6. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

The SOPs provided in this section for performing ambient air quality monitoring are, generally, those currently used by the ministry. The current listing is the second revision to the initial list provided in June 2003. Most of the methods described herein have been designated as reference or equivalent methods by the US EPA. A current listing of these methods, for criteria air contaminants, can be found at the Ambient Monitoring Technology Information Center web site.

For the air contaminants described as air toxics by the US EPA, such as PAH, VOC and dioxins/furans, the methods recommended by the US EPA, and accepted by the ministry, are available at the Ambient Monitoring Technology Information Center web site.

Any ministry methods that are referenced or recommended in the SOPs can be obtained by emailing a request to LaboratoryServicesBranch@ontario.ca.

It is important to note that the SOPs are not intended to provide a detailed description of the monitoring/sampling methods. Emitters and site operators will need to review the method reference documents for the detailed method descriptions.

Emitters/site operators using or wanting to use an air monitoring or sampling method not listed in these SOPs, and not designated or listed by the US EPA, must contact their regional office of the ministry at the program planning stage for approval of the method intended to be used. Alternate instruments need to have demonstrated effectiveness, and the operating characteristics of non-equivalent instruments are to be documented and their performance continuously evaluated both in the field and the laboratory.

The SOPs are short documents which provide emitters and site operators with minimum performance specifications. The SOPs briefly describe, on a parameter by parameter basis, the US EPA designated reference methods, equivalent methods and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. The SOPs are not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in these documents are minimum requirements, and site operators are encouraged to exceed them, if desired, for optimal performance. The operators of the instrumentation are required to service, operate and maintain it in accordance with the manufacturer’s operating manual.

The SOPs will be revised from time to time to reflect changes and the introduction of new technology for air monitoring/sampling methods and updated QA/QC requirements.

6.1 Performance Specifications

To help ensure that field instruments are reliable, minimum performance specifications for ambient air gas analysers are presented Table 51.

Table 5: Performance Specifications for Continuous Analysers
Performance ParameterPollutant - COPollutant - O3Pollutant - NOxPollutant - SO2Pollutant - TRS
Minimum Detection Limit0.1 ppm2 ppb5 ppb2 ppb2 ppb
Precision± 0.1 ppm± 2 ppb± 2 ppb± 2 ppb2 ppb
Linearity1 % F.S.1 % F.S.1 % F.S.1 % F.S.1 % F.S.
Zero Drift ⁄ 24 hours± 0.2 ppm± 2 ppb± 2 ppb± 2 ppb2 ppb
Span Drift ⁄ 24 hours± 1 % F.S.± 1 % F.S.± 1 % F.S.± 1 % F.S.± 1 % F.S.
Noise± 0.05 ppm± 1 ppb± 2 ppb± 1 ppbN/A
Rise Time (95%)90 sec90 sec180 sec180 sec180 sec
Fall Time (95%)90 sec90 sec180 sec180 sec180 sec
Operating Temperature Range10 – 40 °C10 – 40 °C10 – 40 °C10 – 40 °C10 – 40 °C
Operating Humidity Range100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %
Nominal Operating Ranges50 ppm500 ppb1,000 ppb500 ppb500 ppb
Operating Voltage105-125 vac ⁄ 60 Hz105-125 vac ⁄ 60 Hz105-125 vac ⁄ 60 Hz105-125 vac ⁄ 60 Hz105-125 vac ⁄ 60 Hz

6.2 Standard Operating Procedure for Editing Continuous Data

This SOP establishes the procedure by which data editing will be conducted. It is intended to:

  • Standardize the method by which data editing is done
  • Ensure consistency of application
  • Clearly define the expectations of the process

6.2.1 Daily Data Check

Every weekday a daily data review should be conducted to check for anomalous data.

Instruments that do not appear to be functioning normally are to be investigated and simple problems rectified. If major problems are noted by others, they are to be referred to the company’s/emitter’s representative assigned to that station.

Data is reviewed and corrections made where possible. Significant problems are flagged to the person assigned to that station (if problem noted by another person) if it appears related to a station related function that may need correcting.

6.2.2 Data Editing

All data should be edited within 30 days of the end of the month in which it was collected.

Data editing is any change made to raw data. It includes a check of the data and typically involves manual verification of values against electronic charts or other secondary data log(s) (e.g., minute data) and changing data to recover missing values, invalidating false data, etc. To maintain edited data as current as possible, the following procedure should be carried out after each calibration or as a minimum, monthly.

From a Data Acquisition System (DAS) workstation, print a monthly data report and review data to look for anomalous readings or missing data. Highlight data or data blocks that will require editing. See Table 6 below for the general principles to ensure valid data.

Table 6: General Principles for Data Editing - Continuous Data
ParameterLook ForAction
GeneralPreponderance of missing valuesPerform Manual Poll to recover missing data.
Check other parameters for interruption, if yes may be power failure
GeneralExtreme high value(s)Check data logger configuration.
Check minute data.
GeneralValues look correct for pollutantNo action required
GeneralChecking calibration reportsEnsure zero and span response not shifting much.
NOxChannels balance NO + NO2 = NOxNot every hour will balance but majority should
NOxChannels not adding up at allZero reset may be needed
NOxLong periods of zerosStation visit; possible flow problem
TRSSingle hourly value too high (or low) compared to adjacent readingsView minute data and correct.
Verify span check.
TRSString of unchanging elevated numbersCheck wind direction and speed. Apply negative offset if required.

Check for SO2 breakthrough

TRSConsistent low level valuesBaseline noise; adjust block to zero
TRSOxidizer temperature not within specifications, typically between 850°C to 915°CInvalidate data for time period of failure. Note: site visit maybe required to verify no connection problem (if connection ok, invalidation not required)
SO2Same as TRS 
Ambient TemperatureCheck temperature readings for extreme high or low values.View minute data and correct.
Ambient TemperatureCheck for long periods of constant valuesCheck for power failures;
Check for defective temperature probe.
SPFilter loading greater than 90%Site visit to change filter (Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance - TEOM)
PM10/ PM2.5String of zeros for PM10/PM2.5Check whether statuses are within range
PM10/ PM2.5Mass concentration and PM10/PM2.5Values for the same hour should be very close; if values seem to be offset by one hour, check treatment settings
WindCheck for some readings >20 kphAerovane turning ok?
WindLong periods of calm or same wind directionIs aerovane stuck or frozen?
WindThe number of zeros recorded as wind direction should be monitoredThis could be a sign the meteorological tower requires maintenance.
WindWind direction values should be between 0 and 360 deg.Is the meteorological tower set correctly to true North?
Any other continuously monitored parameter Establish data editing principles in consultation with local district office of the ministry.

6.3 Standard Operating Procedure for Editing Non-Continuous Data

This SOP establishes recommended procedures by which data validation and editing will be conducted for non-continuous data. It is intended to:

  • Standardize the method by which data editing is done;
  • Ensure consistency of application; and,
  • Clearly define the expectations of the process.

A summary of the standard sampling schedules and general data editing and completeness requirements was provided earlier in section 2.4. Table 7 outlines in greater detail the general principles of data validation and editing to ensure the collection of good data.

Validation and editing of non-continuous data comprises procedures to be followed during sample collection and handling in the field, submission to a laboratory, laboratory analyses and analysis/screening of the data as part of the final editing process.

6.3.1 Field Procedures - sample collection and submission to a laboratory

The collection of valid field samples is the first step in ensuring the production of valid data. Air monitoring station operators should follow the SOPs provided in Section 6.4 and the principles outlined in Table 7. For additional information about filter sampling for the collection of SP, PM2.5 and PM10 samples, please refer to the SOPs for filters in Section 6.4.

It is very important for field operators to document their observations at the time of sample collection to assist in the data validation process: a lightly discoloured filter would suggest a possible error in the determination of its tare weight in the laboratory if the particulate loading result was determined to be very high. These observations should be documented in writing and forwarded to the laboratory together with the sample. Observations should also be documented in the log.

Care is also required in shipping samples to the laboratory. Suitable containers are required to avoid sample contamination, destruction, damage, etc. Also, some samples such as VOCs, need to be kept and stored between 2°C and 10°C until the analysis is performed. Other samples, such as filters exposed for PAH analysis, should not be subjected to any environmental and human activities such as temperature changes, excessive automobile exhaust gas and cigarette smoke, and need to be sent to the laboratory within 14 days of sampling. Filters exposed for dioxin and furan analysis need to be kept in the dark to avoid sample degradation.

It is important for field operators to be familiar with, and follow, the recommended sample collection and handling procedures as closely as possible. Field operators must also document their observations for use by laboratory and data management staff in the data validation process.

6.3.2 Data screening and analysis

Another important component of the data validation process is data screening and analysis by staff responsible for data management aspects. Screening criteria are commonly used to flag or identify suspicious data. This comprises identifying outliers (extreme high or low values not commonly observed or possible, such as SP, PM2.5 or PM10 values < 0 or > 500 mg/m3, or benzene, toluene and xylenes values all < 1 mg/m3), or identifying results which are not theoretically possible such as PM10 > SP for collocated samplers. Data analysts can design their own screening criteria to check suspicious data, based on their experience and knowledge of the database for the parameters of interest.

6.3.3 Analytical data screening and analysis

The third aspect of the data validation process involves laboratory screening procedures. For example, the determination of SP, PM10 and PM2.5 particulate loadings involves weighing the filters in a temperature and humidity controlled room before and after the filters have been exposed. An obvious check here is to ensure that the exposed filter weight is greater than the tare filter weight. If this is not the case, this could result from a weighing error in the lab, a transcription error or a damaged exposed filter for which a small piece of filter is missing. Samples which require analysis within a time period after collection or receipt in the laboratory, known as sample hold time, may be analyzed but the result qualified with a remark if this time period has been exceeded. The decision as to whether or not the result is valid will have to be made based on all the information available for that sample.

Typically, laboratories use QA/QC control limits which are quite rigorous and if properly followed should uncover suspicious results. Analytical methods specify strict procedures for sample preparation/storage, sample hold times and expected method performance such as accuracy, precision and detection limits. Analytical data validation is closely linked to how well these methods are adhered to.

In summary, these examples are only a few of many that could be provided to screen out suspicious or invalid data. There should be good communication and documentation of observations by all staff involved in the process. Table 7 provides additional information on recommended checks and actions required to assist in the data validation process for non- continuous data. If in doubt about how to handle suspect data, consult with regional ministry personnel.

Table 7: General Principles for Data Validating and Editing - Non-Continuous Data
ParameterLook ForAction
DustfallSiting criteria;
Exposure period
Regularly inspect site and surrounding area to ensure criteria continues to be met. Check 'on' and 'off' dates to confirm period is within 3 days of start and end of calendar month and exposure period is between 25 and 34 days; ensure sample identified with proper exposure month
DustfallCondition of jar/linerCheck for signs of vandalism/tampering; ensure integrity of both and ensure that sample has not leaked due to liner tear/breakage
DustfallSample conditionInspect to determine possible contamination by interfering materials (e.g., excessive algae growth, bird droppings, other significant objects/materials)
DustfallSample storage/submissionMinimize storage period and refrigerate if sample submission to lab is to be delayed for some time; ensure plastic liner is well sealed for shipment to lab
DustfallData outliersCheck for extreme values (high and low) and investigate to confirm
DustfallIdentical results for consecutive monthsCheck 'on' and 'off' dates
Fluoride candlesSiting criteriaInspect site and surrounding area to ensure criteria continue to be met
Fluoride candlesCandle containerCheck to ensure container has not been opened prior to candle being exposed in the field
Fluoride candlesExposure periodCheck 'on' and 'off' dates to confirm period is within 3 days of start and end of calendar month and exposure period is between 25 and 34 days; ensure sample identified with proper exposure month
Fluoride candlesShelter and candle conditionCheck for signs of vandalism/tampering; ensure top of louvered shelter is down and candle not exposed to precipitation; check for good air flow through the louvers (no obstructions)
Fluoride candlesSample storage/submissionMinimize storage period after exposure; ensure candle container is well sealed for shipment to lab
Fluoride candlesData outliersCheck for extreme values (high and low) and investigate if required
Fluoride candlesIdentical results for consecutive monthsCheck 'on' and 'off' dates
SP, PM10, PM2.5, PAHsSiting criteriaInspect site and surrounding area to ensure criteria continue to be met
SP, PM10, PM2.5, PAHsFilter and filter conditionCheck filter integrity (perforations, missing pieces, large cracks, etc.); avoid contamination of exposed filter surface area while handling; exposed filter should always be darker than new filter
SP, PM10, PM2.5, PAHsFilter cassetteCheck for integrity and cleanliness of screen, gasket (tight seal on filter)
SP, PM10, PM2.5, PAHsShelter conditionCheck for signs of vandalism/tampering; check for accumulated particulate and clean according to manufacturer’s instructions (especially significant for the PM10 and PM2.5 size selective inlet head cyclones)
SP, PM10, PM2.5, PAHsFlow controller and timerCheck for proper sampling run times and flow rate
SP, PM10, PM2.5, PAHsHandling of exposed filterRemove from the sampler as soon as practical. Fold and store filter in acceptable envelope (SP), cardboard folder (PM10), or aluminum foil (PAHs); refrigerate the filters for PAH analysis and minimize their exposure to fluorescent light - these filters should be analyzed within 7 days of exposure.

PAH filter samples should not be handled with bare hands

SP, PM10, PM2.5, PAHsPolyurethane Foam (PUF) plug cartridge containerEnsure container is intact (wrapped in aluminum foil) and sealed prior to sampling run; ensure plug is re-inserted in the glass container with original aluminum foil, the container is sealed and shipped to the lab for analysis
SP, PM10, PM2.5, PAHs47 mm filter (PM2.5)Transport and expose the filters in the specially designed filter cassettes and store these in plastic Petri dishes or cassette holders. The filters should only be loaded/unloaded in the cassette rings in the lab by lab staff where they weighed
SP, PM10, PM2.5, PAHsData outliersCheck for extreme values (high and low) and investigate to confirm; filter tare weight should always be less than weight of exposed filter
SP, PM10, PM2.5, PAHsSP vs PM10 and PM2.5For collocated sites, check that SP always greater than PM10 and PM2.5
VOCCartridge containerEnsure glass container still sealed, intact and refrigerated prior to exposure of cartridge
VOCFlow controller and timerCheck both to ensure proper flow rate and sampling time
VOCExposed cartridgeRemove cartridge from sampler as soon as practical, follow proper storage/ refrigeration requirements and ship to lab for analysis within required time frame after exposure
VOCEvacuated canisterEnsure the initial vacuum in the canister is −29 ± 3 in of Hg and that when not in use the flow controller inlet and outlet are always capped. After the 24 hour sampling period, the final canister pressure should be between −5 to −10 in of Hg with a flow controller set at 3.5 mL/min for a 6 litre canister.
VOCPositive pressure canisterEnsure the initial vacuum in the canister is ±30 ± 3 inches of Hg (+15 psi) and that when not in use, the flow controller inlet and outlet are always capped; after the 24-hour sampling period, the final canister pressure should be between +30 to +14 inches of Hg, with a flow/pump controller set at 3.5 mL/min for a 6 litre canister
VOCData outliersCheck for unusual and extreme values (especially high) and investigate to confirm
Dioxins and furansSame as SP, PM10 and PAHs 
Dioxins and furansPUF plug cartridge containerEnsure container is intact (wrapped in aluminum foil) and sealed prior to  sampling run; ensure plug is re-inserted in the glass container with original aluminum foil, the container is sealed and shipped to the lab for analysis
Dioxins and furansData outliersCheck for unusual and extreme values and investigate to confirm
Any other sampled parameter Establish data editing principles in consultation with local District Office of ministry.

6.4 Standard Operating Procedures for Air Quality Monitoring

The SOPs provided here represent the most common instruments used in Air Monitoring Surveys in Ontario and is not meant to be an exhaustive list. Those selecting instruments for air monitoring are encouraged to refer to the US EPA website for an up to date listing of certified methods.

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

PollutantSulphur Dioxide (SO2)
US EPA designated reference and equivalent methodList of designated reference and equivalent methods – most recent version

Automated equivalent method

Reference DocumentsUS EPA TTNWEB (current listing)

List of Designated Reference and Equivalent Methods

MethodUltraviolet (UV) Fluorescent
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzers should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual unless otherwise mentioned. Data is to be collected in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Inlet line particulate filter (5 and 10 µm [TFE] filter element)
  • Remote activation of zero/span and sample valves
  • Zero/span and sample solenoid valves
  • Internal permeation span source, SO2 permeation tube, uncertified
  • Certified SO2 calibration unit
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - Daily (over a 24-hour period)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the analyzers. Internal zero and span checks are to be performed automatically once per day. These checks are required to assess ongoing instrument performance such as zero / span drift, sample repeatability and response time and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Automatic internal zero/span checks are to be performed daily. The total calibration cycle should run over two 1-hour periods (i.e., be initiated at the end of an hour and to carry over in the beginning of the next hour) to avoid lost data as a result of the required duration of the calibration cycle. The total calibration period is to be approximately 20 minutes, preferably commencing at 00:50 hours each day (or at 50 minutes into another hour if more suitable or desirable) and consisting of a 5 minute zero, 10 minute span and 5 minute recovery. Zero and span values should be reviewed daily.

Note: Auto span adjustment is not recommended

External Performance Check and Calibration - Monthly

Description: An external performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out with a certified calibration unit (e.g., calibrator, gas cylinder, etc., referenced to a primary standard). At least once per year, formal certification of gas calibration devices by a certification authority is required.

Requirement: An external performance check and calibration is to be carried out by the operator at least once per month and before (e.g., span drift of 5% or more) the internal performance check shows that the span values are greater than ±10% of the known standard. External performance checks are also recommended to be done after repairs are made to an analyzer, when an analyzer is installed at a station or relocated, when there is an interruption of more than a few days in analyzer operation, when there is any other indication (including excessive zero drift or span drift) of possible significant inaccuracy of the analyzer, and possibly after a pollution episode. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The ministry will verify at least once per year in the field that the gas calibration devices used by site operators have had their annual certification performed.

Audit - Two to four times per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least twice per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently. Audits will also periodically include a check of the data flow through the telemetry system.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., zero and/or span adjustments, analyzer response time, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non-conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Total Reduced Sulphur (TRS)

PollutantTotal Reduced Sulphur (TRS)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodList of designated reference and equivalent methods - most recent version

Equivalent reference method (SO2)

Reference DocumentsUS EPA TTNWEB (current listing)

List of Designated Reference and Equivalent Methods

MethodUS EPA approved U.V. Pulse Fluorescent (SO2) with high temperature oxidizer
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzer should be in accordance with the Instrument Manufacturer Operating Manual unless otherwise mentioned. Data is to be collected in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • High temperature oxidizer (850°C to 915°C) with SOx scrubber
  • Inlet line particulate filter (5 µm TFE filter element)
  • Remote activation of zero/span and sample valves
  • Zero/span and sample solenoid valves
  • Internal permeation span source, H2S permeation tube, uncertified
  • Certified SO2 calibration source and certified H2S calibration source
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - Daily

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the analyzer. Internal zero and span checks are to be performed automatically once per day. These checks are required to assess ongoing instrument performance, such as zero/span drift, sample repeatability and response time and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Automatic internal zero/span checks are to be performed daily. The total calibration cycle should run over two 1-hour periods (i.e., be initiated at the end of an hour and carry over into the beginning of the next hour) to avoid lost data as a result of the required duration of the calibration cycle. The total calibration period is to be approximately 20 minutes, preferably commencing at 00:50 hours each day (or at 50 minutes into another hour if more suitable or desirable) and consisting of a 5 minute zero, 10 minute span and 5 minute recovery. Zero and span values should be reviewed daily.

Note: Auto span adjustment is not recommended

External Performance Check and Calibration - Monthly

Description: An external performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out with a certified calibration unit (e.g., calibrator, gas cylinder, etc., referenced to a primary standard). At least once per year, formal certification of gas calibration devices by a certification authority is required.

Requirement: An external performance check and calibration is to be carried out by the operator at least once per month and before (e.g., span drift of 5% or more) the internal performance check shows that the span values are greater than ±10% of the known standard. External performance checks are also recommended to be done after repairs are made to an analyzer, when an analyzer is installed at a station or relocated, when there is an interruption of more than a few days in analyzer operation, when there is any other indication (including excessive zero drift or span drift) of possible significant inaccuracy of the analyzer and possibly after a pollution episode. The instrumentation must be challenged periodically with a certified SO2 gas source (at least 100 ppb) to ensure proper operation of the SOx scrubber and to provide guidance as to when to change the scrubber. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The ministry will verify at least once per year in the field that the gas calibration devices used by site operators have had their annual certification performed.

Audit - Two to four times per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least twice per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently. It will also periodically include a check of the data flow through the telemetry system.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., zero and/or span adjustments, analyzer response time, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non-conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

PollutantNitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodList of designated reference and equivalent methods – most recent version

Manual equivalent method

Reference DocumentsUS EPA TTNWEB

List of Designated Reference and Equivalent Methods

MethodChemiluminescence
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzers should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual unless otherwise mentioned. Data is to be collected in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Inlet line particulate filter (5 µm TFE filter element)
  • Remote activation of zero/span and sample valves
  • Zero/span and sample solenoid valves
  • Internal permeation span source: NO2 permeation tube or an NO cylinder (both uncertified)
  • Certified NO and NO2 calibration unit
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - Daily

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the analyzers. Internal Zero and Span checks are to be performed weekly. These checks are required to assess on-going instrument performance such as zero/span drift, sample repeatability and response time and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Manual zero/span checks are to be performed monthly. The total calibration cycle should run over two 1-hour periods (i.e., initiated at the end of an hour and carried over into the beginning of the next hour) to avoid lost data as a result of the required duration of the calibration cycle. The total calibration period is to be approximately 20 minutes, preferably commencing 50 minutes into the hour and consisting of a 5 minute zero, 10 minute span and 5 minute recovery.

Note: Auto span adjustment not recommended

External Performanace Check and Calibration - Monthly

Description: An external performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out with a certified calibration unit (e.g., calibrator, gas cylinder, gas dilution system, etc., referenced to a primary standard). At least once per year, formal certification of gas calibration devices by a certification authority is required.

Requirement: An external performance check and calibration is to be carried out by the operator at least once per month and before (e.g., span drift of 5% or more) the internal performance check shows that the span values are greater than ±10% of the known standard. External performance checks are also recommended to be done after repairs are made to an analyzer, when an analyzer is installed at a station or relocated, when there is an interruption of more than a few days in analyzer operation, when there is any other indication (including excessive zero drift or span drift) of possible significant inaccuracy of the analyzer and possibly after a pollution episode. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The ministry will verify at least once per year in the field that the gas calibration devices used by site operators have had their annual certification performed.

Audit - Two to four times per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least twice per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently. It will also periodically include a check of the data flow through the telemetry system.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., zero and/or span adjustments, analyzer response time, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Carbon Monoxide (CO2)

PollutantCarbon monoxide (CO2)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodList of designated reference and equivalent methods – most recent version

Automated equivalent method

Reference DocumentsUS EPA TTNWEB (current listing):
List of Designated Reference and Equivalent Methods
MethodGas Filter Correlation, Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzers should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual unless otherwise mentioned. Data is to be collected in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Inlet line particulate filter (5 µm TFE filter element)
  • Remote activation of zero, span and sample solenoid valves
  • External U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable CO span cylinder of low concentration (0-50 ppm) for nightly calibrations
  • Multipoint Calibrations: NIST CO span tank of high concentration (1,000 ppm)/Gas Dilution System
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - Every eight or 24 hours (depending on model)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the analyzers. Internal Zero and Span checks are to be performed automatically every eight or 24 hours. These checks are required to assess on-going instrument performance such as zero/span drift, sample repeatability and response time and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Automatic zero/span checks are to be performed. The total calibration cycle should run over two 1-hour periods (i.e., initiated at the end of an hour and carried over into the beginning of the next hour) to avoid lost data as a result of the required duration of the calibration cycle. The total calibration period is to be approximately 20 minutes, preferably commencing 50 minutes into the hour and consisting of a 5 minute zero, 10 minute span and 5 minute recovery. Zero and span values should be reviewed daily.

Note: Auto span adjustment is not recommended

External Performanace Check and Calibration - Monthly

Description: An external performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out with a certified calibration unit (e.g., calibrator, gas cylinder, gas dilution system, etc., referenced to a primary standard). At least once per year, formal certification of gas calibration devices by a certification authority is required.

Requirement: An external performance check and calibration is to be carried out by the operator at least once per month and before (e.g., span drift of 5% or more) the internal performance check shows that the span values are greater than ±10% of the known standard. External performance checks are also recommended to be done after repairs are made to an analyzer, when an analyzer is installed at a station or relocated, when there is an interruption of more than a few days in analyzer operation, when there is any other indication (including excessive zero drift or span drift) of possible significant inaccuracy of the analyzer and possibly after a pollution episode. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The ministry will verify at least once per year in the field that the gas calibration devices used by site operators have had their annual certification performed.

Audit - Two to four times per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least twice per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently. It will also periodically include a check of the data flow through the telemetry system.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., zero and/or span adjustments, analyzer response time, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Ozone (O3)

PollutantOzone (O3)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodList of designated reference and equivalent methods – most recent version

Automated equivalent method

Reference DocumentsUS EPA TTNWEB (current listing):
List of Designated Reference and Equivalent Methods
MethodUV Photometric
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzers should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual unless otherwise mentioned. Data is to be collected in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Inlet line particulate filter (5 µm TFE filter element)
  • Remote activation of zero, span and sample solenoid valves
  • Internal lamp span source, uncertified
  • Certified O3 generator calibration unit
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - Daily (over 24-hour period)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the analyzers. Internal Zero and Span checks are to be performed automatically once per day. These checks are required to assess on-going instrument performance such as zero/span drift, sample repeatability and response time and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Automatic zero/span checks are to be performed daily. The total calibration cycle should run over two 1-hour periods (i.e., initiated at the end of an hour and carried over into the beginning of the next hour) to avoid lost data as a result of the required duration of the calibration cycle. The total calibration period is to be approximately 20 minutes, preferably commencing 50 minutes into the hour and consisting of a 5 minute zero, 10 minute span and 5 minute recovery. Zero and span values should be reviewed daily.

Note: Auto span adjustment is not recommended

External Performanace Check and Calibration - Monthly

Description: An external performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out with a certified calibration unit (e.g., calibrator, gas cylinder, gas dilution system, etc., referenced to a primary standard). At least once per year, formal certification of gas calibration devices by a certification authority is required.

Requirement: An external performance check and calibration is to be carried out by the operator at least once per month and before (e.g., span drift of 5% or more) the internal performance check shows that the span values are greater than ±10% of the known standard. External performance checks are also recommended to be done after repairs are made to an analyzer, when an analyzer is installed at a station or relocated, when there is an interruption of more than a few days in analyzer operation, when there is any other indication (including excessive zero drift or span drift) of possible significant inaccuracy of the analyzer and possibly after a pollution episode. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The ministry will verify at least once per year in the field that the gas calibration devices used by site operators have had their annual certification performed.

Audit - Two to four times per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least twice per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently. It will also periodically include a check of the data flow through the telemetry system.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., zero and/or span adjustments, analyzer response time, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Combined Parameters Analyser: Recordum Airpointer (SO2, O3, CO, NOx, SP)

PollutantCombined Parameters Analyser: Recordum Airpointer (SO2, O3, CO, NOx, SP)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodNot designated by US EPA

Note: Airpointer uses Thermo Scientific Inc. SO2, O3, CO and NOx sample cells

Reference Documentsoperations mannual
MethodSO2 - Ultraviolet (UV) Fluorescent
O3 - Ultraviolet (UV) Photometric
CO - Gas-Filter Correlation Coefficient, Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy
NOx - Chemiluminescence
SP - Nephelometry
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzers should be in accordance with the Instrument Manufacturer’s operating manual unless otherwise mentioned. Data is to be collected in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage). As the Airpointer uses a combined monitor setup, see SOPs for SO2, O3, CO and NOx for more detailed procedures. The Airpointer can be configured with up to seven ambient air analysers, including H2S, VOC, meteorological (wind speed and direction, precipitation), and Traffic Data Sensors (TDS).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Laptop with adaptor, AC cable to AUX power outlet (1A max), cross patch RJ45 cable
  • Inlet line particulate filter (5 µm TFE filter element)
  • Remote activation of zero, span and sample solenoid valves
  • Internal permeation span sources, permeation tubes (SO2, NOx), uncertified
  • Certified dynamic gas dilution calibration system capable of delivering 4 L/min of flow, NIST-traceable cylinders, NIST-referenced dynamic ozone generating system
  • Flow meter (e.g., basic input/output system [BIOS] DC Lite High flow meter, Tri-Cal, Delta-Cal, etc.)
  • Zero filter and adaptor for nephelometer (e.g., Balston filter tube, HEPA filter, etc.)
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - Daily (over 24-hour period)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the analyzers. Internal Zero and Span checks are to be performed automatically once per day (or every eight hours for CO). These checks are required to assess on-going instrument performance such as zero/span drift, sample repeatability and response time and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Automatic zero/span checks are to be performed daily. The total calibration cycle should run over two 1-hour periods (i.e., initiated at the end of an hour and carried over into the beginning of the next hour) to avoid lost data as a result of the required duration of the calibration cycle. The total calibration period is to be approximately 20 minutes, preferably commencing 50 minutes into the hour and consisting of a 5 minute zero, 10 minute span and 5 minute recovery. Zero and span values should be reviewed daily. CO should have the automatic re-zeroing feature turned on to correct for inherent drift. Zero verification should be performed on the nephelometer once a month to check for zero drift.

Note: Auto span adjustment for SO2, O3 and NOx is not recommended

External Performanace Check and Calibration - Monthly

Description: An external performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out with a certified calibration unit (e.g., calibrator, gas cylinder, gas dilution system, etc., referenced to a primary standard). At least once per year, formal certification of gas calibration devices by a certification authority is required.

Requirement: An external performance check and calibration is to be carried out by the operator at least once per month and before (e.g., span drift of 5% or more) the internal performance check shows that the span values are greater than ±10% of the known standard. External performance checks are also recommended to be done after repairs are made to an analyzer, when an analyzer is installed at a station or relocated, when there is an interruption of more than a few days in analyzer operation, when there is any other indication (including excessive zero drift or span drift) of possible significant inaccuracy of the analyzer and possibly after a pollution episode. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The ministry will verify at least once per year in the field that the gas calibration devices used by site operators have had their annual certification performed.

Audit - Two to four times per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least twice per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently. It will also periodically include a check of the data flow through the telemetry system.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., zero and/or span adjustments, analyzer response time, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Suspended Particulate Matter (SP) - Discrete High-Volume Samplers

PollutantSuspended Particulate Matter (SP)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodList of designated reference and equivalent methods – most recent version

Designated reference method

Reference Documents40 CFR (U.S. Code of Federal Regulations) Part 50 Appendix B

LaSB Method E3288 - The Determination of Suspended Particulates on High Volume Glass and Quartz Fibre by Gravimetry, as amended from time to time

LaSB Method E3471 – The Determination of Suspended Particulates on Low-Volume Teflon Filters (46.2 mm Diameter) by Gravimetry, as amended from time to time

ASTM Method D4096-91 (2009) Vol. 11.07, Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Sampler Method), as amended from time to time

MethodHigh Volume Sampler (Hi-vol)
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzer should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual unless otherwise stated. The sampler is to operate every 6th day on the standard North American schedule, unless an alternate schedule is warranted and has been approved by the ministry. See the current year’s Sampling Schedule Calendar. Samples are to be collected over a 24-hour period from midnight to midnight (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Appropriate filter for parametres to be analyzed: 8 inches by 10 inches in size; the filters used are specified to have a minimum collection efficiency of 99% for 0.3 µm
  • Flow controller capable of maintaining a flow of 40 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (± 4 cfm) over 24 hours
  • Certified flow calibration device
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - At each filter changeover (every 6th day if on a 6 day schedule)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each filter changeover. These checks are required to assess routine instrument performance such as proper flow controller operation and confirmation of the correct time, date and sampling date on the flow controller/timer, and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: These checks include visual inspection of the sampler, a check of the flow controller to ensure that the flow is being maintained (controller alters the motor speed to maintain a constant flow rate) and confirmation of the correct time of day (EST or CST as determined by local usage), correct sampling day and duration (24 hours). Periodically, a check should be performed of the ΔP from the pressure tap on the motor casing with a digital manometer to confirm that the ΔP is in the expected range.

Motor brushes or the entire motor should be replaced after approximately 500 hours of operation, or when the motor sounds rough. Motor gaskets must be cleaned and replaced as needed, thus they must be regularly inspected. The flow control device and timer are to be inspected at each sample collection to insure that they are in proper working condition. The face plate gasket must be cleaned and replaced when worn or cracked. If exposed filters show signs of particulate seepage, the gaskets must be replaced immediately.

Samplers should be inspected for bird nests, wasp nests and spider webs when samples are collected, and cleaned where necessary. Samplers should be inspected for slugs and snails. Snails and slugs must be removed as they leave slime trails across the filter. Copper wire may be put around the legs to prevent them from crawling up. The inside of the sampler should be cleaned with soap and water periodically, especially under the roof and the filter cassette supporting surface. The filter holder, especially the gasket and horn, should be cleaned at every filter change and inspected for evidence of leakage.

External Performance Check and Calibration - Quarterly

Description: External performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An external performance check and flow calibration is to be carried out by the operator quarterly and before (e.g., flow deviation of ± 5% or more of 40 cfm) the internal performance check shows that the flow is greater than ± 10% of the required flow (40 cfm). Calibrations are to be performed using a critical orifice plate and a digital manometer capable of compensating for temperature and pressure, and capable of measuring pressure to at least 4 kPa H2O. Results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least once per year.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non-conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Inhalable Particulate (PM10) – Discrete High-Volume Samplers

PollutantInhalable Particulate Matter (PM10)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodList of designated reference and equivalent methods – most recent version
Reference Documents40 CFR Part 50 Vol 62 Appendix J or M

LaSB Method E3288 - The Determination of Suspended Particulates on High Volume Glass and Quartz Fibre by Gravimetry, as amended from time to time

LaSB Method E3471 – The Determination of Suspended Particulates on Low-Volume Teflon Filters (46.2 mm Diameter) by Gravimetry, as amended from time to time

ASTM Method D4096-91 (2009) Vol. 11.07, Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Sampler Method), as amended from time to time.

MethodHi-Vol Sampler equipped with size selective head for PM10
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzer should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual unless otherwise mentioned. The sampler is to operate every 6th day on the standard North American schedule, unless an alternate schedule is warranted and has been approved by the ministry. See the current year’s Sampling Schedule Calendar. Samples are to be collected over a 24-hour period from midnight to midnight in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Appropriate filter for parametres to be analyzed: 8 inches by 10 inches in size; the filters used are specified to have a minimum collection efficiency of 99% for 0.3 µm
  • Flow controller capable of maintaining a flow of 40 cfm (± 4 cfm) over 24-hours
  • Certified flow calibration device
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - At each filter changeover (every 6th day if on a 6 day schedule)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each filter changeover. These checks are required to assess routine instrument performance such as proper flow controller operation and confirmation of the correct time, date and sampling day on the flow controller/timer, and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: These checks include visual inspection of the sampler, a check of the flow controller to ensure that the flow is being maintained (controller slows down the motor rpm to maintain a slower rpm) and confirmation of the correct time of day (EST or CST as determined by local usage), correct sampling day and duration (24 hours). Periodically, a check should be performed of the ΔP from pressure tap on the motor casing with a digital manometer to confirm that the ΔP is in the expected range.

Motor brushes or the entire motor should be replaced after approximately 500 hours of operation, or when the motor sounds rough. Motor gaskets must be cleaned and replaced as needed, thus they must be regularly inspected. The flow control device and timer are to be inspected at each sample collection to insure that they are in proper working condition. The face plate gasket must be cleaned and replaced when worn or cracked. If exposed filters show signs of particulate seepage, the gaskets must be replaced immediately.

Samplers should be inspected for bird nests, wasp nests and spider webs when samples are collected, and cleaned where necessary. Samplers should be inspected for slugs and snails. Snails and slugs must be removed as they leave slime trails across the filter. Copper wire may be put around the legs to prevent them from crawling up. The inside of the sampler should be cleaned with soap and water periodically, especially under the roof and the filter cassette supporting surface. The filter holder, especially the gasket and horn, should be cleaned at every filter change and inspected for evidence of leakage.

The PM10 sampler head must be opened and the inside cleaned every three months. The sample impaction plate must be cleaned and sprayed with silicone to prevent particle fractioning, bounce and re-entrainment.

External Performance Check and Calibration - Quarterly

Description: External performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An external performance check and calibration is to be carried out by the operator quarterly and before (e.g., flow deviation of ± 5% or more of 40 cfm) the internal performance check shows that the flow is greater than ± 10% of the required flow (40 cfm). Calibrations are to be performed using a critical orifice plate and a digital manometer capable of compensating for temperature and pressure, and capable of measuring pressure to at least 4 kPa H2O. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least once per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Filter SOP

Reference Documents
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance. Use and handling of filters should be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommended protocols and US EPA requirements, unless otherwise stated.

Filter Media
  • Appropriate filter for parametres to be analyzed: The filters used are specified to have a minimum collection efficiency of 99% for 0.3 µm
  • Filter media used in monitoring activities must have physical and chemical properties appropriate for the sample methodology and the laboratory analysis method used. Ensure filter media are compatible with the type of analytical testing to be performed; for example, some inorganic tests are incompatible with glass-fibre or quartz-fibre matrices.
  • Filters must not be chemically reactive with the deposited particulate, even when submitted to strong extraction solvents. Additionally, they must not absorb contaminating gases. When gas absorption is desired, as it may be when the precursors of secondary particles are measured, the filter material should absorb those gases at near 100% efficiency. Some filter materials are known to absorb artifacts such as sulfate, nitrate, organic vapour and also water vapour, which can greatly bias mass measurements.
  • Filters should retain their porosity and structure over the temperature range typical of the sampled air stream and the applied analytical methods.
Filter Handling
  • Particulate filters are to be conditioned and analysed only by a laboratory approved by the ministry.
  • Particulate filters are to be inspected, preconditioned, and weighed in a manner consistent with US EPA 40 CFR Part 50 Appendix B (SP) or Appendix J or M (PM10).
  • Filters are to be ordered in sufficient quantity to ensure no disruption of the sampling schedule.
  • Filters must be handled with clean hands or smooth cotton gloves (if not analyzing for carbon) to avoid sample contamination.
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters should be handled with nitrile gloves.
  • If a filter cassette is used, new filters should be loaded into filter cassettes in a clean room environment prior to deployment into the field.
  • Filters are to lie flat in the sampler, remain in one piece, and have a good seal, with well-tightened wing nuts and a good-condition gasket, to eliminate leaks.
  • Ensure that the filter is placed in the cassette with the correct side facing up – contact the manufacturer.
  • Filter replacement in the field must be performed so as to reduce opportunities for sample contamination. The operator should stand downwind of the filter during handling.
  • The exposed filter is to be returned as soon as possible to a clean room environment, and there removed from the cassette (ideally) for shipment to the analytical lab.
  • The exposed area of the filter must not be touched to avoid dislodging particulate from the filter and to avoid sample contamination.
  • The filter cassette must be cleaned thoroughly and allowed to dry prior to loading with a new filter. The filter cassette gasket must be inspected for signs of damage.
Filter Blank Concentration
  • Filters should not contain significant and highly variable concentrations of the chemicals which are being determined by analysis. A sample of each batch lot of unexposed filters should be analysed, and blank concentration levels should be determined, prior to field sampling.
  • Filters should allow sufficient amounts of air to be drawn through them to satisfy the sampling flow rate requirements of the inlet and to obtain an adequate deposit. A capacity of 500 µg/m3 of particulate should be attainable over a 24-hour period.
Filter Acceptance Testing
  • All filters require an "acceptance testing" program when they are to be used for chemical characterization of the deposited particulate. At least one filter from each lot, typically one per hundred, should be blank tested and analysed for filter interferences. Each filter must be individually light tested over a light table for discolouration, pin-holes, creases or other defects.
Sample Collection
  • Exposed filters are collected in the field using a filter cassette and cover and removed in a clean area.
  • Filters must be handled carefully to avoid tearing, contamination and loss of particulate.
  • Before a filter is removed it should be inspected for tears, scrapes, perforations and extraneous material. The latter should be removed if this can be done without disturbing the integrity of the filter and the particulate.
  • The filter is folded in half lengthwise, so the particulate covered surface is folded against itself.
  • PM10 quartz filters are more delicate than Hi-Vol glass-fibre filters, and are folded carefully and placed in a folded cardboard holder for protection.
  • The filter is placed in a sample envelope and sent to the lab for analysis.
  • Tears or scrapes occurring as the filter is being removed from the sampler, as well as those having occurred during sampling, should be noted in the comments area on the sample envelope. All comments should be written on the envelope before the filter is inserted. Torn-off pieces should be placed inside the unexposed edge of the folded filter.
Sample Invalidation

Samples should be invalidated for the following reasons:

  • If site access or other circumstances prevent the sample from being taken;
  • If vandalism or tampering is suspected;
  • If field equipment such as the sampler motor or flow controller failed to function properly;
  • If a perforation or tear of any size occurs within the particulate collection area during sampling;
  • If a leak in the gasket seal occurs during sampling and evidence of the leak extends to the edge of the filter;
  • If bird droppings contaminate more than 5% (4 in2 on 8 × 10 inch filters) of the exposed filter;
  • If there has been a significant loss of particulate material due to a tear or a scrape which occurred after sampling (or losses for any other reason);
  • If a piece of filter has been torn off and was lost after the blank filter was shipped from the laboratory, and the missing piece is about equal to the following:

    • 8in × 10in filter - 1 in2 for SP
    • 8in × 10in filter - 0.5 in2 for a PM10
    • 47 mm filter - any piece missing; and,
  • If non-target material such as insects or plant matter adheres to the filter, the material should be removed with forceps. If the matter cannot be removed or was large enough to have significantly interfered with the collection of particulate, the sample should be invalidated.

High Volume (Hi-Vol) Sampler Calibration

PollutantHigh Volume (Hi-Vol) Sampler Calibration
Reference DocumentsUS EPA 40 CFR Part 50 Appendix B

US EPA 40 CFR Part 50 Appendix J or M

Filter SOP - in this manual

MethodHi-Vol Sampler
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzer should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual, unless otherwise stated. As per the guidance in the SP and PM10 SOPs, Hi-Vol samplers are to be calibrated by the operator on a quarterly basis.

Equipment Required
  • Critical orifice plate
  • Differential manometer capable of measuring pressure to at least 4 kPa of water and compensating for temperature and pressure
  • Flow controller capable of maintaining a flow of 40 cfm (±4 cfm) over 24 hours
  • Appropriate filter for parameters to be analysed: 8in × 10in in size; the filters used are specified to have a minimum collection efficiency of 99% for 0.3 µm
Critical Orifice Plate
  • The orifice calibration unit consists of a metal tube. The top end is covered with a metal plate that has a central orifice. A static pressure tap is located at this end. The other end of this tube is flanged to hold a loose female threaded coupling, which screws onto the inlet of the sampler. A filter is positioned between the unit and the sampler to supply resistance.
  • The orifice calibration unit - must have its own unique slope and intercept linear equation.
  • Slope and intercept by manufacturer specs must be checked on an annual basis or if gets damaged.
  • Used in conjunction with a differential manometer capable of measuring pressure to at least 4 kPa of water and compensating for temperature and pressure.

    Square plate positioned vertically and labelled 'Sampler Interface Plate' with a cylinder positioned horizontally portruding from the centre of the plate and labelled 'Orifice'; extending from the plate and orifice, is a veritical gauge or measurement device labelled 'Manometer'.

Flow Calibration
  • A flow calibration of Hi-Vol SP or PM10 samplers should be performed by operators every three months. Calibration is performed using a critical orifice plate and a digital manometer capable of compensating for temperature and pressure. Sampler flow is calculated using the known slope and intercept of the critical orifice plate; flow is set for 40 cfm.
  • Collect any exposed filters by the proper collection method.
  • Install the filter to be used for the calibration.
  • Attach the orifice calibration unit (in place of the faceplate) to the inlet of the Hi-Vol horn assembly and fasten securely with the four wing nuts.
  • Connect one end of the differential manometer to the differential pressure tap of the orifice calibration unit, and leave the other end open to the atmosphere.
  • Turn on the Hi-Vol motor to simulate normal operation.
  • Record the reading of the manometer.
  • To obtain the true airflow rate:

    True flow equals start Square root of MR times S end square root plus I.

    MR - Manometer reading in inches of water
    S - Slope of the calibration graph line
    I- intercept of the calibration graph line

Beta Attenuation Monitor (BAM) (PM10 and PM2.5) - Various Models
Met One Instruments, Inc.
Sibata Scientific Technology
Horiba
Ecotech Spirant

PollutantInhalable Particulate Matter (PM10)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodList of designated reference and equivalent methods most recent version

EQPM-0798-122

Reference DocumentsList of Designated Reference and Equivalent Methods

40 CFR Part 53

40 CFR Part 50 Appendix J

Operating Manual

Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzer should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual and with the applicable requirements specified in 40 CFR Parts 50 and 53. The samplers are to use a glass fiber filter tape with a minimum filter advance frequency of one hour (on the hour) and operated for 24-hour mean measurements.

Note: The designated method requires that the system must be operated on a PM10 concentration range of 1.0 mg/m3 and a sample pump time of 50 minutes. The unit may also be operated with PM2.5 or SP sampling heads, but has not been certified as a manual equivalent method by the US EPA for monitoring those components.

Additional Equipment Required
  • Glass fiber filter tape, 2.0 µm pore size
  • Zero calibration kit (BX-302); flow calibration inlet adapter (BX-305)
  • Certified flow (e.g., BIOS, BX-307 or TriCal), temperature, barometric pressure and relative humidity calibration devices.
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - At each filter paper tape changeover (every 2 months) or preferably every month

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler by the operator. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each filter changeover or preferably every month. These checks are required to assess routine instrument performance and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Internal performance checks are to be performed at every filter tape changeover (every 2 months) or preferably every month. These checks include visual inspection of the sampler, a check of the main screen to ensure that there are no error/status messages, that the current time/date, sampling mode, the default flow rate of 16.7L/min are displayed correctly. In addition, data logger verification is recommended to ensure its current concentration value is within 2 µg/m3 of the concentration displayed by the BAM 1020 LCD.

External Performance Check (Audit) and Calibration - Audits (quarterly), calibration (once per year or sooner as needed)

Description: External performance check (audit) and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An audit of the flow (single point) is to be carried out by the operator at least every quarter, i.e., on a seasonal basis (the BAM operation manual recommends a monthly inlet flow check). A complete calibration of the ambient temperature, pressure and flow (single-point) must be done at least once per year in accordance with the procedures described in the Instrument Opertaing Manual (the BAM operation manual recommends a semi-annual interval). The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified annually against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit of the ambient temperature, barometric pressure and flow (all single point) will be performed by the ministry at least once per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported in writing to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. A follow-up audit may be performed by the ministry as a result of an audit failure.

Fine Particulate Monitor SHARP – Model 5030
Thermo Scientific Inc.
(Synchronised Hybrid Ambient Real-time Particulate)

PollutantInhalable Particulate Matter (PM10)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodList of designated reference and equivalent methods most recent version
Reference DocumentsList of Designated Reference and Equivalent Methods

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

Note: PM10

Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzer should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual and with the applicable requirements specified in 40 CFR Parts 50 and 53. Samplers use a glass fibre filter tape with a minimum filter advance frequency of every eight hours (on the hour) and operated for 24-hour mean measurements.

Note: The designated method requires that the system must be operated on a PM2.5 concentration range of 1.0 mg/m3 and a sample pump time of 50 minutes. The unit may also be operated with PM10 or SP sampling heads, but has not been certified as a manual equivalent method by the US EPA for monitoring those components.

Additional Equipment Required
  • Glass fiber filter tape, 2.0 µm pore size
  • Mass transfer standards; flow calibration inlet adapter
  • Certified flow (e.g., BIOS, BX-307 or TriCal), temperature, pressure and relative humidity calibration devices.
  • HEPA filter for zero calibration
  • Beta Attenuation Calibration Foils
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - Tape advancement must be set to every 8 hours as per EPA requirement

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler by the operator. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each filter changeover or preferably every month. These checks are required to assess routine instrument performance and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Internal performance checks are to be performed every month. These checks include visual inspection of the sampler, a check of the main screen to ensure that there are no error/status messages, that the time/date are current, and that the sampling mode and the default flow rate of 16.7L/min are displayed correctly. In addition, data logger verification is recommended to ensure its current concentration value is within 3 µg/m3 of the concentration displayed by the SHARP screen.

External Performance Check (Audit) and Calibration - Audits (quarterly), calibration (once per year, or sooner as needed)

Description: External performance check (audit) and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An audit of the sensors (flow, temperature, pressure) is to be carried out by the operator at least every quarter (i.e., on a seasonal basis) (the SHARP operation manual recommends a monthly inlet flow check). A complete calibration of the ambient temperature, pressure and flow (single-point) must be done at least once per year in accordance with the procedures described in the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual (the SHARP operation manual recommends a semi-annual interval). The nephelometer zero must be verified on a monthly basis to correct for zero drift. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be documented and made available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified annually against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognised national primary standards.

Audit - Two to four per year

Description: An audit of the ambient temperature, barometric pressure, flow and nephelometer zero will be performed by the ministry two to four times per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported in writing to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. A follow-up audit may be performed by the ministry as a result of an audit failure.

Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-Balance (TEOM)
Series 1400, 1400a and 1400ab (PM10)
Thermo Electron Corporation (Formerly Rupprecht & Patashnick Co., Inc.)

PollutantInhalable Particulate Matter (PM10)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodList of designated reference and equivalent methods – most recent version

EQPM-1090-079 (Oct. 1990)

Reference Documents40 CFR Part 53

40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L

Operating Manual, R & P part no. 42-003347

Recommended Operating Procedures for the TEOM, Environment Canada, Report No. AAQD98-4, March 1999.

Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzer should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual and with the applicable requirements specified in 40 CFR Parts 50 and 53. The TEOM is to be operated at a temperature of 30°C (case, air and cap temperature) to minimize the volatilization of semi-volatile particulates and in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage). The particulate concentration range is 0-200 µg/m3 (in the analog range).

Note: The TEOM may also be operated with a PM2.5 sample inlet but has yet to be designated as an automated equivalent method by the US EPA for monitoring PM2.5. The series 1400ab has also not been designated.

Additional Equipment Required
  • Teflon-coated glass fiber filter cartridges
  • Calibrated multimeter (3½ digit)
  • Mass transducer calibration verification kit
  • Certified flow (e.g., BIOS, BX-307 or TriCal), temperature and ambient pressure calibration devices.
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - Daily (telemetered status indicators), at each filter replacement

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler by the operator. Internal checks are to be performed manually as described below. These checks are required to assess routine instrument performance and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Available status watch indicators will be monitored daily with a telemetered DAS. Corrective action is required when the instrument reports a status or alarm condition. This is required to assess on-going instrument performance such as proper flow rates and filter cartridge loading. A leak check should be performed at each filter change. The air sample inlet should also be cleaned at that time (this frequency can be relaxed to every 6 months depending on the particulate concentration profile at the site). Every 6 months, the large bypass in-line filters should be replaced and the air inlet system should be cleaned. The flow controller filters should be replaced annually.

External Performance Check (Audit) and Calibration - Audits (quarterly), calibration (once per year or sooner as needed)

Description: External performance check (audit) and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit (flow, temperature, barometric pressure.)

Requirement: An audit of the flows (3.0 L/min for the main flow and 16.7 L/min for the main flow plus auxiliary flow), and a leak check, are to be carried out by the operator at least every quarter, i.e., on a seasonal basis. A complete calibration of the ambient temperature, pressure (depending on the sampler configuration) and flow (singlepoint) must be done at least once per year in accordance with the procedures described in the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified annually against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Annual

Description: An audit of the ambient temperature, ambient pressure, flow (single point), microbalance “K” value and a leak check will be performed by the ministry at least annually. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported in writing to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. A follow-up audit may be performed by the ministry as a result of an audit failure.

PQ100 Air Sampler (PM10)
BGI Incorporated

PollutantInhalable Particulate Matter (PM10)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodList of designated reference and equivalent methods – most recent version
RFPS-1298-124
Reference Documents40 CFR Part 53

40 CFR Part 50, Appendix J & L

Operating Manual, Oct. 2003, version 6.21

Filter SOP in this manual

Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzer should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual and with the requirements and sample collection filters specified in 40 CFR Part 50 Appendix J. The sampler is to operate every 6th day on the standard North American schedule, unless an alternate schedule is warranted and has been approved by the ministry. See the current year’s Sampling Schedule Calendar. Samples are to be collected over a 24 hour period from midnight to midnight (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Particulate Teflon filters, 47 mm diameter, 2.0 µm pore size
  • Reusable filter cassettes
  • Certified flow calibration device (e.g., Delta Cal or TriCal)
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - At each filter changeover (every 6th day if on a 6 day schedule)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each filter changeover. These checks are required to assess routine instrument performance and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Internal performance checks include visual inspection of the sampler, a check of the main idle display screen to ensure that: there are no error messages; the current time/date, sample start and stop times/dates, the selected target flow rate of 16.7 L/min and the correct 24-hour sample volume of 24 m3 for the previous run are correct.

External Performance Check (Audit) and Calibration - Audits (quarterly), calibration (once per year or sooner as needed)

Description: External performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An audit of the flow (single point) is to be carried out by the operator quarterly. A calibration of the flow (three-point) must be done at least once per year in accordance with the procedures described in the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified annually against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit of the flow (single point), will be performed by the ministry at least once per year and could include collocated sampling. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported in writing to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. A follow-up audit may be performed by the ministry as a result of an audit failure.

PQ200 Air Sampler (PM10)
BGI Incorporated

PollutantInhalable Particulate Matter (PM10)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodList of designated reference and equivalent methods – most recent version
RFPS-1298-125
Reference Documents40 CFR Part 53

40 CFR Part 50, Appendix J or M

Operating Manual, July 2002, Rev. 1.77

Filter SOP in this manual

Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzer should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual and with the requirements and sample collection filters specified in 40 CFR Part 50 Appendix J, L and M. The sampler is to operate every 6th day on the standard North American schedule, unless an alternate schedule is warranted and has been approved by the ministry. See the current year’s Sampling Schedule Calendar. Samples are to be collected over a 24 hour period from midnight to midnight (EST).

Note: When configured as a PM10 sampler, the Well Impactor Ninety Six (WINS) impactor of the PQ200 is replaced by a straight passage.

Additional Equipment Required
  • Particulate Teflon filters, 47 mm diameter, 2.0 µm pore size
  • Reusable filter cassettes and single-filter tray; impermeable membrane for internal leak check
  • Certified flow calibration device (e.g., Delta Cal or TriCal), certified temperature and pressure calibrators
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - At each filter changeover (every 6th day if on a 6 day schedule)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler by the operator. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each filter changeover. These checks are required to assess routine instrument performance and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Internal performance checks are to be performed at every filter changeover. These checks include visual inspection of the sampler, a check of the main screen to ensure that: there are no error/status messages, the current time/date, sample start and stop times/dates, the default flow rate of 16.7 L/min and the correct 24-hour sample volume of 24 m3 for the previous run are correct. In addition, an external leak check and an internal leak check are to be performed monthly.

External Performance Check (Audit) and Calibration - Audits (quarterly), calibration (once per year or sooner as needed)

Description: External performance check (audit) and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An audit of the ambient and filter temperature, ambient pressure and flow (single point) is to be carried out by the operator every quarter. A calibration of the ambient and filter temperature, ambient pressure and flow (3-point) must be done at least once per year in accordance with the procedures described in the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified annually against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit of the ambient and filter temperature, ambient pressure and flow (single point) will be performed by the ministry at least once per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported in writing to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. A follow-up audit may be performed by the ministry as a result of an audit failure.

Partisol – FRM Model 2000 PM2.5 Air Sampler (PM2.5)
Thermo Electron Corporation (Formerly Rupprecht & Patashnick Co. Inc.

PollutantRespirable Particulate Matter (PM2.5)
US EPA Designated Referenece and Equivalent MethodList of designated reference and equivalent methods – most recent version

RFPS-0498-117 (April 1998), and EQPM-0202-143 (Dec 2006)

Reference Documents40 CFR Part 53

40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L

Operating Manual, April 2002, Rev. B

Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzer should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual and with the requirements and sample collection filters specified in 40 CFR Part 50 Appendix L.

The sampler is to operate every 6th day on the standard North American schedule, unless an alternate schedule is warranted and has been approved by the ministry. See the current year’s Sampling Schedule Calendar. Samples are to be collected over a 24 hour period from midnight to midnight (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Particulate Teflon filters, 47 mm diameter, 2.0 µm pore size
  • Reusable filter cassettes and single-filter tray; leak check disk
  • Certified flow calibration device (e.g., Streamline Flow Transfer Standard or TriCal), certified temperature and pressure calibrators
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - At each filter changeover (every 6th day if on a 6 day schedule)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler by the operator. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each filter changeover. These checks are required to assess routine instrument performance and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Internal performance checks are to be performed at every filter changeover. These checks include visual inspection of the sampler, a check of the main display screen to ensure that: there are no status codes, the current time/date, sample start and stop times/dates, the default flow rate of 16.7 L/min and the correct 24-hour sample volume of 24 m3 for the previous run are correct. In addition, an external leak check and an internal leak check are to be performed monthly.

External Performance Check (Audit) and Calibration-Audits (quarterly), calibration (once per year or sooner as needed)

Description: External performance check (audit) and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An audit of the ambient and filter temperature, ambient pressure and flow (single point) is to be carried out by the operator every quarter. A calibration of the ambient and filter temperature, ambient pressure and flow (5-point) must be done at least once per year in accordance with the procedures described in the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified annually against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit of the ambient and filter temperature, ambient pressure and flow (single point) will be performed by the ministry at least once per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently. The audit could also include collocated sampling.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported in writing to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. A follow-up audit may be performed by the ministry as a result of an audit failure.

PQ200 Air Sampler (PM2.5)
BGI Incorporated

PollutantRespirable Particulate Matter (PM2.5)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodList of designated reference and equivalent methods – most recent version

RFPS-0498-116 (April 1998), and EQPM-0202-142 (Dec 2006)

Reference Documents40 CFR 40 Part 53

40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L

Operating Manual, July 2002, Rev. 1.77

Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzer should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual and with the requirements and sample collection filters specified in 40 CFR Part 50 Appendix L. The sampler is to operate every 6th day on the standard North American schedule, unless an alternate schedule is warranted and has been approved by the ministry. See the current year’s Sampling Schedule Calendar. Samples are to be collected over a 24 hour period from midnight to midnight (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Particulate Teflon filters, 47 mm diameter, 2.0 µm pore size
  • Reusable filter cassettes and single-filter tray; impermeable membrane for internal leak check
  • Certified flow calibration device (e.g., Delta Cal or TriCal), certified temperature and pressure calibrators
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - At each filter changeover (every 6th day if on a 6 day schedule)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler by the operator. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each filter changeover. These checks are required to assess routine instrument performance and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Internal performance checks are to be performed at every filter changeover. These checks include visual inspection of the sampler, a check of the main screen to ensure that: there are no error/status messages, the current time/date, sample start and stop times/dates, the default flow rate of 16.7L/min and the correct 24-hour sample volume of 24 m3 for the previous run are correct. In addition, an external leak check and an internal leak check are to be performed monthly.

External Performance Check (Audit) and Calibration - Audits (quarterly), calibration (once per year or sooner as needed)

Description: External performance check (audit) and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An audit of the ambient and filter temperature, ambient pressure and flow (single point) is to be carried out by the operator every quarter. A calibration of the ambient and filter temperature, ambient pressure and flow (three-point) must be done at least once per year in accordance with the procedures described in the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified annually against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit of the ambient and filter temperature, ambient pressure and flow (single point) will be performed by the ministry at least once per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently. The audit could also include collocated sampling.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported in writing to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. A follow-up audit may be performed by the ministry as a result of an audit failure.

PQ200-VSCC or PQ200A-VSCC Air Sampler (PM2.5)
BGI Incorporated

PollutantRespirable Particulate Matter (PM2.5)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodList of designated reference and equivalent methods – most recent version

EQPM-0202-142 (Feb. 2002)

Referenece Documents40 CFR Part 53

40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L

Operating Manual, July 2002, Rev. 1.77

Very Sharp Cut Cyclone (VSCC) Supplemental Manual (Appendix M).

Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzer should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual and with the requirements and sample collection filters specified in 40 CFR Part 50 Appendix J, L and M. The sampler is to operate every 6th day on the standard North American schedule, unless an alternate schedule is warranted and has been approved by the ministry. See the current year’s Sampling Schedule Calendar. Samples are to be collected over a 24 hour period from midnight to midnight in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Note: The PQ200A-VSCC is a portable audit sampler.

Additional Equipment Required
  • Particulate Teflon filters, 47 mm diameter, 2.0 µm pore size
  • Reusable filter cassettes and single-filter tray; impermeable membrane for internal leak check
  • Certified flow calibration device (e.g., Delta Cal or TriCal), certified temperature and pressure calibrators
  • Transport cases for the PQ200A
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - At each filter changeover (every 6th day if on a 6 day schedule)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler by the operator. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each filter changeover. These checks are required to assess routine instrument performance and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Internal performance checks are to be performed at every filter changeover. These checks include visual inspection of the sampler, a check of the main screen to ensure that: there are no error/status messages, the current time/date, sample start and stop times/dates, the default flow rate of 16.7 L/min and the correct 24-hour sample volume of 24 m3 for the previous run are correct. In addition, an external leak check and an internal leak check are to be performed monthly.

External Performance Check (Audit) and Calibration - Audits (quarterly), calibration (once per year or sooner as needed)

Description: External performance check (audit) and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An audit of the ambient and filter temperature, ambient pressure and flow (single point) is to be carried out by the operator every quarter. A calibration of the ambient and filter temperature, ambient pressure and flow (3-point) must be done at least once per year in accordance with the procedures described in the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified annually against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit of the ambient and filter temperature, ambient pressure and flow (single point) will be performed by the ministry at least once per year and could include collocated sampling. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported in writing to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. A follow-up audit may be performed by the ministry as a result of an audit failure.

GRIMM Model 107 Ambient Dust Monitor (PM11, PM2.5, SP10)
GRIMM Aerosol Technik GmbH & Co., KG

PollutantParticulate Matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodNot designated by US EPA as a reference or equivalent method.
Reference DocumentsOperating Manual, ENVIROcheck Environmental Dust Monitoring, May 2002
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

The GRIMM model 107 ambient dust monitor is a portable (or stationary) unit which simultaneously measures PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in μg/m3 and particle counts (particles/liter) for particle sizes ranging from 0.25 to 32 µm. The mass concentration measurement range is 0.1 to 1500 μg/m3. Operation, service and maintenance of the monitor should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual. The monitor can be programmed for continuous operation and for timed operation (e.g., 1 to 60 minute intervals between measurement sets). The monitoring schedule will depend on the data collection requirements and must be approved by the ministry prior to start-up of the monitoring program. The monitor is to be operated on EST or CST (as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Particulate filters, 47 mm diameter, 2.0 µm pore size (typically PTFE Teflon) depending upon subsequent lab analysis)
  • Silica gel cartridges, computer cleaning tissue, compressed air
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - Monthly to every 3-6 months for normal particulate levels and considerably shorter for sampling in highly contaminated areas (e.g. forest fires, industrial sites)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed monthly to every 3-6 months, or more often if the monitor is used in areas with elevated particulate levels. These checks are required to assess routine instrument performance and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Requirement: Monthly checks include visual inspection of the sampler for particle contamination, a visual check of the silica gel cartridge (for colour change) when the sampler is used in the weather housing, a check of the main display screens to ensure that: there are no error messages (alarm log); the current time/date, sampling schedule and the selected target flow rate are correct. Semi-annual maintenance includes cleaning the ventilation system of the weather housing (changing the inlet filter) and cleaning the ambient air inlet port. The 47 mm PTFE filter, used to check the C-factor of the monitor, should be changed when the theoretical particulate mass on the filter reaches 20 mg (about every 3 months for normal environmental monitoring activity) or more often in high dust locations.

External Performance Check (Audit) and Calibration - Audits (quarterly), calibration (every 18 to 24 months or sooner as needed)

Description: External performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: The sampler is required to be factory calibrated by the manufacturer, or by an authorized firm capable of providing this service, every 18 to 24 months. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Audit - Annual

Description: An audit (collocated sampling) of the sampling system will be performed by the ministry at least once per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported in writing to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. A follow-up audit may be performed by the ministry as a result of an audit failure.

Total Dustfall

PollutantTotal Dustfall
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodNot designated by US EPA
Reference DocumentsASTM Method D1739-98 (2004), Standard Method for the Collection and Analysis of Settleable Particulate, as amended from time to time

MOECC Method E3043 - The Determination of Total Dustfall in Air Emissions by Gravimetry, as amended from time to time

MethodStandard Plastic Dustfall Jars with 4 mil Polyethylene Liners and Exposed Without the Addition of Water or Ethylene Glycol
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the sampler should be in accordance with the instructions in the documents referenced above, and the ministry’s Operations Manual for Air Quality Monitoring in Ontario, unless otherwise stated. Sampler should be set out for 30 day periods, preferably within a few days of the beginning of a month, unless an alternate schedule is warranted and has been approved by the ministry. Rainwater/snow collected in the jar must be kept in the plastic liner and submitted to the lab as part of the sample

Additional Equipment Required
  • Appropriate collar bracket and jar picker to minimize/eliminate use of ladders
  • Suitable rugged containers for shipment of samples to the lab
QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - At sample changeovers (every 30 days)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out with the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed at each sample changeover and are required to assess routine sampler performance.

Requirement: Sample changeover should be as close as possible to the beginning of a month. The exposure period should be 30 days (± 3 days). These checks include: visual inspection of the sampler to ensure the integrity of the plastic jar and polyethylene liner, a visual inspection of the sample to determine the possible presence of interfering materials (e.g., significant algae growth) which could invalidate the sample, confirmation of the ‘on’ and ‘off’ sample collection dates and the correct exposure month.

External Performance Check - Twice per year

Description: For this type of sampling activity, an external performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator to ensure that the site is continuing to meet the overall monitoring objectives.

Requirement: An external performance check is to be carried out by the operator at least twice per year and/or when the internal performance check shows that the site may no longer be suitable for meeting overall monitoring program objectives. This includes non compliance with siting criteria, unacceptable sampling interferences from nearby air emission sources due to new point sources and/or nearby land use changes. The results of the external performance check must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry.

Audit - Once per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least once per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs, sampler relocation, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Fluoridation Rate

PollutantHydrogen Fluoride
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodNot designated by US EPA
Reference DocumentsASTM Method D 3269-96 (2001) e1. Standard Test Method for Analysis for Fluoride Content of the Atmosphere and Plant Tissues (Manual Procedures); withdrawn by ASTM in February 2010

ASTM Method D3270-00 (2006), Vol. 11.07, Standard Test Method for Analysis for Fluoride Content of the Atmosphere and Plant Tissues (Semi-automated Method), as amended from time to time

Ministry Recommended MethodLime candle
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the sampler should be in accordance with the instructions in the document referenced above and in the ministry’s Operations Manual for Air Quality Monitoring in Ontario, unless otherwise mentioned. Sampler should be set out for 30 day periods, preferably within a few days of the beginning of a month, unless an alternate schedule is warranted and has been approved by the ministry.

Additional Equipment Required
  • Suitable containers (with proper seals) for shipment of samples to/from the lab
  • Suitable louvered shelter to house the lime candle
QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - At each sample changeover (every 30 days)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out with the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed at each sample changeover and are required to assess routine sampler performance.

Requirement: Internal performance checks are to be performed at every sample changeover which is to be as close as possible to the beginning of a month. The exposure period should be 30 days (± 3 days). These checks include: visual inspection of the container used to ship the candle from the lab to ensure it has not been opened prior to candle being exposed in the field; visual inspection of the candle to ensure its integrity; inspection of the shelter for signs of vandalism/tampering to ensure candle was not directly exposed to the elements; check for good air flow through the louvers (no obstructions); confirmation of the ‘on’ and ‘off’ sample collection dates to meet the exposure period requirement and the correct exposure month.

External Performance Check - Twice per year

Description: For this type of sampling activity, an external performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator to ensure that the site is continuing to meet the overall monitoring objectives.

Requirement: An external performance check is to be carried out by the operator at least twice per year and/or when the internal performance check shows that the site may no longer be suitable for meeting overall monitoring program objectives. This includes non compliance with siting criteria, unacceptable sampling interferences from nearby air emission sources due to new point sources and/or nearby land use changes. The results of the external performance check must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry.

Audit - Once per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least once per year and could include collocated sampling. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs, sampler relocation, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Volatile Organic Compounds – Absorbent Cartridge (VOC)

PollutantVolatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodNot designated
Reference DocumentsAir Toxics - Monitoring Methods

US EPA Report EPA/625/R-96/010b

US EPA Method TO-17

ASTM Method D6196-03, Vol. 11.07, Standard Practice for Selection of Sorbents, Sampling and Thermal Desorption Analysis Procedures for Volatile Organic Compounds in Air, as amended from time to time

MOECC Method E3314 - The Determination of Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in Air Using Thermal Desorption/Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC-MS), as amended from time to time

Ministry Recommended methodDetermination of VOC in Ambient Air Using Three-Phase Adsorbent Cartridges Followed by Thermal Desorption and GC-MS analysis
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the sampler should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual unless otherwise mentioned. Data is to be collected in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Solid Sorbent Tube (glass or stainless steel) 6 mm O.D. packed with greater than 200 mg of solid adsorbent material (Supelco Carbotrap 300)
  • Flow controller capable of maintaining a flow of 2.5 cm3/min. (± 0.25 cm3/min) over 24 hours
  • Ice cooler to hold exposed cartridges between 2°C and 10°C during shipment to lab
  • Certified flow calibration device
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - every 12 days (or alternate schedule) during sample changeover

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed manually during sample collection. These checks are required to assess instrument performance such as proper flow controller operation and confirmation of the correct time, date and sampling date on the flow controller/timer to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC requirements and reporting practices.

Requirement: Internal performance checks are to be performed during every sample changeover. These checks include visual observation of the sampler, a check of the flow controller to ensure the correct time and date and a check of the voltage output (if applicable) to ensure that the proper flow rate of 2.5 cm3/min (± 0.25 cm3/min) is being maintained.

External Performance Check and Calibration - Quarterly

Description: External performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An external performance check and calibration is to be carried out by the operator quarterly and before (e.g., flow deviation of ± 5% or more of 2.5 cm3/min) the internal performance check shows that the flow is greater than ±10% of the required flow (2.5 cm3/min). The calibration must be done in accordance with the procedures described in the US EPA reference documents. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified annually against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least once per year. And could include collocated sampling. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Volatile Organic Compounds – Evacuated Canister (VOC)

PollutantVolatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodNot designated
Reference DocumentsAir Toxics - Monitoring Methods

US EPA Report EPA/625/R-96/010b, US EPA Method TO-15

ASTM Method D5466-01 (2007) Standard Test Method for the Determination of Volatile Organic Chemicals (Canister Sampling Method), as amended from time to time

Environment Canada SOP for Passive Canister Sampling – Passive FCSOP05

Sampling MethodDetermination of VOCs in Air Collected in Specially-Prepared Canisters and Analyzed by GC-MS
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the sampler should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual unless otherwise mentioned. Data is to be collected in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Flow controller capable of maintaining a flow of 3.5 mL/min. over 24 hours
  • Stainless steel vacuum gauge capable of measuring 0.05 mm Hg
  • Crescent wrench
  • Inlet line (stainless steel tubing ¼″ inside diameter [I.D.] or 1/8″ ID)
  • Sintered stainless steel in-line filter (2 µm pore size)
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - every 12 days during sample collection

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed manually during sample collection. These checks are required to assess sampler performance such as proper flow controller operation to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC requirements and reporting practices

Requriement: The checks include visual observation of the sampler to ensure that it is not damaged (valve opens/closes properly), vacuum gauge is functional and flow controller is properly installed on top of the canister valve. Sampling system must be leak free. Initial vacuum should be about −29 inches of Hg and the final vacuum should be between −5 to −10 inches of Hg.

External Performance check and Calibration - Twice per year

Description: External performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An external performance check and calibration of the vacuum gauge and flow controller is to be carried out twice per year. The calibration must be done in accordance with the procedures described in the US EPA reference documents. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified annually against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least once per year and could include collocated sampling. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Volatile Organic Compounds – Evacuated Canister – Positive Pressure (VOC)

PollutantVolatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodNot designated
Reference DocumentsAir Toxics - Monitoring Methods

US EPA Report EPA/625/R-96/010b, US EPA Method TO-15

ASTM Method D5466-01 (2007) Standard Test Method for the Determination of Volatile Organic Chemicals (Canister Sampling Method), as amended from time to time

Environment Canada Air Toxics SOPVOC Sample Management Procedures

Sampling MethodDetermination of VOCs in Air Collected in Specially-Prepared Canisters and Analyzed by GC-MS
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the sampler should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual unless otherwise mentioned. Data is to be collected in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Sampling apparatus with: flow controller capable of maintaining a flow of 10.0 mL/min (± 10%) for 24 hours, sample pump capable of 2 atmospheres output pressure, canister pressure gauge (−30 to 30 in. Hg), pump pressure gauge (0 to 30 psig), solenoid valve, electronic timer and elapsed time indicator
  • Inlet line (stainless steel tubing ¼″ inside diameter [I.D.] or 1/8″ ID)
  • Sintered stainless steel in-line filter (2 µm pore size)
  • Temperature controlled enclosure (operating according to sampler manufacturer’s specifications)
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - every 12 days during sample collection

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed manually during sample collection. These checks are required to assess sampler performance such as proper flow controller operation to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC requirements and reporting practices

Requriement: The checks include visual observation of the sampler to ensure that it is not damaged (valve opens/closes properly), vacuum gauge is functional and flow controller is properly installed on top of the canister valve. Sampling system must be leak free. Initial vacuum should be about −30 inches of Hg and the final vacuum should be between 5 to 25 inches of Hg.

External Performance check and Calibration - Twice per year

Description: External performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An external performance check and calibration of the vacuum gauge and flow controller is to be carried out twice per year. The calibration must be done in accordance with the procedures described in the US EPA reference documents. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified annually against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least once per year and could include collocated sampling. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons – Filter (PAH)
Non-Volatile Fraction

PollutantPolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) – Three Member Rings & Up
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodNot designated
Reference DocumentsAir Toxics - Monitoring Methods

US EPA Report EPA/625/R-96/010/b, US EPA Method TO-13A

ASTM Method D6209-98 (2004), Vol. 11.07, Standard Test Method for Determination of Gaseous and Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air (Collection on Sorbent-Backed Filters with Gas Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric Analysis), as amended from time to time

MOE Method E3124 - The Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Ambient Air by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), as amended from time to time

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air - Standard Operating Procedure and Technical Manual, Ministry of the Environment, Air Resources Branch, 1992

Filter SOP - in this manual

Hi-Vol Sampler Calibration SOP - in this manual

MethodDetermination of PAH in Ambient Air Using the hi-vol Method With Teflon-coated Glass Fiber Filter (without sorbent cartridge) with Subsequent Quantitative GC/MS Detection
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzer should in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s operation manual unless otherwise mentioned. The sampler is to operate every 12th day based on the standard North American schedule, unless an alternate schedule is warranted and has been approved by the ministry. Air samples (~610 m3) to be collected over a 24-hour period from midnight to midnight in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Flow controller capable of maintaining a flow of about 15 cfm (± 1.5 cfm) over 24 hours
  • Teflon-coated glass fibre filter (or quartz filter??) 8 inches by 10 inches in size
  • Ice chest to hold samples at C for shipment to the lab after collection
  • Aluminum foil to ship exposed filters to the lab
  • Certified flow calibration device.
  • Refrigerator to keep exposed filters cool (C) before analysis
Internal Performance Check - every 12 days (or alternate schedule) during sample changeover

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each filter changeover. These checks are required to assess instrument performance such as proper flow controller operation and confirmation of the correct time, date and sampling date on the flow controller/timer and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC requirements and reporting practices.

Requirement: These checks include visual inspection of the sampler, a check of the flow controller to ensure that the flow is being maintained (controller slows down the motor rpm to maintain a slower rpm) and confirmation of the correct time of day (EST or CST as determined by local usage), correct sampling day and duration (24 hours).

External Performance Check and Calibration - Quarterly

Description: External performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An external performance check and calibration is to be carried out by the operator at least quarterly and before (e.g., flow deviation of ± 5% or more of 15 cfm) the internal performance check shows that the flow is greater than ± 10% of the required flow (15 cfm). The calibration must be done in accordance with the procedures described in the reference documents, specifically the Hi-Vol Sampler Calibration SOP – in this manual. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified annually against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least once per year. The ministry may also audit the PAH sampling program by performing collocated monitoring. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons – Filter and PUF Cartridge (PAH)
Volatile and Non-volatile Fractions

PollutantPolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) – Three Member Rings and Up
US EPA Designated Reference and Equialvant MethodNot designated as a reference or equivalent method
Reference DocumentAir Toxics - Monitoring Methods

US EPA Report EPA/625/R-96/010/b, US EPA Method TO-13A

ASTM Method D6209-98 (2004), Vol. 11.07, Standard Test Method for Determination of Gaseous and Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air (Collection on Sorbent-Backed Filters with Gas Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric Analysis), as amended from time to time

Filter SOP - in this manual

Hi-Vol Sampler Calibration SOP - in this manual

MethodDetermination of PAH in Ambient Air Using the hi-vol Method With Teflon-coated Glass Fiber Filter and Sorbent Cartridge; Quantitative GC/MS Detection
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the sampler should be in accordance with the Instrument Maufacturer’s Operating Manual unless otherwise mentioned. Sampler top operate every 12th day based on the standard North American schedule, unless an alternate schedule is warranted and has been approved by the ministry. Air samples (> 300 m3) to be collected over a 24-hour period from midnight to midnight in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Modified hi-vol with flow controller capable of maintaining a flow of about 8 cfm (± 0.8 cfm) over 24 hours
  • Teflon-coated glass fibre filter (or quartz filter) 8 inches by 10 inches in size
  • PUF or XAD-2 resin cartridge (see note 1 below)
  • PUF absorbent cartridge assembly and shipping container (Al canister)
  • Ice chest to hold samples at C for shipment to the lab after collection
  • Aluminum foil to ship exposed filters to the lab
  • Certified flow calibration device
  • Refrigerator to keep exposed filters in the dark and cool (C)

** Note 1: In general, XAD-2 resin has a higher collection efficiency for volatile PAH than PUF as well as higher retention efficiency for both volatile and reactive PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene and acenaphthene have only ~ 35% recovery when using PUF as the sorbent medium. The PUF method includes the analysis of the PAHs listed in US EPA Method TO-13A on page 13A-2.

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each filter changeover. These checks are required to assess instrument performance and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC requirements and reporting practices.

Requirement: Internal performance checks are to be performed during every filter changeover. These checks include: visual observation of the sampler, a check of the flow controller to ensure that the flow is being maintained (controller slows down the motor rpm to maintain a slower rpm) and confirmation of the correct time of day (EST or CST as determined by local usage), correct sampling day and duration (24 hours).

External Performance Check and Calibration - Every quarter

Description: External performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An external performance check and calibration is to be carried out by the operator quarterly, or sooner if the internal performance check shows that the flow controller does not appear to be functioning properly or the ΔP is not in the expected range. The calibration must be done in accordance with the procedures described in the reference documents, specifically the Hi-Vol Sampler Calibration SOP – in this manual. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified annually against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least once per year. The ministry may also audit the PAH sampling program by performing collocated monitoring. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Rquirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Dioxins and Furans (PCDD/PCDF)

PolluantDioxins and Furans
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalant MethodNot designated
Reference DocumentsAir Toxics - Monitoring Methods

US EPA Report EPA/625/R-96/010bM

US EPA Method TO-9A, Jan 1999

Environment Canada Method 1/RM/19 and CEN-EN 1948 for PCDD/PCDFs

MOECC Method E3418, The Determination of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (DLPCBs) in Environmental Matrices by Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (GC-HRMS), v3.0, August 24, 2010 (note analysis of air samples at MOECC-LaSB was discontinued in later versions of this method)

MethodDetermination of dioxins and furans in Air Using Teflon-coated Glass Fibre Filter and Polyurethane (PUF) Plug, Followed by Soxhlet Extraction with Toluene and GC/MS
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyzer should be in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s opertation manual unless otherwise mentioned. Data is to be collected in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment Required
  • Polyurethane Foam (PUF) Plug of solid adsorbent material.
  • Flow controller capable of maintaining a flow of 8 cfm (± 0.8 cfm) over 24 hours.
  • Dry gas metre to monitor total volume of ambient air sampled.
  • Ice cooler to hold samples at 4°C or cooler during shipment to laboratory
  • Teflon-coated glass fibre filter 8 inches by 10 inches in size
  • Certified flow calibration device
  • Aluminum foil to wrap exposed filter for shipment to lab
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Audit Check - every 12 days (or alternate schedule) during sample changeover

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each sample changeover. These checks are required to assess instrument performance such as proper flow controller operation and confirmation of the correct time, date and sampling date on the flow controller/timer and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC requirements and reporting practices.

Requirement: These checks include visual inspection of the sampler, a check of the flow controller to ensure that the flow is being maintained (controller slows down the motor rpm to maintain a slower rpm) and confirmation of the correct time of day (EST or CST as determined by local usage), correct sampling day and duration (24 hours).

External Performance Check and Calibration - Quarterly

Description: External performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An external performance check and calibration is to be carried out by the operator at least quarterly and before (e.g., flow deviation of ± 5% or more of 8 cfm) the internal performance check shows that the flow is greater than ± 10% of the required flow (8 cfm). The calibration must be done in accordance with the 8 procedures described in the US EPA reference documents. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least once per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported as soon as practical to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Asbestos

PolluantAsbestos
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalant MethodNot designated
Reference DocumentsO. Reg. 278/05 Designated Substance – Asbestos on Construction Projects and in Buildings and Repair Operations

Asbestos and Other Fibers by PCM NIOSH MAN 7400

Asbestos Sampling – US EPA SOP #2015

MethodDetermination of asbestos using mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filters in phase contrast microscopy (PCM) cartridges. Analysis by PCM and, if needed, transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the sampler should be in accordance with the instructions in the documents referenced above and in the ministry’s Operations Manual for Air Quality Monitoring in Ontario, unless otherwise mentioned.

Additional Equipment Required
  • 25 mm MCE membrane filters, 0.45 to 1.2 µm pore size, conductive cowl on cassette
  • Suitable containers (with proper seals) for shipment of samples to/from the lab
  • Flow controller capable of sampling 2,400 L of air over 24 hours
  • Certified flow calibration device
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Audit Check - every sampling date

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each sample changeover. These checks are required to assess instrument performance such as proper flow controller operation and confirmation of the correct time, date and sampling date on the flow controller/timer and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC requirements and reporting practices.

Requirement: Internal performance checks are to be performed during every sample changeover. These checks include a visual observation of the sampler, a check of the flow controller to ensure the correct time and date, and a check of the voltage output (if applicable) to ensure that the proper flow rate is being maintained.

External Performance Check and Calibration - Quarterly

Description: External performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator with a certified calibration unit.

Requirement: An external performance check and calibration is to be carried out by the operator quarterly and before (e.g., flow deviation of ± 5%) the internal performance check shows that the flow is greater than ± 10% of the required flow. The calibration must be done in accordance with the procedures described in the reference documents. The results of the external performance check and calibration must be recorded and the documentation must be available for inspection and/or submission to ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices. The calibration equipment must be certified against a reference or transfer standard traceable to recognized national primary standards.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least once per year, and could include collocated sampling. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported as soon as practical to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Fluoride Active Sampling Method

PolluantParticulate and Gaseous Fluorides
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalant MethodNot designated
Reference DocumentsTechnical and instructional information from suppliers of fluoride active sampling systems

ASTM D3266-79

ASTM D3269-79

EPA Method 300

MethodSampling and Determination of Particulate and Gaseous Fluorides in ambient air by the dual filter pack method
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyser should be in accordance with the sampling system manufacturer’s operation manual, unless otherwise mentioned. Data is to be collected in standard time (EST or CST, as determined by local usage). Average temperature, average relative humidity, and average wind speed during the exposure period, are required and can be obtained from the local weather station or from nearby monitoring stations.

Additional Equipment Required
  • Sample Filter Cassettes (SKC filter cassette, clear styrene, 37 mm) and polypropylene support pad
  • Luer tubing adapter, PVC
  • Sample tubing (¼ inch Teflon or plastic) and in-line valve (for opening/restricting flow)
  • 24-hour samples with an average flow rate of approximately 14 litres per minute (LPM)
  • Re-sealable plastic bag as supplied with sampler
  • Outdoor mounting bracket for filter cassettes, rain hood and programmable timer power bar
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Audit Check - Monthly

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each sample changeover. These checks are required to assess instrument performance to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC requirements and reporting practices.

Requirement: An internal performance check is to be carried out by the operator at least monthly or before (e.g. flow deviation of ± 5% or more of 20 m3, or 700 ft3, over 24 hours). These checks include leaks in the system; inspect filter cassette for any cracks or holes, ensure the flow is being maintained at approximately 15 LPM, and confirm the correct time of day (EST or CST, as determined by local usage), correct sampling day and duration (24 hours).

External Performance Check - Twice per year

Description: For this type of sampling activity, an external performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator to ensure that the site is continuing to meet the overall monitoring objectives.

Requirement: An external performance check is to be carried out by the operator at least twice per year and/or when the internal performance check shows that the site may no longer be suitable for meeting overall monitoring program objectives. This includes non-compliance with siting criteria, unacceptable sampling interferences from nearby air emission sources due to new point sources and/or nearby land use changes. The results of the external performance check must be documented and made available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least once per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported as soon as practical to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Trace Gas Passive Sampling

PolluantVarious Contaminants
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalant MethodNot designated
Reference DocumentsTechnical and instructional information from suppliers of passive sampling systems
MethodDetermination of trace gas concentrations using passive air sampling systems
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the analyser should be in accordance with the sampling system manufacturer’s operation manual, unless otherwise mentioned. Data is to be collected in standard time (EST or CST, as determined by local usage). Average temperature, average relative humidity, and average wind speed during the exposure period, are required and can be obtained from the local weather station or from nearby monitoring stations.

Additional Equipment Required
  • passive sampler
  • Re-sealable plastic bag as supplied with sampler
  • Protective container with Teflon liner
  • Freezer to store unexposed NOx passive samplers at −20°C
  • Fridge to store unexposed SO2, NO2, O3, H2S and exposed SO2, NO2, O3, H2S and NOx passive samplers at 4°C
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Audit Check - During sample changeover (every 30 days)

Description: Internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out within the sampler. Internal checks are to be performed manually at each sample changeover. These checks are required to assess instrument performance to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC requirements and reporting practices.

Requirement: Sample changeover should be as close as possible to the beginning of a month. The exposure period should be 30 days (±3 days). These checks include: a visual inspection of the sampler to ensure the integrity of the sampling system, a visual inspection of the sample to determine the possible presence of interfering materials which could invalidate the sample and confirmation of the ‘on’ and ‘off’ sample collection dates and the correct exposure month.

External Performance Check - Twice per year

Description: For this type of sampling activity, an external performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator to ensure that the site is continuing to meet the overall monitoring objectives.

Requirement: An external performance check is to be carried out by the operator at least twice per year and/or when the internal performance check shows that the site may no longer be suitable for meeting overall monitoring program objectives. This includes non-compliance with siting criteria, unacceptable sampling interferences from nearby air emission sources due to new point sources and/or nearby land use changes. The results of the external performance check must be documented and made available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry.

Audit - Once or twice per year

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry at least once per year. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sampler repairs/cleaning, flow adjustment, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported as soon as practical to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Wind Speed and Direction

PollutantWind Speed and Direction
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodNot designated
Reference DocumentsMeteorological Monitoring Guidance for Regulatory Modeling Applications EPA-454/R-99-005
MethodDetermination of wind speed by (cup or propeller) anemometer and wind direction by bi-directional wind vanes. Units with no moving parts (ultrasonic, solid state methods) have not been commonly used for routine monitoring but can be considered after a proper evaluation.
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the anemometer and wind vanes should in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s opertation manual unless otherwise mentioned

Additional Equipment

Recommend a spare anemometer as a preventative maintenance measure

Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - Daily

Description: In this application, an internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by inspecting the wind speed and direction data once per day. These checks are required to remotely assess, in a qualitative sense, performance of the wind speed and direction data measurement and collection system and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC requirements and reporting practices

Requirement: Wind speed and direction data are to be inspected daily to check for extreme values (e.g., unusually high/low wind speeds, constant wind directions for sustained periods, etc.), or for values which do not appear to agree with forecasted or observed wind conditions. The results of these data checks could suggest anemometer/wind vane failure (damaged anemometer, worn out bearings, missing cups, frozen wind vane, etc.). Some specific data screening criteria are presented in Table 8-4 of the US EPA report EPA-454/R-99-005. The results of these checks which could suggest system/equipment problems should be acted on as required and documented for data validation purposes.

External Performance Check and Calibration - Monthly (first level inspection) and at least once a year (second level inspection)

Description: In this application, an external performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator, such as physical inspections of the equipment (monthly), or calibration checks (once per year or as recommended by the manufacturer, whichever comes first). It is highly recommended to change the anemometer every year to prevent failure due to bearing ware.

Requirement: The first level of inspection is visual (anemometer and vane can be looked at directly or through binoculars/telescope to check for physical damage or signs of erratic behavior). The second level of inspection is a “hands on” check which requires removal of the anemometer/wind vane from the tower/mast for further testing/calibration (e.g., bearings replacement, calibration test). Conservatively, operators should not wait for failures and as part of a preventative maintenance program and it is recommended that they have a spare unit on hand and consider replacing/refurbishing the active unit annually. The calibration equipment must be certified against a reference or equivalent standard, and traceable to recognized national primary standards.

The results of the external performance check/calibration must be documented and made available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Audit - Annually or bi-annually

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry every one to two years. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., anemometer and/or wind vane repairs/ replacement, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Ambient Temperature

PollutantAmbient Temperature
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodNot designated
Reference DocumentMeteorological Monitoring Guidance for Regulatory Modeling Applications EPA-454/R-99-005
MethodResistance change thermometer sensor such as a platinum or copper resistance temperature detector (RTD), housed in a motor aspirated solar radiation shield.
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the anemometer and wind vanes should in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s opertation manual unless otherwise mentioned. Data is to be collected in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment
  • Airflow warning device in solar radiation shield
  • Calibrated Digital voltmeter (DVM) with proper input impedance
  • Reference temperature sensor accurate to about C
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - Daily

Description: In this application, an internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by inspecting the temperature data once per day. These checks are required to remotely assess, in a qualitative sense, performance of the ambient temperature data measurement and collection system and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC requirements and reporting practices.

Requirement: Ambient temperature data are to be inspected daily to check for extreme values (e.g., unusually high/low values, constant temperature readings for sustained periods, sudden and unexpected temperature changes over a short time period, etc.), or for values which do not appear to agree with forecasted or observed temperature conditions. The results of these data checks could suggest equipment failure (faulty temperature sensor, failure of airflow aspiration system, etc.). Some specific data screening criteria are presented in Table 8-4 of the US EPA report EPA-454/R-99-005. The results of these checks which could suggest system/equipment problems should be acted on as required and documented for data validation purposes.

External Performance Check and Calibration - Monthly (first level inspection) and at least once a year (second level inspection)

Description: In this application, an external performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator, such as physical inspections of the equipment (monthly), or calibration checks (once per year or as recommended by the manufacturer, whichever comes first).

Requirement: The first level of inspection is visual (solar radiation shield can be looked at directly or through binoculars/telescope to check for physical damage or cleanliness – no air flow restrictions, sound of aspiration motor, etc.) The second level of inspection is a “hands on” check which requires removal of the temperature sensor from the tower/mast for further testing/calibration (e.g., replacement/repair of the aspiration motor, calibration testing of the temperature sensor according to the manufacturer’s recommended procedures). Conservatively, operators should not wait for failures and as part of a preventative maintenance program it is recommended that they have a spare aspiration motor/fan on hand and replace/refurbish the active unit as recommended by the manufacturer, or at least once every 2 years. The calibration equipment must be certified against a reference or equivalent standard, and traceable to recognized national primary standards.

The results of the external performance check/calibration must be documented and made available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Audit - Annually or bi-annually

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry every one to two years. Depending upon performance, audits may occur more frequently.

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., anemometer and/or wind vane repairs/replacement, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Solar Radiation

PollutantAmbient Temperature
US EPA Designated Reference and Equivalent MethodNot designated
Reference DocumentsMeteorological Monitoring Guidance for Regulatory Modeling Applications Report EPA-454/R-99-005
MethodDepending on the application, either a net radiometer or a first/second class pyranometres with World Meteorological Organization (WMO) specifications
Operation, Service and Maintenance

This SOP briefly describes the US EPA designated reference methods, or equivalent methods, and available reference documents from various agencies, non-designated monitoring methods accepted by the ministry, the minimum service, operation and maintenance requirements, instrumentation QA/QC requirements (internal and external performance checks), and audits by the ministry. This SOP is not intended to provide a detailed description of monitoring/sampling methods: Emitters and site operators need to review the method reference documents for detailed method descriptions. The requirements specified in this document are minimum requirements and site operators are encouraged to exceed them for optimal performance.

Operation, service and maintenance of the anemometer and wind vanes should in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s opertation manual unless otherwise mentioned. Data is to be collected in standard time (EST or CST as determined by local usage).

Additional Equipment
  • Electrical light bulb (100 watts or similar)
  • Calibrated DVM with proper input impedance
  • Complete opaque cover (for zero check)
Instrumentation QA/QC Requirement
Internal Performance Check - Daily

Description: In this application, an internal performance check is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by inspecting the solar radiation data once per day. These checks are required to remotely assess, in a qualitative sense, performance of the radiation data measurement and collection system and to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC requirements and reporting practices.

Requirement: Solar radiation data are to be inspected daily to check for extreme values (e.g., unusually high/low values, constant temperature readings for sustained periods, sudden and unexpected changes over a short time period, radiation readings >0 at night, etc.), or for values which do not appear to agree with the maximum possible value for the date and latitude. The results of these data checks could suggest equipment failure (faulty sensor, electrical signal processing problems, etc.). Some specific data screening criteria are presented in Table 8-4 of the US EPA report EPA-454/R-99-005. The results of these checks which could suggest system/equipment problems should be acted on as required and documented for data validation purposes.

External Performance Check and Calibration - Monthly (first level inspection) and at least once a year (second level inspection)

Description: In this application, an external performance check and calibration is defined as a QA/QC procedure carried out by the operator, such as physical inspections of the equipment (monthly), or calibration checks (once per year or as recommended by the manufacturer, whichever comes first).

Requirement: The first level of inspection is visual: solar radiation sensor should be checked for physical damage/integrity (scratches or cracks on surfaces of the hemisphere), for cleanliness (optical hemispheres should be cleaned frequently with a soft lint-free cloth) and for any discoloration/deformation of the detectors. This level of inspection should also include confirmation that the site is maintaining acceptable siting criteria so that the radiation data is not adversely affected by nearby objects or surfaces. The second level of inspection is a “hands on” check which requires removal of the solar radiation sensor from the field for further testing and possible zero adjustment/calibration (e.g., calibration/testing according to the manufacturer’s recommended procedures). Conservatively, operators should not wait for failures and as part of a preventative maintenance program it is recommended that they have a spare sensor on hand and replace/refurbish the active unit as recommended by the manufacturer, or at least once every 2 years. The calibration equipment must be certified against a reference or equivalent standard, and traceable to recognized national primary standards.

The results of the external performance check/calibration must be documented and made available for inspection and/or submission to the ministry to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.

Audit - Annually or bi-annually

Description: An audit will be performed by the ministry every one to two years

Requirement: Corrective action (e.g., sensor replacement, data correction, etc.) will be required by the operator if the audit results show non conformance with acceptable operation, service and maintenance requirements. The corrective action must be recorded and reported to the ministry as soon as practical to ensure adherence to ministry QA/QC and reporting practices.