Prepared by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Adoption of the Recovery Strategy for the Lakeside Daisy (Tetraneuris herbacea) in Canada (Parks Canada Agency 2011).

The Endangered Species Act, 2007 (ESA) requires the Minister of Natural Resources to ensure recovery strategies are prepared for all species listed as endangered or threatened on the Species at Risk in Ontario (SARO) List. Under the ESA, a recovery strategy may incorporate all or part of an existing plan that relates to the species.

The Lakeside Daisy (Tetraneuris herbacea) is listed as threatened on the SARO List. The species is also listed as threatened under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). Parks Canada Agency prepared the Recovery Strategy for the Lakeside Daisy in Canada in 2011 to meet its requirements under the SARA. This recovery strategy is hereby adopted under the ESA. With the additions indicated below, the enclosed strategy meets all of the content requirements outlined in the ESA.

Section 2.4 of the federal recovery strategy provides an identification of critical habitat (as defined under the SARA). Identification of critical habitat is not a component of a recovery strategy prepared under the ESA. However, it is recommended that the approach used to identify critical habitat in Section 2.4 be considered when developing a habitat regulation under the ESA.

Executive summary

Prepared by Parks Canada Agency

Lakeside Daisy is listed as Threatened under Schedule 1 of the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). In Ontario, it is listed as Threatened on the Species at Risk in Ontario (SARO) List under the Endangered Species Act, 2007 (ESA). The global range of Lakeside Daisy is restricted to the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island Regions of Ontario and six sites in the United States, some of which are re-introductions. The Canadian range of Lakeside Daisy accounts for 95% or more of the global population.

Lakeside Daisy is a low-growing herbaceous perennial consisting of small, leafy rosettes connected by rhizomes. Plants bloom in early May to early July with a yellow daisy-like head on a short stalk. Lakeside Daisy is only found on alvars and limestone bedrock shorelines. Alvars are naturally open areas, dominated by native grasses or sedges or low shrubs, with extremely shallow soil over limestone bedrock. They experience extremes of drought, flooding, temperature, and light levels. Some alvars that support Lakeside Daisy are known to have burned in the past, but others have no evidence of burning at all. The alvars of the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island Regions contain an exceptional variety of globally and provincially rare vegetation types and species. All alvars in Ontario are considered globally, nationally and provincially imperiled.

The main threats to Lakeside Daisy are threats to its alvar habitat. The principal threats are: off-road vehicles, building and road construction, trampling by pedestrians, quarrying, logging in adjacent forests, invasion by exotic species, and heavy machinery. As well, filling in of habitat due to fire suppression, and changes in lake levels, may affect habitat over very long time frames. Severity of threats is presented for each site.

Lakeside Daisy is found at nine sites on the Bruce Peninsula and 20 sites on the south shore of Manitoulin Island or surrounding islands. At some of the sites where it occurs, Lakeside Daisy can be abundant or even dominant. Current population trends are unknown due to lack of monitoring information.

Recovery is considered feasible for Lakeside Daisy. The goal is to maintain long- term, self-sustaining, viable populations of Lakeside Daisy in its current range in Ontario, by meeting population and distribution objectives targeted to recover the species to Special Concern or lower. The population and distribution objectives for Lakeside Daisy are 1) Prevent an overall, continuous decline in the number of populations in each of the two core areas the species occupies, and 2) Maintain the species' range at its current index of area of occupancy (114 km2) and current extent of occurrence (2,340 km2).

In total, 12 critical habitat polygons are identified at 9 sites on the Bruce Peninsula and 46 polygons are identified at 9 sites in the Manitoulin Region. This critical habitat achieves substantive progress toward fulfilling the population and distribution objectives identified in the strategy. Other recovery tools will be used to meet the objectives, and these will be achieved through implementation of the broad strategies and approaches – primarily protection of existing populations, reduction of threats to habitat, promoting site stewardship, and public education. One or more action plans will be completed by December 2015.