaty subsequent to 1850. In 2016, the three parties began exploratory discussions to try to find a resolution outside of the court process. As a result of these discussions, the parties entered into formal negotiations in May 2019 and the litigation was put into abeyance (on hold) in December 2019. Negotiations between Biigtigong Nishnaabeg, Ontario and Canada are ongoing.

Biinjitiwaabik Zaaging Anishinaabek (Rocky Bay First Nation)

Location: Lake Nipigon
Claim type: Aboriginal Rights and Title

In 2006, Biinjitiwaabik Zaaging Anishinaabek (Rocky Bay First Nation) brought legal action against Canada and Ontario seeking a declaration of unextinguished and exclusive Aboriginal Title to an area north of Lake Superior, claiming that they did not enter the Robinson-Superior Treaty in 1850 and did not adhere to the Robinson-Superior Treaty subsequent to 1850. In 2016, Biinjitiwaabik Zaaging Anishinaabek, Ontario and Canada began exploratory discussions to try to find a resolution outside of the court process. As a result of these discussions, the parties entered into formal negotiations in June 2021. The litigation is stayed (on hold) and negotiations between Biinjitiwaabik Zaaging Anishinaabek, Ontario and Canada are ongoing.

Bingwi Neyaashi Anishinaabek

Location: Lake Nipigon
Claim type: Aboriginal Rights and Title

In 2006, Bingwi Neyaashi Anishinaabek (then known as Sand Point First Nation) brought legal action against Canada and Ontario seeking, among other remedies, a declaration of unextinguished Aboriginal Title to an area north of Lake Superior, claiming that they did not enter the Robinson-Superior Treaty in 1850 and did not adhere to the Robinson-Superior Treaty subsequent to 1850. In 2016, Bingwi Neyaashi Anishinaabek, Ontario and Canada began exploratory discussions to try to find a resolution outside of the court process. As a result of these discussions, the parties entered into formal negotiations in June 2021. The litigation is stayed (on hold) and negotiations between Bingwi Neyaashi Anishinaabek, Ontario and Canada are ongoing.

Eabametoong First Nation (Treaty 9)

Location: North of Eabamet Lake, north of the Albany River
Claim type: Treaty land entitlement

Eabametoong First Nation submitted a claim to Canada and Ontario in December and October 2010, respectively, asserting that they did not receive all the reserve lands to which they are entitled under Treaty 9. Ontario accepted the claim for negotiation in October 2013. Canada accepted the claim in November 2013. Negotiations between the First Nation, Canada and Ontario began in 2014, and are ongoing.

Fort Severn (Treaty 9)

Location: Hudson’s Bay / Northwestern Ontario
Claim type: Treaty Land Entitlement

Fort Severn First Nation submitted a claim to Canada and Ontario in July and April 2013, respectively, asserting that they did not receive all the reserve lands to which they are entitled under Treaty 9. Ontario and Canada accepted the claim for negotiation in July 2016, and negotiations are ongoing.

Ginoogaming First Nation (Treaty 9)

Location: 318 kilometres northeast of Thunder Bay, beside the Municipality of Greenstone
Claim type: Treaty land entitlement

Ginoogaming First Nation submitted a claim to Canada and Ontario in July and February 2013, respectively, asserting that they did not receive all the reserve lands to which they are entitled under Treaty 9. Ontario and Canada accepted the claim for negotiation in February and April 2016, respectively. Tripartite negotiations commenced in September 2016.

Kiashke Zaaging Anishinaabek (Gull Bay First Nation) (Robinson-Superior Treaty 1850)

Location: Lake Nipigon
Claim type: Flooding

Kiashke Zaaging Anishinaabek submitted a flooding claim to Canada in February 2005 and to Ontario in March 2014, asserting an outstanding entitlement to damages caused by unauthorized flooding of their reserve lands. Negotiations between Kiashke Zaaging Anishinaabek, Canada and Ontario began in 2017 and are ongoing.

Kiashke Zaaging Anishinaabek (Gull Bay First Nation) (Robinson-Superior Treaty 1850)

Location: Lake Nipigon
Claim type: Boundary

On September 7, 2010, Kiashke Zaaging Anishinaabek submitted a boundary claim to Ontario asserting an entitlement to additional reserve lands and financial compensation. The claim asserts that the boundaries of the reserve the First Nation received under the Robinson-Superior Treaty 1850 differ from what the First Nation understood they were to receive. Ontario has accepted the claim for negotiation, conditional on Canada also accepting the claim. The claim is currently the subject of ongoing litigation.

Lac La Croix

Location: Fort Frances area
Claim type: Treaty land entitlement

In March 2002, Lac La Croix First Nation submitted a claim to Canada and Ontario, asserting that they did not receive all the reserve lands to which they are entitled under Treaty 3. Canada and Ontario accepted the claim for negotiation in June 2011. The parties have been in negotiations since November 2012 and expect to conclude the settlement of the claim in 2022-2023.

Lake of the Woods/ Shoal Lake/ Winnipeg River (Treaty 3)

Location: Lake of the Woods area
Claim type: Flooding

Thirteen Treaty 3 First Nations on Lake of the Woods/Shoal Lake/Winnipeg River, with a total of 45 separate reserves, filed flooding claims with Ontario and Canada. Eleven of these claims were accepted by Ontario in 2007, followed by Canada in 2009. The two remaining claims were accepted by both Ontario and Canada in 2011. The Rainy River First Nations flooding claim was settled in 2015. Niisaachewan Anishinaabe Nation's and Naotkamegwanning First Nation's Flooding claims were settled in 2022.

The remaining 10 First Nations involved in the claims are:

  • Animakee Wa Zhing #37 (Northwest Angle #37)
  • Anishinaabeg of Naongashiing (Big Island)
  • Big Grassy River (Mishkosiminiziibiing)
  • Buffalo Point
  • Iskatewizaagegan #39 (Shoal Lake #39)
  • NorthWest Angle #33
  • Ojibways of Onigaming
  • Shoal Lake #40
  • Washagamis Bay (Obashkaandagaang)
  • Wauzhushk Onigum Nation (Rat Portage)

The claims are in various stages of negotiation.

More information: Lake of the Woods/Shoal Lake/Winnipeg River flooding claims

Long Lake #58 First Nation

Location: North of Lake Superior
Claim type: Aboriginal Rights and Title

In 2006, Long Lake #58 First Nation brought legal action against Canada and Ontario seeking a declaration of unextinguished and exclusive Aboriginal Title to an area north of Lake Superior, claiming that they did not enter or subsequently adhere to either the Robinson-Superior Treaty of 1850 or Treaty No. 9 of 1906. In 2016, Long Lake #58 First Nation, Ontario and Canada began exploratory discussions to try to find a resolution outside of the court process. As a result of these discussions, the parties entered into formal negotiations in June 2019. The litigation is stayed (on hold) and negotiations between Long Lake #58 First Nation, Ontario and Canada are ongoing.

Matachewan (Treaty 9)

Location: Approximately 60 kilometres southwest of Kirkland Lake
Claim type: Treaty land entitlement

Matachewan First Nation submitted a claim to Canada and Ontario in October and August 2009, respectively, asserting that they did not receive all the reserve lands to which they are entitled under Treaty 9. Canada accepted the claim in August 2011 and Ontario accepted the claim in July 2012. Negotiations between the First Nation, Canada and Ontario began in September 2012. A bilateral settlement agreement between the Matachewan First Nation and Canada was finalized in July 2019. Ontario and Matachewan First Nation have initialed a settlement agreement, which was ratified by Matachewan First Nation members on November 5, 2022.

Mississauga #8 (Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850)

Location: Blind River area
Claim type: Right-of-way/ Highway

Ontario, Canada, and the Mississauga #8 First Nation are addressing several administrative issues associated with surveys of, and compensation to be paid for, the portions of the rights-of-way for provincial Highways 17 and 557 that pass through the First Nation’s reserve. The parties are also clarifying the legal status of the First Nation’s existing reserve lands and two parcels of unsold surrendered land. Ontario is working with Mississauga #8 First Nation and Canada to conclude the Mississauga #8 First Nation’s Specific Agreement.

Mississauga #8 (Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850)

Location: Blind River area
Claim type: Flooding

Mississauga #8 First Nation submitted its flooding claim to Ontario in September 1996, alleging that in the early 1850s, two dams were constructed on the Blind River without the consent of the First Nation and subsequently flooded part of their reserve lands. Ontario accepted the claim for negotiation in April 2009. Canada accepted the claim in August 2010. The parties began formal negotiations in February 2012.

Moose Cree (Treaty 9)

Location: Approximately 300 kilometres north of Timmins
Claim type: Treaty land entitlement

Moose Cree First Nation submitted a claim to Canada and Ontario in September and June 2010, respectively, asserting that they did not receive all the reserve lands to which they are entitled under Treaty 9. Ontario accepted the claim for negotiation in June 2013, and Canada accepted the claim for negotiation in July 2013. Negotiations are ongoing.

Naicatchewenin (Treaty 3)

Location: Northwest of Fort Frances
Claim type: Right-of-way/trespass

Naicatchewenin First Nation submitted a claim to Canada and Ontario in December 2006, asserting that Ontario is trespassing on Reserve 17B as a result of the unauthorized construction and operation of the Burditt Lake Dam. Canada and Ontario accepted this claim for negotiation in January 2011 and March 2011, respectively. In 2013, the parties agreed to pause negotiations.

Naicatchewenin (Treaty 3)

Location: Northwest of Fort Frances
Claim type: Treaty land entitlement

Naicatchewenin First Nation submitted a claim to Canada in February 2010 asserting that they did not receive all the reserve lands to which they are entitled under Treaty 3. Canada accepted the claim for negotiation in January 2013. Naicatchewenin First Nation submitted the claim to Ontario in March 2015 and Ontario accepted the claim for negotiation in March 2018. Tripartite negotiations began in July 2018 and are ongoing.

Netmizaaggamig Nishnaabeg (Pic Mobert First Nation) (Robinson-Superior Treaty 1850)

Location: North of Lake Superior
Claim Type: Aboriginal Rights and Title

In 2006, Netmizaaggamig Nishnaabeg (Pic Mobert First Nation) brought legal action against Canada and Ontario seeking a declaration of unextinguished and exclusive Aboriginal Title to an area north of Lake Superior, claiming that they did not enter the Robinson-Superior Treaty in 1850 and did not adhere to the Robinson-Superior Treaty subsequent to 1850. In 2016, the three parties began exploratory discussions to try to find a resolution outside of the court process. As a result of these discussions, the parties entered into formal negotiations in September 2019. Negotiations between Netmizaaggamig Nishnaabeg, Ontario and Canada are ongoing.

Neyaashiinigmiing (Chippewas of Nawash) (Treaty 82)

Location: Bruce Peninsula
Claim type: Unsold surrendered land

Neyaashiinigmiing submitted a claim to Ontario in January 2014, alleging that some of their surrendered reserve lands remain unsold and that the First Nation did not receive its full entitlement to a one-acre burial ground reserve under Treaty 82. Ontario accepted the claim in June 2016, agreeing to enter exploratory discussions on the unsold surrendered land claim and to negotiate the burial ground component of the reserve entitlement claim, both of which are ongoing.

Nipissing First Nation (Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850)

Location: North shore of Lake Nipissing and west of the City of North Bay
Claim type: Boundary

Nipissing First Nation’s claim asserts that the boundaries of the reserve, surveyed under the Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850, differ from what the First Nation understood they were entitled to receive. A bilateral settlement between Canada and Nipissing was finalized in 2013. Ontario accepted the claim for negotiation in April 2022 and bilateral negotiations are ongoing.

Ojibways of Onigaming (Treaty 3)

Location: Between Kenora and Fort Frances
Claim type: Right-of-way/highway

Ojibways of Onigaming submitted a claim in 1994, alleging unauthorized and uncompensated taking and use of land for Highway 71 through Sabaskong Bay Reserve 35D. Negotiations are paused to allow the parties to focus on the First Nation’s flooding claim.

Pays Plat First Nation

Location: North of Lake Superior
Claim type: Aboriginal Rights and Title

In 2006, Pays Plat First Nation brought legal action against Canada and Ontario seeking a declaration of unextinguished and exclusive Aboriginal Title to an area north of Lake Superior, claiming that there is no evidence that Pays Plat First Nation entered into the Robinson-Superior Treaty in 1850 and did not adhere to the Robinson-Superior Treaty subsequent to 1850. In 2016, Pays Plat First Nation, Ontario and Canada began exploratory discussions to try and find a resolution outside of the court process. As a result of these discussions, the parties entered into formal negotiations in December 2020. The litigation is stayed (on hold) and negotiations between Pays Plat First Nation, Ontario and Canada are ongoing.

Rainy Lake First Nations (Treaty 3)

Location: Fort Frances area
Claim type: Flooding

From 1994-1999, five First Nations (Couchiching, Mitaanjigamiing, Naicatchewenin, Nigigoonsiminikaaning and Seine River) submitted claims to Canada and Ontario, with respect to unauthorized and uncompensated flooding of their nine reserves on Rainy Lake following construction of the Fort Frances/International Falls dam at Fort Frances. Negotiations with Canada and Mitaanjigamiing, Naicatchewenin, Nigigoonsiminikaaning, and Seine River First Nations have been proceeding since 2009. Negotiations with Canada and Couchiching First Nation began in 2013. Surveying of the lands impacted by the flooding has been completed for eight of the nine reserves. The Mitaanjigamiing First Nation and Nigigoonsiminikaaing First Nation reached trilateral settlement agreements of their flooding claims in 2022. Information will be provided to stakeholders and Indigenous communities before settlements with the other Rainy Lake First Nations are finalized.

More information: Rainy Lake First Nations flooding claims

Rainy River (Treaty 3)

Location: West of Fort Frances
Claim type: Right-of-way/highway

This claim, submitted to Canada in 2000 and Ontario in May 2002, alleges the unauthorized and uncompensated taking and use of land in Manitou Rapids Reserve 11 for Highways 11 and 71. Ontario accepted it for negotiation in December 2008. Canada accepted the claim for negotiation in September 2011. Canada closed the file in June 2012. This file has been inactive since that time.

Sagamok Anishnawbek (Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850)

Location: 98 kilometres west of Sudbury and five kilometres southwest of Massey
Claim type: Boundary

In 2017, Sagamok Anishnawbek First Nation submitted a claim to Ontario with respect to the La Cloche Tract. During its review, Ontario identified a survey discrepancy with the La Cloche Tract resulting in an outstanding entitlement to reserve land under the Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850. In order to fulfill its obligations, Ontario offered to enter negotiations with Sagamok in December 2020 and bilateral negotiations commenced in February 2021 and are ongoing.

Sandy Lake (Treaty 5)

Location: Northeast of Red Lake
Claim type: Indian Lands Agreement (1986) Act

In November 2014, Sandy Lake First Nation requested to enter into a Specific Agreement pursuant to the Indian Lands Agreement (1986) Act, with Ontario and Canada. In May 2015, Ontario accepted the First Nation’s request. The Specific Agreement will result in Ontario waiving its entitlements under the Indian Lands Act, 1924 to 50% of the revenues derived from minerals on reserve and releasing any such mineral revenues being held by Canada to the First Nation. 

Seine River (Treaty 3)

Location: Fort Frances area
Claim type: Treaty land entitlement

Seine River First Nation submitted a claim to the governments of Ontario and Canada in April 2005 asserting that they did not receive all the reserve lands to which they are entitled under Treaty No. 3. The claim was accepted for negotiation by Ontario in March 2011 and by Canada in September 2011. Tripartite negotiations began in October 2012 and are ongoing.

Shawanaga (Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850)

Location: 30 kilometres west of the Town of Parry Sound
Claim type: Boundary

Shawanaga First Nation submitted a claim to Canada and Ontario in August 2014, with an amended claim submitted to Ontario in 2016. The claim asserts that the boundaries of the reserve the First Nation received under the Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850 differ from what the First Nation understood they were to receive. The claim was accepted for negotiation by Canada in November 2018 and by Ontario in August 2019. Tripartite negotiations began in 2020 and are ongoing.

Temagami First Nation/Teme-Augama Anishnabai (Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850)

Location: Temagami
Claim type: Boundary

In 1991, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the Crown, Canada and Ontario had outstanding legal obligations to Temagami First Nation arising from the Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850. In order to fulfill its obligations, Ontario entered negotiations with Temagami First Nation and Teme-Augama Anishnabai in 2000. The negotiations, which were previously on hold, resumed in 2020.

Thessalon (Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850)

Location: North shore of Lake Huron, 100 kilometres east of Sault Ste. Marie.
Claim type: Boundary

Thessalon’s claim asserts that the boundaries of the reserve surveyed for the First Nation under the Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850 differ from what the First Nation was entitled to receive. Negotiations between Thessalon First Nation and Ontario began in July 2016. The negotiations have been on hold since September 2020.

Wahnapitae (Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850)

Location: Northwestern shore of Lake Wanapitei
Claim type: Boundary

Wahnapitae’s claim asserts that the boundaries of the reserve surveyed for the First Nation under the 1850 Robinson-Huron Treaty differ from what the First Nation understood it was to receive. The First Nation is negotiating a bilateral settlement with Canada. In January 2020, Ontario accepted the claim and negotiations between Wahnapitae First Nation and Ontario are ongoing.

Wasauksing (Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850)

Location: Parry Sound area
Claim type: Boundary

Wasauksing First Nation asserts that certain islands adjacent to the Parry Island Reserve No. 16 were originally connected to the reserve and remain reserve land today. Ontario entered negotiations with Wasauksing First Nation in June 1981. Should Canada and Wasauksing initial and sign a Boundary Clarification Agreement, the Ministry of Indigenous Affairs will work closely with the Ministry of Northern Development, Mines, Natural Resources and Forestry to ensure implementation happens quickly.

Washagamis Bay (Obashkaandagaang) (Treaty 3)

Location: Kenora area
Claim type: Boundary

In its Statement of Claim, Washagamis Bay First Nation asserts that Canada and Ontario failed to recognize that several islands west of Corkscrew Island in Clearwater Bay, and at the mouth of White Partridge Bay on Lake of the Woods, are part of Reserve No. 38D. These islands were used for gardening and were identified by the former federal Department of Indian Affairs as Indian Reserve No. 38D. Negotiations are ongoing between the First Nation, Ontario and Canada.

Whitefish River (Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850)

Location: Manitoulin Island area
Claim type: Unsold surrendered land

Whitefish River First Nation is seeking the return of unsold surrendered land. The First Nation, Ontario and Canada agreed to negotiate in phases, with Phase I intended to reach a protocol agreement, and Phase II intended for negotiation. Phase I is complete. Phase II is outstanding and negotiations on the unsold surrendered land have not begun.

Whitefish River (Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850)

Location: Manitoulin Island area
Claim type: Boundary

Whitefish River’s claim asserts that the boundaries of the reserve surveyed for the First Nation under the Robinson-Huron Treaty 1850 differ from what the First Nation was entitled to receive. A bilateral settlement between Canada and Whitefish River was finalized in March 2020. Bilateral negotiations between Ontario and Whitefish River began in February 2021 and are ongoing.

Wiikwemkoong Unceded Territory

Location: Georgian Bay
Claim type: Boundary

In December 1997, the Wiikwemkoong Unceded Territory submitted a claim to islands in Georgian Bay. Ontario received a mandate to begin tripartite negotiations with Wiikwemkoong and Canada in 2008. Negotiations are ongoing and the parties are working towards a final Settlement Agreement. Public consultations have been ongoing since 2012. Ontario is currently concluding public consultations and Class Environmental Assessment processes.

More information: Wiikwemkoong Unceded Territory

Settlement agreements in implementation

1990 Manitoulin Island Land Claim Settlement Agreement (United Chiefs and Councils of Mnidoo Mnising)

Location: Various townships on Manitoulin Island and Cockburn Island
Claim type: Unsold surrendered land / Indian lands agreement

The 1990 Manitoulin Island Land Claim Settlement Agreement includes two agreements, a bilateral Final Agreement between Ontario and the five First Nations (Aundeck Omni Kaning, M’Chigeeng, Sheguiandah, Sheshegwaning and Zhiibaahaasing), and a tri-lateral Specific Agreement including Canada. The 1990 Agreement settled a claim concerning unsold surrendered lands arising from the Manitoulin Island Treaty of 1862. Ontario is presently working with the signatory First Nations and Canada to resolve several issues in order to achieve full implementation of the agreement.

Chapleau Cree Treaty Land Entitlement

Location: Geographic Townships of Chapleau, Chappise, Caverley, Caouette, D’Arcy, Mageau, Marshall and Racine, Territorial District of Sudbury
Claim type: Treaty land entitlement

Ontario, Canada and Chapleau Cree First Nation reached a trilateral settlement agreement of the First Nation’s treaty land entitlement claim in 2016. As part of the settlement, Ontario will transfer approximately 4,000 hectares (9,884 acres) of unpatented Crown land to Canada to be added to the First Nation’s reserve lands, fulfilling their outstanding entitlement. The parties are working on implementation of the agreement.

Garden River – Squirrel Island

Location: Squirrel Island in the St. Mary’s River, Territorial District of Algoma

This file was the subject of a settlement agreement between Canada and the Garden River First Nation involving properties on Squirrel Island near Sault Ste. Marie. While Ontario was not a party to the agreement, in January 1992 it committed to transfer provincial interests in several properties on the island. The parties are working to address outstanding title and environmental remediation issues.

Ipperwash Tripartite Land Transfer Agreement

Location: Former Ipperwash Provincial Park (Geographic Township of Bosanquet, Municipality of Lambton Shores, County of Lambton)

On February 6, 2020, a tripartite Land Transfer Agreement between Canada, Ontario and Chippewas of Kettle & Stony Point First Nation was executed. Ontario finalized the transfer of the former Ipperwash Provincial Park to Canada on July 30, 2020 and Canada added the lands to reserve on August 25, 2020.

Lake of the Woods/ Shoal Lake/ Winnipeg River (Treaty 3) Flooding Agreements

Location: Lake of the Woods area 
Claim type: Flooding 

Thirteen Treaty 3 First Nations on Lake of the Woods/Shoal Lake/Winnipeg River, with a total of 45 separate reserves, filed flooding claims with Ontario and Canada. Eleven of these claims were accepted by Ontario in 2007, followed by Canada in 2009. The two remaining claims were accepted by both Ontario and Canada in 2011. The Rainy River First Nations flooding claim has been settled and implemented.

Trilateral settlement agreements have been reached with the First Nations listed below. These settlements include financial compensation for past losses and damages due to flooding of reserve lands resulting from a series of dams on Lake of the Woods, and for the continued flooding of reserve lands. Implementation of these agreements is ongoing:

  • Niisaachewan Anishinaabe Nation (The Dalles 38C) – 2022
  • Naotkamegwanning (Whitefish Bay) – 2022

Mississauga #8 Northern Boundary

Location: Geographic Townships of Cobden, Scarfe, Patton, Mack, Montgomery, and Thompson, Territorial District of Algoma
Claim type: Boundary

In 1999, Ontario transferred administration and control of the settlement lands to Canada for the benefit of Mississauga #8 First Nation. Ontario is working to release retained interests in roads and address other administrative matters that remain outstanding. Implementation of this 1994 settlement agreement will be completed after the transfer of two waterpower facilities located on Crown land in 2037 and 2043 respectively.

Mitaanjigamiing Treaty Land Entitlement

Location: Geographic Township of Griesinger, Territorial District of Rainy Lake
Claim type: Treaty land entitlement

The agreement with the First Nation and Canada to add land to the existing reserve was fully executed in 2018. The agreement provides for the transfer of approximately 1,646 hectares (4,069 acres) of Crown land from Ontario to Canada for addition to the Mitaanjigamiing Reserve. The parties are working on implementation of the agreement.

Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte – Turton Penn

Location: Geographic Township of Tyendinaga, County of Hastings

This 2005 agreement resolved a longstanding issue regarding ownership of former Highway 2 (Hastings County Road 2) and restored lands known as the Turton Penn leasehold to reserve status. Ontario will transfer its interest in former Highway 2 and other lands to the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte in exchange for the province preserving the right of public use to the road. The parties are working on implementation of the agreement.

Nishnawbe-Aski Bands Agreement

Location:  McDowell Lake (150 km northeast of Red Lake) and Aroland (60 km north of Geraldton)

Claim type: 1991 Tri-Partite Framework Band Agreement

On December 9, 1991, the Six Nishnawbe-Aski Bands Agreement was signed by Aroland First Nation, Kee-Way-Win First Nation, New Slate Falls First Nation, McDowell Lake First Nation, Saugeen First Nation, Wawakapewin First Nation, Canada and Ontario for the purposes of providing reserve lands and basic community facilities and services. Ontario is presently working with Canada and the First Nations of Aroland and McDowell Lake to address issues needed to achieve full implementation of the agreement.

Rainy Lake First Nations (Treaty 3) Flooding Claim

Location: Fort Frances area
Claim type: Flooding

From 1994 to 1999, five First Nations (Couchiching, Mitaanjigamiing, Naicatchewenin, Nigigoonsiminikaaning and Seine River) submitted claims to Canada and Ontario, with respect to unauthorized and uncompensated flooding of their nine reserves on Rainy Lake following construction of the Fort Frances/International Falls dam at Fort Frances. The claims were accepted for negotiation by Ontario and Canada in 2003 and 2009 respectively. Tripartite negotiations on four of the claims began in 2009. Tripartite negotiation of the fifth claim (Couchiching) began in 2013. The following settlement agreements are currently in implementation: 

  • the Mitaanjigamiing Flooding Settlement Agreement (May 2022)
  • the Nigigoonsiminikaaning Flooding Settlement Agreement (October 2022)

More information: Rainy Lake First Nations flooding claims

Wahta Mohawks Boundary

Location: Geographic Township of Gibson, Municipality of the Township of Georgian Bay, Muskoka District
Claim type: Boundary

Ontario, Canada and the Wahta Mohawks reached a trilateral settlement agreement of the First Nation’s boundary claim in 2004. The agreement includes the transfer of administration and control of approximately 3,359 hectares (8,300 acres) of Crown lands to Canada for addition to reserve. The parties are working on implementation of the agreement.

Williams Treaties Settlement Agreement

Location: Various locations in Central & Southern Ontario

In August 2018 Canada, Ontario and the seven Williams Treaties First Nations (Chippewas of Beausoleil, Rama, Georgina Island, the Mississaugas of Scugog, Curve Lake, Hiawatha and Alderville) entered into a negotiated settlement agreement, and the Alderville litigation was discontinued in September 2018. Canada, Ontario, and First Nations continue to work together to fulfill the commitments of the agreement.

Lands and Larger Land Base Agreements (LLLBs)

Claim type: Lands and larger land base agreements

On August 5, 1991, Ontario and Canada signed a Framework Agreement with six First Nations (Fort William, Michipicoten, Pays Plat, Pic Mobert, Rocky Bay and Sand Point) in the Robinson-Superior 1850 treaty area. The Framework Agreement committed the parties to negotiate agreements to provide lands to the First Nations outside of the land claims process. The First Nation parties either did not have a reserve or had a very small reserve and required additional land to meet the current and future economic and social needs of the communities. Ontario is working with Canada and the respective First Nations to finalize the implementation of the final three outstanding LLLB agreements below.

Pays Plat LLLB

Location: Geographic Township of Lahontan and Yesno, Territorial District of Thunder Bay

Claim type: Lands and larger land base agreement

The agreement with the First Nation and Canada to add land to the existing reserve was fully executed in 2020. The agreement provides for the transfer of approximately 16 square kilometres of Crown land from Ontario to Canada for addition to the Pays Plat Reserve. The parties are working on implementation of the agreement.

Pic Mobert LLLB (Netmizaaggamig Nishnaabeg)

Location: Geographic Township of Laberge, Bryant and McCron, Territorial District of Thunder Bay

Claim type: Lands and larger land base agreement

The agreement with Pic Mobert First Nation and Canada will result in the transfer from Ontario to Canada of approximately 16 square kilometres of Crown land to be added to Pic Mobert Reserve. The parties are working on phased implementation of the agreement, with approximately half of the lands added to reserve by Canada in late 2020.

Rocky Bay (Biinjitiwaabik Zaaging Anishinaabek) LLLB

Location: Geographical Township of Kilkenny, Municipality of Greenstone, Territorial District of Thunder Bay

Claim type: Lands and larger land base agreement

The agreement with the First Nation and Canada to add land to the existing reserve was fully executed in 2017. The agreement provides for the transfer of approximately 686 hectares (1,695 acres) of Crown land from Ontario to Canada to be added to the Rocky Bay Reserve. Approximately 7 hectares (17 acres) of patented land owned by the First Nation will also be added to the reserve. The parties are working on implementation of the agreement.