Ministry overview

Ministry’s Vision

The Ministry of the Attorney General works to deliver an innovative, sustainable and responsive justice system that inspires public confidence and upholds the rule of law. To accomplish this, we are modernizing the justice system to make it easier, faster and more affordable for Ontarians to resolve their legal matters, ensuring that vulnerable individuals and families get the help they need when and where they need it.

Ministry Programs and Activities

Nothing is more important than protecting the health and well-being of Ontarians. Since first learning of COVID-19, the Ontario government has been working closely with justice partners to ensure critical services continue while keeping front-line justice sector workers and Ontarians who use these services safe. The government is also moving ahead with a number of initiatives to support its vision of updating the justice system and making strategic investments to develop digital first services, streamline legal processes and support vulnerable people while keeping communities safe.

Some key initiatives planned or in progress in 2020-21 include:

COVID-19 Response

The government has worked with the courts, police services and other partners to minimize disruption to the justice system and provide seamless, responsive justice services to all Ontarians, particularly those in vulnerable communities.

The Ministry of the Attorney General has also worked with Ontario courts and tribunals to limit in-person proceedings and integrate the use of audio and video conferencing to hear priority matters remotely, when possible. This also limited the need to transport accused persons to courthouses and nearly all bail hearings in Ontario have been able to continue virtually.

As part of Ontario’s Action Plan: Responding to COVID-19, the government has invested in technology to help courts and tribunals continue the transition to remote operations. Investments include additional laptops, conference lines, video capacity and more than doubling the complement of portable digital recording devices for remote court use.

The ministry will continue working with partners across the justice system, including judicial officials, to ensure that urgent and priority legal matters continue to be heard before courts and tribunals.

Ministry programs and initiatives


The government will continue to build on progress made as part of Ontario’s Action Plan: Responding to COVID-19 to update services across the justice sector. This will include investing in transformational technology to put more services online, modernizing and streamlining processes, expanding access to justice, including in rural and remote regions, and supporting vulnerable people by developing integrated services where they need it most.

These services include expanding the remote defence access program, allowing for more inmate-counsel video consultations as well as other remote video programming and services, in collaboration with the Ministry of the Solicitor General.

The government will continue to develop and expand its online services so people without legal help can fill out and electronically submit their documents. Court staff will also spend less time entering information into the case-tracking system, issuing documents and taking payments at court counters. This is part of the ministry’s overall expansion of online services for civil and family courts to reduce trips to the courthouse and the use of paper.

Guns, Gangs and Violence Reduction Strategy

The government continues to extend a number of initiatives as part of Ontario’s Guns and Gangs Strategy in order to stop gun crime, dismantle gang activity and protect communities across the province.

This province-wide strategy combines enforcement and prosecution actions with interventions that promote alternatives to gangs and prevent violence before it starts. It is a multi-year, multi-ministry strategy that continues to evolve as the government works to dismantle gangs and end gun violence.

As part of Ontario’s Guns, Gangs and Violence Reduction Strategy, the ministry continues work establishing Justice Centres in four communities across the province - in Toronto-Downtown East, Toronto-Northwest, Kenora and London.

Victim Services

The Ministry of the Attorney General is committed to standing up for victims of crime and their families while providing the supports they need.

The government continues to work with partners to improve the delivery of victim services programs to ensure services are effective and client-centred.

The government is also continuing a multi-year modernization plan to strengthen the services of the Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee, which safeguards the legal, personal and financial interests of certain private individuals and estates and helps protect charitable property in Ontario.

Table 1: Ministry Planned Expenditures 2020-21 ($M)
COVID-19 Approvals0
Other Operating1,634.4

Organizational chart

  • Hon. Doug Downey - Attorney General
    • Irwin Glasberg (A) - Deputy Attorney General
      • Derek Isak (A) - Legal Counsel to the Deputy Attorney General
      • Genevieve Chiu (A) - Legal Counsel to the Deputy Attorney General
      • Ryan Freeston - Legal Counsel to the Deputy Attorney General
      • Katie Wood (A) - Executive Assistant & Chief Legal Counsel to the Deputy Attorney General
      • Judy Phillips - Director, Communications
      • Catherine Emile (A) - Justice Cluster Chief Information Officer & Assistant Deputy Minister Justice Technology Services
        • Adam Mazer (A) - Head, Solutions Branch
      • Sheila Bristo - Assistant Deputy Attorney General Court Services Division
        • Babi Banerjee - Director, Corporate Support Branch
        • Directors: Court Operations
          Beverly Leonard (Tor)
          Sarina Kashak (CE)
          Danielle Manton (E)
          Debbie Dunn (CW)
          Samantha Poisson (W)
          Cathy Kulos (NE)
          Jo Dee Kamm (NW)
        • Vaia Pappas - Director, Operational Support
        • Falguni Debnath - Senior Legal Officer, Court of Appeal
        • Lori Newton (A) - Executive Legal Officer, Ontario Court of Justice
        • Mohan Sharma - Executive Legal Officer, Superior Court of Justice
        • Jaimie Lee (A) - Director, Program Management Branch
      • Susan Kyle - Assistant Deputy Attorney General, Criminal Law Division
        • Tammy Browes-Bugden - Director, Strategic Operations & Management Centre
        • Randy Schwartz - Director, Crown Law Office, Criminal
        • Fred Braley - Director, Guns & Gangs
        • Carrie Stoddart (A) - Director, Crown Strategic Initiatives
        • James M. Stewart - Director, Major Cases
        • Directors: Crown Operations
          Andrew Locke (Tor)
          Paul Tait (CE)
          Julie Scott (E)
          Tony MacKinnon (CW)
          Lowell Hunking (W)
          Susan Stothart (N)
      • Michel Hélie - Assistant Deputy Attorney General, Civil Law Division
        • Sean Kearney - Director, Crown Law Office, Civil
        • Sarah Wright - Director, Constitutional Law
        • Nayla Ibrahim - Director, Strategic & Business Management Branch
        • Jane Price - Director, Education Development Branch
        • Portfolio Director (Economics, Infrastructure and Government) - Kikee Malik (A)
          Directors: Legal Services
          Fateh Salim (MCI/MIT/MGCS)
          Len Hatzis (TBS)
          Michael Waterston (A) (MOF)
          Samir Khalil (A) (CRIA)
          Amyn Hadibhai (A) (MLTSD)
          Mary Gersht (MTO)
        • Portfolio Director (Community, Health and Social Services) - Dianne Carter (A)
          Directors: Legal Services
          Brian Loewen (SOLGEN)
          Cheryl Carson (A) (MHSTCI/MSAA/MFA)
          Jeff Simser (Agencies - CCB, COIC, OCPC, LHINs)
          Janice Crawford (MOH/MOHLTC)
          Lynn Lovell (A) (MCCSS)
          Sidney Peters (A) (FRO)
          Shannon Chace (MEDU/MCU)
        • Portfolio Director (Indigenous, Lands and Resources) - Catherine Stewart (A)
          Directors: Legal Services
          Tom McKinlay (A) (MECP)
          Jeffrey Schelling (A) (MMAH)
          Candice Telfer (A) (IAO)
          Donald Bennett (A) (MNDM)
          Maud Murray (ENERGY/MEDJCT)
          Michele Ireland (A) (OMAFRA)
          Diane Zimnica (A) (MNRF)
      • Mark Spakowski - Chief Legislative Counsel
      • Tamara Gilbert (A) - Assistant Deputy Attorney General, Victims & Vulnerable Persons Division
        • Vivienne Lipman - Director, Divisional Corporate Support Branch
        • Vivienne Lipman (A) - Director, Ontario Victim Services
        • Marian Jacko - Children's Lawyer
        • Ken Goodman - Public Guardian & Trustee
      • Paula Reid - Assistant Deputy Attorney General & Chief Administrative Officer, Corporate Services Management Division
        • Ashif Damji (A) - Director, Business & Fiscal Planning
        • Deen Ajasa - Director, HR Strategic Business Unit
        • Andrew Nizielski - Director, Facilities Management Branch
        • Frank Skubic - Director, Justice Sector Security and Emergency Management Branch
        • Christopher Johns - Director, Project Implementation
        • Dominic Fernandes - Director, Analytics & Evidence Branch
        • Shaleena Kitchlu (A) - Director, Program Review & Transformation Task Force
        • Sabine Derbier - Coordinator, French Language Services
        • Enza Ragone - Coordinator, Freedom of Information
        • Brad Obee - Director, Audit Services (TBS)
      • Kimberly Murray - Assistant Deputy Attorney General, Indigenous Justice Division
        • Jennifer Abbott - (A) Director, Indigenous Services
        • Kirsten Manley-Casimir (A) - Legal Director
      • Jane Mallen (A) - Assistant Deputy Attorney General, Policy Division
        • Juliet Robin (A) - Executive Director, Justice Policy Development
        • Andrea Hargovan (A) - Director, Agency & Tribunal Relations
        • Ana Kapralos - (A) Director, Planning & Transformation
        • Alexander Bishop (A) - Director, Legalization of Cannabis Branch
        • Lori Coleman (A) - Executive Director, Tribunal Clusters
          Director Of Operations
          Mira Gamsa
          Lorissa Sciarra (A)
          Director, Strategic Business Services Tribunal Clusters
          Joe Whitehead (A)
        • Michael Mamo - Chief Operating Officer, Office of the Independent Police Review Director
        • William Curtis - Executive Officer, Special Investigations Unit
        • Raj Dhir (A) - Executive Director and Chief Legal Counsel, Ontario Human Rights Commission

Download printer-friendly organization chart (JPG).

Ministry of the Attorney General Legislation

Administration of justice

  • Administration of Justice Act
  • Apology Act, 2009
  • Arbitration Act, 1991
  • Assessment Review Board Act
  • Bail Act
  • Blind Persons' Rights Act
  • Class Proceedings Act, 1992
  • Commissioners for Taking Affidavits Act
  • Compensation for Victims of Crime Act
  • Courts of Justice Act
  • Crown Witnesses Act
  • Dog Owners' Liability Act
  • Education Act (sections pertaining to Special Education Tribunal- English & French)
  • Environmental Review Tribunal Act, 2000
  • Evidence Act
  • Execution Act
  • Fines and Forfeitures Act
  • Fire Protection and Prevention Act, 1997 (sections pertaining to the Fire Safety Commission)
  • Habeas Corpus Act
  • Hospitals and Charitable Institutions Inquiries Act
  • Inquiries Act
  • Human Rights Code
  • Judicial Review Procedure Act
  • Juries Act
  • Justices of the Peace Act
  • Legal Aid Services Act, 1998
  • Legislation Act, 2006
  • Licence Appeal Tribunal Act, 1999
  • Limitations Act, 2002
  • Ministry of Correctional Services Act, 1990 (sections pertaining to the Ontario Parole Board)
  • Ministry of Natural Resources Act, RSO. 1990, c.M.31 (section 6, pertaining to the Ontario Parole Board)
  • Negligence Act
  • Notaries Act
  • Ontario Heritage Act, Part III
  • Ontario Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, R.S.O. 1990 (sections pertaining to the Animal Care Review Board)
  • Ontario Works Act, 1997 (section pertaining to Social Benefits Tribunal)
  • Parental Responsibility Act, 2000
  • Police Services Act (sections pertaining to Office of the Independent Police Review Director and the Ontario Civilian Police Commission and the Special Investigations Unit)
  • Prevention of and Remedies for Human Trafficking Act, 2017
  • Provincial Offences Act
  • Public Inquiries Act, 2009
  • Real Property Limitations Act
  • Residential Tenancies Act, 2006 (sections pertaining to the Landlord and Tenant Board)
  • Safe Streets Act, 1999
  • Special Investigations Unit Act, 2019
  • Statutory Powers Procedure Act
  • Tobacco Damages and Health Care Costs Recovery Act, 2009
  • Opioid Damages and Health Care Costs Recovery Act, 2019 (Ministerial responsibility for this Act has not yet been assigned by OIC)
  • Tribunal Adjudicative Records Act, 2019
  • Victims’ Bill of Rights, 1995

Family law

  • Child, Youth and Family Services Act, 2017 (sections pertaining to Child and Family Services Review Board, Custody Review Board)
  • Children's Law Reform Act
  • Family Law Act
  • Safe Access to Abortion Services Act, 2017


  • Enforcement of Judgments Conventions Act, 1999
  • Interjurisdictional Support Orders Act, 2002
  • International Choice of Court Agreements Convention Act, 2017
  • International Electronic Communications Convention Act, 2017
  • International Interests in Mobile Equipment Act (Aircraft Equipment), 2002
  • International Recognition of Trusts Act, 2017
  • Interprovincial Summonses Act
  • Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments (UK) Act
  • Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments Act
  • Settlement of International Investment Disputes Act, 1999
  • Transboundary Pollution Reciprocal Access Act

Property statutes

  • Accumulations Act
  • Aliens' Real Property Act
  • Conveyancing and Law of Property Act
  • Disorderly Houses Act
  • Escheats Act
  • Expropriations Act
  • Fraudulent Conveyances Act
  • Local Planning Appeal Support Centre Act, 2017
  • Local Planning Appeal Tribunal Act, 2017
  • Mortgages Act
  • Occupiers' Liability Act
  • Partition Act
  • Property and Civil Rights Act
  • Religious Organizations' Lands Act
  • Short Forms of Leases Act
  • Trespass to Property Act

Business regulation

  • Absconding Debtors Act
  • Alcohol, Cannabis and Gaming Regulation and Public Protection Act, 1996 (sections related to Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario)
  • Business Records Protection Act
  • Charities Accounting Act
  • Commercial Mediation Act, 2010
  • Construction Act,
  • Costs of Distress Act
  • Creditors' Relief Act, 2010
  • Electronic Commerce Act, 2000
  • Frustrated Contracts Act
  • Gaming Control Act, 1992
  • Horse Racing Licence Act, 2015
  • International Commercial Arbitration Act, 2017
  • International Sales Conventions Act, R.S.O. 1990
  • Liquor Licence Act
  • Liquor Licence and Control Act, 2019 (Ministerial responsibility for this Act has not yet been assigned by OIC)
  • Mercantile Law Amendment Act
  • Sale of Goods Act
  • Statute of Frauds
  • Unconscionable Transactions Relief Act
  • Vendors and Purchasers Act
  • Wages Act
  • Warehouse Receipts Act

Professional regulation

  • Architects Act
  • Barristers Act
  • Chartered Professional Accountants of Ontario Act, 2017
  • Law Society Act
  • Professional Engineers Act
  • Public Accounting Act, 2004
  • Solicitors Act

Crown duties/immunity

  • Crown Agency Act
  • Crown Attorneys Act
  • Crown Liability and Proceedings Act, 2019 (in force July 1, 2019)
  • Ministry of the Attorney General Act
  • Ombudsman Act
  • Public Authorities Protection Act
  • Public Officers Act


  • Absentees Act
  • Crown Administration of Estates Act
  • Declarations of Death Act, 2002
  • Estates Act
  • Estates Administration Act
  • Perpetuities Act
  • Powers of Attorney Act
  • Public Guardian and Trustee Act
  • Settled Estates Act
  • Substitute Decisions Act, 1992
  • Succession Law Reform Act
  • Trustee Act
  • Variation of Trusts Act


  • Age of Majority and Accountability Act
  • Cannabis Control Act, 2017
  • Cannabis Licence Act, 2018
  • Civil Remedies Act, 2001
  • Donation of Food Act, 1994
  • Executive Council Act
  • Good Samaritan Act, 2001
  • Human Trafficking Awareness Day Act, 2017
  • Libel and Slander Act
  • Lieutenant Governor Act
  • Members’ Integrity Act, 1994
  • Ontario Association of Former Parliamentarians Act, 2000
  • Prohibiting Profiting from Recounting Crimes Act, 2002
  • Religious Freedom Act
  • Revised Statutes Confirmation and Corrections Act, 1993
  • Time Act

Democracy statutes

  • Election Act
  • Election Finances Act
  • Electoral System Referendum Act, 2007
  • Legislative Assembly Act
  • Representation Act, 2015

Agencies, Boards and Commissions reporting to the ministry

DescriptionAccrual 2020-21 Estimates2019-20 Interim Actual
Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario34,850,80029,844,4006,345,70028,427,800
Human Rights Legal Support Centre5,336,20005,122,7000
Legal Aid Ontario326,864,30059,518,000357,110,50055,877,200
Office of the Independent Police Review Director7,487,60006,780,7000
Ontario Human Rights Commission5,324,50005,539,1000
Royal Commissions1,00001,0000
Special Investigations Unit9,999,50009,022,9000
Tribunals Ontario91,373,10039,013,200136,143,80029,986,500

Interim actuals reflect the numbers presented in the March 2020 Economic and Fiscal Update.

Table 2: Combined Operating and Capital Summary by Vote
VoteEstimates 2020-21Change from 2019-20 EstimatesEstimates 2019-20 footnote 1Interim Actuals 2019-20 footnote 1Actuals 2018-19 footnote 1
Operating and Capital Expense
Ministry Administration251,054,900(50,643,700)(16.8)301,698,600288,826,166290,623,208
Prosecuting Crime293,782,10018,590,5006.8275,191,600283,795,661285,028,525
Policy, Justice Programs and Agencies544,099,900(3,685,900)(0.7)547,785,800616,945,226677,073,981
Legal Services33,444,7002,770,1009.030,674,60037,387,08640,461,940
Court Services485,711,60019,422,0004.2466,289,600507,732,979494,526,793
Victims and Vulnerable Persons192,724,6008,911,2004.8183,813,400182,122,935180,541,035
Political Contribution Tax Credit9,987,6002,047,00025.87,940,60011,641,20014,368,600
Total Operating and Capital Expense to be Voted1,810,805,400(2,588,800)(0.1)1,813,394,2001,928,451,2531,982,624,082
Statutory Appropriations9,433,3141,438,40018.07,994,91440,172,56322,055,533
Ministry Total Operating and Capital Expense1,820,238,714 (1,150,400)(0.1)1,821,389,114 1,968,623,816 2,004,679,615
Consolidation & Other Adjustments(138,008,300)51,100,400(27.0)(189,108,700)(190,663,643)(217,201,658)
Total Including Consolidation & Other Adjustments1,682,230,41449,950,0003.11,632,280,4141,777,960,1731,787,477,957
Operating and Capital Assets
Ministry Administration7,726,700(8,985,400)(53.8)16,712,1002,713,80018,158
Prosecuting Crime001,0001,469,1001,562,864
Policy, Justice Programs and Agencies2,088,400(2,551,000)(55.0)4,639,4004,206,7005,236,544
Legal Services1,000001,000249,700265,596
Court Services350,452,100193,014,300122.6157,437,800121,534,922105,171,480
Victims and Vulnerable Persons11,641,00011,640,0001,164,000.01,000101,900101,682
Total Operating and Capital Assets To be Voted371,910,200193,117,900108.0178,792,300130,276,122112,356,324
Ministry Total Operating and Capital Assets371,910,200193,117,900108.0178,792,300130,276,122112,356,324

Appendix: 2019-20 annual report

2019-20 achievements

In 2019-20, the Ministry of the Attorney General made significant progress towards building safer communities, updating old laws and simplifying complex processes so that justice works for Ontarians.

This included taking swift action to minimize disruption in the justice system, help families stay in their homes, move processes online and provide seamless and responsive justice services to Ontarians during the COVID-19 outbreak.

The ministry worked quickly with justice partners to implement technology solutions to protect the health and well-being of Ontarians and essential critical service professionals during the COVID-19 outbreak. Strong collaboration across the justice system helped maintain physical distancing measures while still ensuring essential documents were filed online or by email and critical matters were heard through audio and video conferencing solutions, as well as supports provided to victims and other vulnerable populations.

Highlights from 2019-20 include:

Protecting Critical Frontline Justice Services in Response to COVID-19

The ministry and justice partners worked together to quickly develop and deploy technology solutions to ensure urgent matters could be heard at courts and tribunals without needing to appear in-person.

This included allowing documents that would typically be filed in person to be filed by email and moving to a more virtual process where audio and video conferencing tools are being used at courts and tribunals to hear critical matters such as priority criminal matters and child protection cases. In response to an increase in demand for victim service provider supports, the ministry took emergency action to provide enhanced immediate support to victims of crime and to help protect the front-line staff who support them. The ministry also acted quickly to allow for virtual witnessing of wills and Power of Attorney to ensure Ontarians seeking to get their affairs in order were able to do so while adhering to social distancing.

The ministry also took action to keep people and their families safe in their homes by applying for a court order suspending the enforcement of residential evictions during the suspension of regular court operations, unless, eviction orders and hearings related to eviction applications until otherwise ordered by the court.

Making it Easier, Faster and More Affordable to Access the Justice System

Ontario introduced legislation and updated court processes to simplify a complex and outdated justice system.

The government increased the Small Claims Court limit from $25,000 to $35,000 and expanded access to the Simplified Procedure process by increasing the claim limit from $100,000 to $200,000. Both changes make it easier, faster and more affordable for people to resolve their legal issues.

Ontario also introduced the Bill 161, the Smarter and Stronger Justice Act, 2019 that, if passed, would:

  • give Legal Aid Ontario (LAO) the tools it needs to develop and implement a modern legal aid system that provides clients with seamless, sustainable and high-quality front-line services to help clients resolve legal issues faster and with fewer road blocks
  • enhance Ontario's civil forfeiture laws to ensure crime does not pay and proceeds of crime are used to support victims of illegal activity
  • make it easier for cyberbullying victims to sue offenders convicted of the offence of non-consensual distribution of an intimate image
  • prioritize the interests of Ontarians in class action lawsuits so they receive faster, more transparent and more meaningful compensation and access to justice
  • make it less costly to administer small estates.

Tribunals Ontario

The government is reviewing tribunals accountable to the Ministry of the Attorney General to ensure that programs are effective, affordable and sustainable.

As part of this review, the government combined the three tribunal clusters (consisting of 19 adjudicative tribunals) accountable to the Ministry of the Attorney General into a single cluster called Tribunals Ontario.

Supporting Communities in their Fight Against Guns and Gangs

Ontario's government is standing up for law-abiding citizens by escalating its fight against gun violence and the gangs who prey on young people and communities. By providing new resources and tools to local police, prosecutors and community partners, including initiatives to combat human trafficking and improve intelligence-gathering in jails, Ontario is reinforcing its commitment to taking action where it is needed most.

Ontario escalated its fight against gun violence and the gangs who prey on young people and communities by boosting local crime prevention, enforcement and prosecution across the province, including initiatives to combat human trafficking and improve intelligence-gathering in jails.

Phase two actions in the province’s strategy included:

  • creating a dedicated team to support major investigations, prosecutions and province-wide intelligence gathering, integration and coordination
  • establishing a Gun and Gang Specialized Investigations Fund to help police services work together on major investigations that target drug, gun and human trafficking activities
  • launching prevention and intervention programs to provide meaningful alternatives to youth at high-risk of gun and gang violence and victimization.

Opening the Retail Cannabis Market

To protect children and keep communities safe, Ontario continued to combat the illegal cannabis market in response to the federal government’s legalization of cannabis. To support this effort, the government moved to an open market for retail cannabis licensing to provide consumers with greater access and a safe, legal supply of cannabis to keep communities safe and cannabis out of the hands of youth.

As of April 27, 2020, there are more than 64 authorized cannabis stores open in Ontario, an increase from 10 in April 2019, which was the first month when cannabis retail stores were permitted to operate legally in the province.

Taking Action Against Opioid Manufacturers and Wholesalers

The Ontario legislature passed the Opioid Damages and Health Care Costs Recovery Act, which was introduced to help hold opioid manufacturers and wholesalers accountable for their role in the opioid crisis that has cost the people of Ontario enormously, both in terms of lives lost and its impact on health care's front lines.

The bill supports the province's participation in the national class action lawsuit launched by British Columbia against more than 40 opioid manufacturers and wholesalers for their alleged wrongdoing, to recover past and future health care costs due to opioid-related disease, injury or illness.

Supporting Victims of Crime and Their Families

The government introduced the Victim Quick Response Program + (VQRP+). The program builds on the existing VQRP, to make it easier for victims of violent crime and their families get the help they need when and where they need it most.

VQRP+ offers enhanced supports to help cover emergency and essential expenses, funerals and counselling costs. VQRP+ allows victims to quickly receive the supports they need, often within days of applying, and, in some cases, immediately.

Through the province’s Anti-Human Trafficking strategy, Ontario also announced specialized intervention teams focusing on at-risk and exploited children and youth. The program provides a collaborative, targeted response to human trafficking.

Table 3: Ministry Interim Actual Expenditures 2019-20
Ministry Interim Actual Expenditures ($M ) 2019-20 footnote 2
COVID-19 Approvals1.3
Other Operating1,732.6
Staff Strength (as of March 31, 2020) footnote 37,943.7