To inform their discussions and the written reports to the Panel, the Working Groups reviewed submissions from stakeholders, information prepared by the IWH on practices in other jurisdictions, and many research papers and articles. A selection of these supporting papers and articles is listed below.

Joint Health and Safety Committees / Internal Responsibility System

Campbell A. SARS Commission Report: Spring of Fear - Volume 1. Ottawa, Canada,

Downie J, Lahey W, Ford D, Gibson E, Thomson M, Ward T, McDonald F and Shea A. Patient Safety Law: From Silos to Systems. Appendix 3: Sector Reports and Occupational Health and Safety. Ottawa, Canada: Health Policy Research Program, Health Canada, 2006.

Eaton and Nocerino. The effectiveness of health and safety committees: Results of a survey of public-sector workplaces, Industrial Relations; 39(2):265-90; 2000.

Frick, K. and D. Walters: Worker representation on health and safety in small enterprises: Lessons from a Swedish approach. International Labour Review, vol.137, No.3, 367-389.

ILO, Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems, Safe Work

Institute for Work & Health, Behaviour-based Safety, August 2010

Internal Responsibility: The Challenge and the Crisis; Labour OHCOW Academic Research Collaboration (LOARC) IRS Review 2010.

Lewchuk W, Robb A and Walters V. The Effectiveness of Bill 70 and Joint Health and Safety Committees in Reducing Injuries in the Workplace: The Case of Ontario. Canadian Public Policy; 22:225-243. 1996

Nichol K, Kudla I, Manno M, McCaskell L, Sikorski J and Holness DL. Form and function of joint health and safety committees in Ontario acute care hospitals. Healthcare Quarterly 2009;12(2):86-93.

Nova Scotia Department of Labour and Workforce Development. (2008). Joint Occupational Health and Safety Committees: A Practical Guide for Single Employer Workplaces. Retrieved September 14, 2010, from Nova Scotia Labour and Workforce Development.

O’Grady J. The Role of Joint Committees in Workplace Health and Safety: A Review of the Legislation and Previous Studies. Royal Commission on Workers’ Compensation in British Columbia, Canada, 1998.

Ontario Federation of Labour, Labour’s Program for an Effective Enforcement System, 1997.

Plummer IM, Strahlendorf PW, Holliday MG. The Internal Responsibility System in Ontario Mines. 2000.

Shannon, H., Walters, V., Lewchuck, W., Richardson, J., Verma, d., Haines, T., et al. (1992). Health and Safety Approaches in the Workplace. Toronto: McMaster University.

Shannon HS, Walters V, Lewchuk W, Richardson J, Moran LA, Haines T, Verma D. Workplace organizational correlates of lost-time accident rates in manufacturing. Am J Ind Med 1996; 29:258-68.

Shearn, P. (2005). Workforce Participation in the Management of Occupational Health and Safety. Sheffield: Health and Safety Laboratory.

SPR and Associates, Inc. Highlights of the 1994 Ontario Survey of Occupational Health and Safety and Joint Health and Safety Committees. Toronto, Canada: SPR and Associates and Workplace Health and Safety Agency, 1994.

Tuohy C and Simard M. The Impact of Joint Health and Safety Committees in Ontario and Quebec. Canadian Association of Administrators of Labour Legislation. Quebec, Canada, 1992.

UK Health and Safety Executive 

Walters, D., Nichols, T., Connor, J., Tasiran, A., & Cam, S. (2005). The role and effectiveness of safety representatives in influencing workplace health and safety. Cardiff: Health and Safety Executive.

Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Finding Solutions Program November, 1997, The Effectiveness of Joint Health and Safety Committees (JHSCs) and Safety Training in Reducing Fatalities and Injuries in British Columbia Forest Product Mills; Richmond, BC

WorkSafe BC. (2010). Workers Compensation Act - Excerpts and Summaries.

Social marketing / awareness

Andreasen, A. and Kotler, P. (2002). Strategic marketing for nonprofit organizations (6th ed.). Prentice Hall.

Basu, Kaushik. (1998). ‘Social Norms and the Law”, Peter Newman, ed., The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and Law. London: Macmillan

Brennan, Geoffrey and Philip Pettit. (2004). The Economy of Esteem: An Essay on Civil and Political Society. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Caws, Peter. (1984). Sartre. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Fell, James C. and Voas, Robert B., (2006). “Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD): The First 25 Years”. Traffic Injury Prevention. UK.

Lavack, Magnuson, Deshpande, Basil, Mintz, Basil (2006). “Using Social Marketing to Improve Workplace Safety”. University of Regina.

Neiger, Thackeray, Barnes, Mackenzie, (2003). “Positioning Social Marketing as a Planning Process for Health Education”. American Journal of Health Studies. Silver Spring, MD.

O’Donnell, Patrick S., Department of Philosophy, Santa Barbara City College. “Social Norms & Law”. Theory & Science, 2007. Athabasca University, Athasbasca Alberta.

Perkins, H. W. & Craig, D. W. (2006). “A successful social norms campaign to reduce alcohol misuse among college student-athletes”. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Rutgers University, New Jersey.

Pettit, Philip. (2002). Rules, Reasons, and Norms. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rothschild, Michael R. (1999). “Carrots, Sticks and Promises: A Conceptual Framework for the Management of Public Health and Social Issue Behaviours”. Journal of Marketing, October 1999. Chicago.

Royal Society (1992). Risk: Analysis, Perception and Managemen. Royal Society, London.

Williamson, Julian and Weyman, Andrew (2005). “Review of the Public Perception of Risk, and Stakeholder Engagement” Health and Safety Laboratory. Buxton, England.


Barling, Julian, Kelloway, Kevin E and Loughlin, Catherine. Development and Test of a Model Linking Safety-Specific Transformational Leadership and Occupational Safety, Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume 87, Issue 3, 2002.

Burke, Michael J, et al. Relative Effectiveness of Worker Safety and Health Training Methods American Journal of Public Health, Volume 96, No. 2, February 2006, pp. 315-324.

Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters, Business Results Through Essential Skills and Literacy, Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters – Ontario Division and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, 2009.

Conference Board of Canada, Strength from Within – Overcoming the Barriers to Workplace Literacy Development, April 2003

Conference Board of Canada, All signs Point to Yes – Literacy Impact on Workplace Health and Safety, September 2008

Conference Board of Canada, What You Don’t Know Can Hurt You – Literacy’s Impact on Workplace Health and Safety, July 2010

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Mainstreaming OSH into business management. 06.07.2010. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, [Online].

Fitzpatrick, J. L., Sanders, J. R., & Worthen, B. R. (2004). Program evaluation: Alternative approaches and practical guidelines. San Francisco, CA: Pearson.

Gowen, Doug. Making a difference: The impact of trade union education on Britain’s workplaces – a union representatives’ survey, UnionLearn, TUC Education, Trade Union Congress, London, England, 2009.

Health and Safety Executive, Involving your workforce in health and safety: Good practices for all workplaces, Health and Safety Executive, Surrey, England, 2008

Kirkpatrick, D. L., & Kirkpatrick, J. D. (2006). Evaluating training programs: The four levels. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers Inc.

Livingstone, DW and Raykov, M. Union influence on worker education and training in Canada in tough times, Just Labour, Volume 5, Winter 2005.

Machin, MA and Treloar, CA. (2004). Predictors of motivation to learn when trainingis mandatory. In M. Katsikitis (Ed.), Proceedings of the 39th APS Annual Conference. pp. 157-161. Melbourne: Australian Psychological Society. [Online].

McVittie, DJ and Vi, P. Research Report: The effect of supervisory training on lost-time injury rates in construction, Construction Safety Association of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, 2009.

Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour, Young Worker Readiness Certificate Course, Instructions for Completing the Course, Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour,Saskatchewan, Canada, October 2009. [Online].

Moore, Gary S; Perlow, Audrey; Judge, Christine and Koh, Howard. Using blended learning in training the public health workforce in emergency preparedness. Public Health Reports, Volume 121, Issue 2, March-April 2006,

Neal, Andrew and Griffin, Mark A. A Study of the Lagged Relationships Among Safety Climate, Safety Motivation, Safety Behaviour, and Accidents at the Individual and Group Levels, Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume 91, Issue 4, 2006.

Occupational Health and Safety Agency for Healthcare in B.C. Success Factors for Occupational Health and Safety Training: A Review of the Literature, Occupational Health and Safety for Healthcare in B.C., Vancouver, British Columbia, 2003.

Tragardh, Bjorn. The role of health and safety representatives in Sweden – The implementation of EEC Directive 89/391, Working paper in Studies of Organization and Society, Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2008.

Workplace Safety and Insurance Board, Certification StandardsWSIB Website, Toronto, Ontario, 2007. [Online Resource Only].

Workplace Safety and Insurance Board, Guidelines for Workplace-Specific Hazard Training of Certified MembersWSIB Website, Toronto, Ontario, 2000. [Online Resource Only].

Underground economy

Armstrong, T.E., O’Grady, J. (2004) Attacking the Underground Economy in the ICI Sector of Ontario’s Construction Industry.  (Commissioned by: Ontario Construction Secretariat)

Ontario Construction Secretariat, Underground Economy in Construction – It Costs Us All, April 2008 and July 2010

Incentives / supply chain

Tompa E, Trevithick S, McLeod C. 2007. Systematic review of the prevention incentives of insurance and regulatory mechanisms for occupational health and safety. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health. 33(2).

Vulnerable workers

Breslin FC. 2010. Assessing Occupational Health and Safety of Young Workers Who Use Youth Employment Centres. Prepared for submission to American Journal of Industrial Medicine.

MacEachen, E. Lippel, K. , Kosny, A., Saunders, R., Edney, D.,  Ferrier, S., Pugliese, D. , Submission to the Expert Advisory Panel on Occupational Health and Safety Vulnerable Workers Working Group: “Early findings from the study: Understanding the Management of Prevention and Return to Work in Temporary Work Agencies”. Institute for Work & Health. August 3, 2010.

Marshall, K. 2003. “Benefits of the job.” Perspectives on Labour and Income. 4:5, 5-12.

McCutchen, B. 2009. Culture of Fear, a Report on the Status of Reprisal Protection for Workers under the Occupational Health and Safety Act, prepared for the Ontario Federation of Labour

Smith, CK et al. 2010. “Temporary Workers in Washington State.”  American Journal of Industrial Medicine 53:135-145

Smith, P, Mustard, C. 2010. The unequal distribution of occupational health and safety risks among immigrants to Canada compared to Canadian-born labour market participants, 1993 to 2005. Safety Science. 48(10).

Smith, P, Mustard, C. 2009. Comparing the risk of work-related injuries between immigrants to Canada and Canadian-born labour market participants. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 66.

Smith, P, Mustard, C. 2007. “How many employees receive safety training during the first year of a new job?” Injury Prevention. 13: 37-41.

Thomas, D. 2010. Foreign Nationals Working Temporarily in Canada. Canadian Social Trends, Statistics Canada – catalogue no. 11-008

Tompa, E, Fang M. 2008. The impact of experience rating and firm size dynamics on occupational health and safety performance. Institute for Work & Health manuscript.

Tucker E, Sargeant M. 2009. Layers of vulnerability in occupational health and safety for migrant workers: case studies from Canada and the United Kingdom. CLPE Research Paper. 5(2).

Vosko, L, Cranford, C., and N. Zukewich. 2003. “Precarious Jobs? A New Typology of Employment.” Perspectives on Labour and Income. 4:10, 16-26.

Small businesses

Eakin, Joan M; Champoux, Daniele and MacEachen, Ellen. Health and Safety in Small Workplaces: Refocusing Upstream, Canadian Journal of Public Health, Volume 101, Supplement 1, 2010.

Eakin, J., Lamm, F., & Limborg, H. (2000). International Perspectives on the Promotion of Health and Safety in Small Workplaces. In J. Frick, P. Jensen, M. Quinlan, & T. Wilthagen, Systematic Occupational Health and Safety Managemen (pp. 227-248). Oxford: Pergamon, an Imprint of Elsevier Science

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Good practice in reducing safety and health risks: Promoting health and safety in European Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), SME funding scheme, Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2005.