Long-term care homes are homes above all — places where people can live comfortably while having their care needs met.

Each resident in a long-term care home has an individual plan of care. A plan of care is a written document that tells the people looking after you what kind of care you need and how that will be provided. This includes:

  • your health conditions
  • the medications you need to take
  • your dietary requirements
  • how much help you need with daily living
  • your risk of falling
  • exercises prescribed by your physiotherapist
  • religious practices

Different long-term care homes will offer a range of activities, from communal dining and in-home social activities to group outings. Where available, homes may offer additional services, such as hairdressing, for a fee.

Roles in long-term care

Along with doctors and nurses, here are some of the roles (and terminology) you’ll encounter in a long-term care home:

  • administrator – A staff member who oversees the long-term care home and is responsible for its management.
  • allied health care providers – Other professionals who provide direct care, such as physiotherapists and social workers.
  • director of nursing and personal care – A registered nurse who supervises and directs the nursing and personal care staff and the care they provide.
  • medical director – A physician who is in charge of matters relating to medical care in the long-term care home and works in consultation with the Director of Care and other health professionals in the home.
  • personal support worker (PSW) – A staff member who provides personal care services, but who is not a nurse. PSW usually help with day-to-day needs such as bathing, meals and eating, routine housekeeping and routine health care.
  • substitute decision maker – If you are a resident, you will need to designate someone who can legally make decisions on your behalf in the event that you become incapable of making those decisions yourself.

A special note about caregivers

Caregivers are essential visitors, designated by a resident or their substitute decision maker, who provide direct care to residents, such as helping with feeding, mobility, hygiene or cognitive stimulation, social and emotional support.

Caregivers must be at least 16 years of age. Examples of caregivers include:

  • family members or friends who provide meaningful connection
  • privately hired caregivers
  • paid companions
  • translators

It’s up to the resident or their substitute decision-maker to designate a caregiver — not the home. Ask your home for its procedure around designations, but as a general rule, you should always make your designation in writing.

You can add or remove a caregiver designation at any time.

Family and residents’ councils

All long-term care homes are required to have a residents’ council. Some may have a family council as well.

Residents’ councils

Residents’ councils are independent from the home's administration and staff. They are made up of residents who speak on behalf of all residents to support their interests.

Residents' councils meet regularly to give the home advice and recommendations on what residents would like to see done to improve care or the quality of life in the home, including:

  • sponsoring and planning activities
  • collaborating with community groups
  • reviewing the home's financial documents and operations
  • working to resolve disputes

Learn more from the Ontario Association of Residents’ Councils.

Family councils

Family and friends of long-term care home residents can form and run a family council. These groups focus on improving residents' quality of life and care, while providing support to one another.

Not all long-term care homes have a family council, but all must offer an opportunity to form one.

Learn more from Family Councils Ontario.

Outings and absences

Day trips and vacation

Residents may leave their long-term care home for various reasons, including:

  • daytime outings
  • vacations to visit family or friends
  • to remain active in the community

These outings have time limits.

  • Casual absences should not exceed 48 hours per week.
  • Vacation absences should not exceed 21 days.

Residents planning to take a day trip or a short vacation may also be subject to additional public health measures.

Medical and psychiatric absences

If you need to leave your long-term care home to receive medical or psychiatric care at a hospital, you can keep your bed in the home as long as you return within:

  • 30 days, for a medical absence
  • 60 days, for a psychiatric absence

If your medical or psychiatric absence is longer, you will be discharged from the long-term care home. However, if this happens, you will be placed in the “re-admission” category on the home’s waiting list, which is prioritized for admission.

Discharge and re-admissions

Residents may discharge themselves from a long-term care home at any time.

If you have been discharged from a long-term care home and want to be re-admitted, contact your local Home and Community Care Support Services organization.