Aboriginal communities
Used inclusively in this technical bulletin to refer to First Nation communities (also known as “bands” under the Indian Act, Métis communities, and communities of other Aboriginal peoples who identify themselves as a community. Examples are: those living in urban centres, or those belonging to an Aboriginal Nation or tribe that encompasses more than one community (for example, the Pottawatomi, Mississauga, or Mohawk).
Aboriginal monitors
Aboriginal person(s) hired by the proponent, consultant archaeologist or the Aboriginal community to represent Aboriginal interests during the fieldwork component of an archaeological assessment.
Approval authority
Approval authorities include provincial ministries, such as the Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Transportation, Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing and Ministry of Natural Resources, and municipalities. Approval authorities have legislative authority to determine if proposed development projects meet their requirements and can proceed.
Archaeological project
All aspects of the archaeological assessment (Stages 1-4), including background study, property survey, archaeological site assessment, mitigation and reporting.
Archaeological resources
The Provincial Policy Statement (2005) defines archaeological resources as including artifacts, archaeological sites and marine archaeological sites. The identification and evaluation of such resources are based upon archaeological fieldwork undertaken in accordance with the Ontario Heritage Act.
Archaeological site
Ontario Regulation 170/04 under the Ontario Heritage Act defines an archaeological site as “any property that contains an artifact or any other physical evidence of past human use or activity that is of cultural heritage value or interest”.
Ontario Regulation 170/04 under the Ontario Heritage Act defines an artifact as “any object, material or substance that is made, modified, used, deposited or affected by human action and is of cultural heritage value or interest”
A Chief is the leader of a First Nation community or council who is elected by members of the First Nation, by the councillors according to the Indian Act, or through custom elections. (Source: Ontario Ministry of Indigenous Affairs Glossary). Note that the term may also be used to refer to a Chief that was not elected but selected through an alternate process
Chiefs of Ontario
The Chiefs of Ontario is a coordinating body for 134 First Nation communities located within the boundaries of the Province of Ontario. The main objective of the Chiefs of Ontario office is to facilitate the discussion, planning, implementation, and evaluation of all local, regional, provincial, federal and national matters affecting the First Nations in Ontario. The Regional Chief sits on the executive of the national Assembly of First Nations.
An organized alliance or union of Nations, or groups of individuals, established for mutual support or action. For example, the Iroquois Confederacy is an alliance of Six Nations (Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora).
Consultant archaeologist
Ontario Regulation 8/06 of the Ontario Heritage Act defines a “consultant archaeologist” as “an archaeologist who enters into an agreement with a client to carry out or supervise archaeological fieldwork on behalf of the client, produce reports for or on behalf of the client and provide technical advice to the client”.
Cultural heritage values mapping exercise
Some communities have developed maps of their traditional territory that identify areas of cultural heritage value. These include archaeological sites, cemeteries, trails and portage routes, traditional use areas (i.e., areas where culture-specific foods, such as wild rice, nuts, medicinal plants and other resources were harvested), and locations with sacred or spiritual significance.
A man or woman whose wisdom about spirituality, culture and life is recognized by the community. Elders can be any age. The Aboriginal community and individuals will normally seek the advice and assistance of elders in various traditions and contemporary areas. (Source: Ontario Ministry of Indigenous Affairs Glossary)
First Nation
A term that came into common use in the 1970s to replace the word "Indian." It has also been adopted by some Aboriginal communities to replace the term "band." (Source: Ontario Ministry of Indigenous Affairs Glossary)
Heritage conservation
The identification, protection, use and/or management of cultural heritage and archaeological resources in such a way that their heritage values, attributes and integrity are retained.
French for "mixed blood." The Canadian Constitution recognizes Métis people as one of the three Aboriginal peoples. Historically, the term "Métis" applied to the children of French fur traders and Cree women in the Prairies and of English and Scottish traders and Dene women in the North. Today, the term is used broadly to describe people with mixed First Nations and European ancestry who identify themselves as Métis, distinct from Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. (Many Canadians have mixed Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal ancestry, but not all identify themselves as Métis.) Note that Métis organizations in Canada have differing criteria about who qualifies as a Métis person. (Source: Ontario Ministry of Indigenous Affairs Glossary)
Actions that are taken to avoid or reduce impacts to archaeological sites of cultural heritage value or interest. These actions include either the long term protection of archaeological sites and the documentation and removal of archaeological sites through excavation, or a combination thereof.
Ontario Public Register of Archaeological Reports
The report register is maintained by the Ministry. Information relating to the locations of archaeological sites is excluded from the register.  
Oral history
Evidence taken from the spoken words of people who have knowledge of past events and traditions. This oral history is often recorded on tape and then put in writing. It is used in history books and to document land claims. (Source: Ontario Ministry of Indigenous Affairs Glossary)
Political Territorial Organizations ( PTOs)
There are four PTOs in Ontario (see Resources section). First Nations affiliate with PTOs at their option. PTOs do not have authority in the affairs of First Nations, but they may represent First Nations on political matters. They also offer region-wide services (policing, health, and so on) and are a repository of policy expertise. Note: The acronym PTO can also refer to Provincial Territorial Organizations.
The individual or entity proposing the development.
Report package
The information package to be submitted to the Ministry for each development project is the “report package.” The report package includes: 1) reports on fieldwork activities for the archaeological project and results and recommendations for next steps; and 2) associated documentation, including a covering letter and supplementary documentation.
Shared stewardship
Arrangements made between the province and Aboriginal communities to involve Aboriginal communities in provincial land and resource management processes.
Individuals or groups within a society who recognize, practise, and promote traditional ways and values.
Traditional land/territory
An area that a First Nation identifies as land they or their ancestors traditionally occupied.
Tribal council
A grouping of First Nations with common interests who voluntarily join together to provide advisory and /or program services to their members. Tribal councils usually provide services involving band governance, financial management, community planning, technical services, and economic development. (Source: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada web site)