Species at risk by region

Browse a list of species at risk in the selected Ontario region.


  • allegheny-mountain-dusky-salamander

    Allegheny Mountain Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus ochrophaeus)

    Status: endangered

    When seized by a predator, the Allegheny Mountain Dusky Salamander has the ability to self-amputate its tail which continues to twitch, acting as an excellent diversion while the salamander escapes. A new tail soon replaces the old one.

  • blanchards-cricket-frog

    Blanchard's Cricket Frog (Northern Cricket Frog) (Acris crepitanis)

    Status: extirpated

    This species is an excellent swimmer and is capable of leaping up to almost two metres in a single jump to escape predators.

  • eastern-tiger-salamander

    Eastern Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum)

    Status: extirpated


  • fowlers-toad

    Fowler's Toad (Anaxyrus fowleri)

    Status: endangered

    Fowler's Toads are nocturnal and are mostly active at night, but can occasionally be seen during rainy, overcast days.

  • jefferson-salamander

    Jefferson salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum)

    Status: endangered

    Unlike most small animals, Jefferson salamanders can live a very long time - up to 30 years.

  • northern-dusky-salamander

    Northern Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus fuscus)

    Status: endangered

    Northern Dusky Salamanders were once thought to be absent from Ontario, despite many historical reports, but were recently rediscovered in 1989.

  • small-mouthed-salamander

    Small-mouthed Salamander (Ambystoma texanum)

    Status: endangered

    Salamanders can take in oxygen through their highly permeable skin. Their skin can also easily absorb pollutants and other toxins, which can cause serious harm or death.

  • spring-salamander

    Spring Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus)

    Status: extirpated



  • acadian-flycatcher

    Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens)

    Status: endangered

    The Acadian Flycatcher only spends about four months of the year in Canada. The rest of the time, it is migrating or wintering in the tropical forests of Central America and northern South America.

  • bank-swallow

    Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia)

    Status: threatened

    At Long Point, Ontario, inner bay cattail marshes are used as night-time roosting sites by many bank swallows as they fly south for the winter.

  • american-white-pelican

    American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos)

    Status: threatened

    These birds can cooperate in small groups to herd ?sh into shallow areas where they can be easily caught

  • bald-eagle

    Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    Status: special concern

    The raspy scream of the bald eagle often heard on movies and TV is actually from a red-tailed hawk. This bird actually gives a sort of watery, gurgling trill that doesn't sound like it suits the bird.

  • barn-owl

    Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

    Status: endangered

    These birds hunt in the dark and have keen hearing - so keen they can capture prey even in total darkness.

  • barn-swallow

    Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

    Status: threatened

    Barn Swallows make the long flight to Central and South America each fall, returning to southern Canada - including Ontario - each spring.

  • black-tern

    Black Tern (Chlidonias niger)

    Status: special concern

    The Black Tern is very social. It breeds in loose colonies and usually forages, roosts and migrates in flocks of a few to more than 100 birds, occasionally up to tens of thousands.

  • bobolink

    Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus)

    Status: threatened

    These birds migrate from Ontario to Argentina - one of the longest migrations of any North American songbird.

  • canada-warbler

    Canada Warbler (Wilsonia canadensis)

    Status: special concern

    This warbler is one of the last migratory songbird species to return to Canada in the spring and one of the first to leave at the end of summer.

  • cerulean-warbler

    Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea)

    Status: threatened

    Since this warbler is a bird of the tree tops, it is often best identified from below. Birdwatchers will recognize adult males by the thin dark band that crosses the upper part of the predominantly white breast.

  • chimney-swift

    Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica)

    Status: threatened

    These birds breed and roost in chimneys as well as other manmade structures, including air vents, old open wells, outhouses, abandoned cisterns and lighthouses.

  • common-nighthawk

    Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor)

    Status: special concern

    These birds have a specialized reflective structure in their eyes that improves their vision in low-light conditions, helping them find the flying insects they feed on at dawn and dusk.

  • eastern-meadowlark

    Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna)

    Status: threatened

    The Eastern Meadowlark is not actually a lark, but a member of the same family as blackbirds and orioles.

  • eskimo-curlew

    Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis)

    Status: extirpated

    The Eskimo Curlew is considered to be one of the world's most endangered birds and may already be extinct.

  • whip-poor-will

    Eastern Whip-poor-will (Antrostomas vociferus)

    Status: threatened

    Chicks seem to hatch near full moons, giving parents more light for foraging so they can supply the extra energy demands of their rapidly-growing brood.

  • golden-eagle

    Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

    Status: endangered

    The Golden Eagle has a wingspan of just over two metres and can weigh as much as six kilograms!

  • golden-winged-warbler

    Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera)

    Status: special concern

    Golden-winged Warblers tend to nest in loose groups or colonies that contain up to ten pairs of breeding birds

  • greater-prairie-chicken

    Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido)

    Status: extirpated

    The Greater Prairie-Chicken once numbered in the millions in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Ontario, but disappeared from most of its Canadian range by the mid-20th century.

  • henslows-sparrow

    Henslow's Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii)

    Status: endangered

    The Henslow's Sparrow is a short-distance migrant, travelling only as far as the southern United States, primarily from Texas to Georgia.

  • horned-grebe

    Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus)

    Status: special concern

    Chicks can swim and dive as soon as they hatch, but usually spend most of their first week or so of life on their parents' backs, nestled between the parents' wings and riding along while the parents swim.

  • king-rail

    King Rail (Rallus elegans)

    Status: endangered

    During courtship, males present crayfish or small crabs to females in their bill.

  • kirtlands-warbler

    Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii)

    Status: endangered

    Kirtland's Warbler is one of only a few warblers that have the distinctive habit of regularly pumping its tail up and down.

  • least-bittern

    Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis)

    Status: threatened

    The Least Bittern is more likely to be heard than seen in its dense marsh habitat. The typical call given by males is a hollow, quiet coo-coo-coo. When alarmed, they can give a harsh kek-kek-kek call. They are most vocal in early morning and evening, but could potentially call anytime during the day or night.

  • loggerhead-shrike

    Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus)

    Status: endangered

    Shrikes are sometimes called butcher bird because they impale their prey on thorns, barbed wire or sharp twigs.

  • louisiana-waterthrush

    Louisiana Waterthrush (Seiurus motacilla)

    Status: special concern

    The Louisiana Waterthrush is among the earliest long-distance migrating birds to arrive back to Canada in the spring, typically arriving by mid-April.

  • northern-bobwhite

    Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus)

    Status: endangered

    The male and female select the location for the nest and build it together. Both parents share the tasks of incubating eggs and caring for the young, however, it is not uncommon for one of the parents to incubate the first clutch once complete (often the male) while the other leaves to take another mate and start another clutch.

  • olive-sided-flycatcher

    Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi)

    Status: special concern

    This bird's loud and distinct quick, three beers song can be heard from up to a kilometre away.

  • peregrine-falcon

    Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus)

    Status: special concern

    The peregrine falcon is one of the world's fastest animals, and has been clocked diving for prey at speeds of 160 km an hour.

  • piping-plover

    Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus)

    Status: endangered

    Within an hour of hatching and drying off, chicks are able to find their own f

  • prothonotary-warbler

    Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea)

    Status: endangered

    The Prothonotary Warbler was named after legal clerks in the Roman Catholic Church, known as prothonotaries, who sometimes wear a golden hood and a blue cape.

  • red-knot-rufa-subspecies

    Red Knot rufa subspecies (Calidris canutus rufa)

    Status: endangered

    This bird migrates from the central Canadian Arctic to southern South America, a distance of nearly 15,000 kilometres.

  • red-headed-woodpecker

    Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus)

    Status: special concern

    In addition to a bill, woodpeckers have special anatomical features to help them dig holes in wood and find insects. A covering of feathers over the nostrils keeps out pieces of wood and wood powder. A long, barbed tongue searches crevices and cracks for food. And the bird's salivary glands produce a glue-like substance that coats the tongue and, along with the barbs, helps it capture insects.

  • short-eared-owl

    Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus)

    Status: special concern

    Short-eared Owls are nomadic, meaning that individuals wander over large distances, usually settling in areas where prey densities are high.

  • yellow-rail

    Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis)

    Status: special concern

    In the breeding season, males can be heard almost always at night giving their distinct clicking sounds tic-tic, tic-tic-tic, which sound like two stones being banged together. Birdwatchers will use pebbles to imitate the call and attract rails out to the edge of the reeds where they can be briefly observed.

  • yellow-breasted-chat

    Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens)

    Status: endangered

    The Yellow-breasted Chat's song consists of a weird assortment of clicks, whistles ands even chuckles.

  • red-necked-phalarope

    Red-necked Phalarop (Phalaropus labatus)

    Status: special concern

  • grasshopper-sparrow

    Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)

    Status: special concern

Fish and Mussels

  • american-eel

    American Eel (Anguilla rostrata)

    Status: endangered

    These fish can absorb oxygen through their skin as well as their gills, allowing them to travel brie?y over wet grass or mud.

  • black-redhorse

    Black Redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei)

    Status: threatened

    During the breeding season, the body colour of the male Black Redhorse changes from bluish-silver to a darker greenish-black.

  • blackstripe-topminnow

    Blackstripe Topminnow (Fundulus notatus)

    Status: special concern

    During the breeding season, the normally drab-looking, male Eastern Sand Darters become flushed with yellowish colouration and can develop metallic blue and green colours on their cheeks.

  • bridle-shiner

    Bridle Shiner (Notropis bifrenatus)

    Status: special concern

    The Bridle Shiner can be easily confused with the Blacknose Shiner, Blackchin Shiner and the Pugnose Shiner with which it commonly shares clear vegetated habitats.

  • channel-darter

    Channel Darter (Percina copelandi)

    Status: threatened

    The sandy colour of the Channel Darter provides perfect camouflage with the sandy river and lake bottoms where it lives.

  • cutlip-minnow

    Cutlip Minnow (Exoglossum maxillingua)

    Status: threatened

    The Cutlip Minnow is reported to attack and eat the eyes of other fish, which has earned it the nickname eye-picker.

  • eastern-pondmussel

    Eastern Pondmussel (Ligumia nasuta)

    Status: endangered

    To attract ?sh for its larvae to attach to, the female pondmussel produces a lure that looks like the wriggling legs of a swimming shrimp.

  • eastern-sand-darter

    Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida)

    Status: endangered

    During the breeding season, the normally drab-looking, male Eastern Sand Darters become flushed with yellowish colouration and can develop metallic blue and green colours on their cheeks.

  • fawnsfoot

    Fawnsfoot (Truncilla donaciformis)

    Status: endangered

    This mussel can be distinguished from other Canadian freshwater species by the chevron-shaped markings on its shell and its very small size.

  • grass-pickerel

    Grass Pickerel (Esox americanus vermiculatus)

    Status: special concern

    The Grass Pickerel is a top predator and hunts by sight, either stalking or ambushing its preferred prey. Young Grass Pickerel usually feed on insects, while adults target other fish, sometimes even eating the young of their own species.

  • gravel-chub

    Gravel Chub (Erimystax x-punctata)

    Status: extirpated

    The bottom-feeding Gravel Chub uses sensitive barbels, or whiskers, at the corners of its mouth to find its prey of small insects and larvae by probing under rocks and in crevices.

  • hickorynut

    Hickorynut (Obovaria olivaria)

    Status: endangered

    Hickorynut shells were considered valuable for the pearl button industry in the early 20th century, and were harvested for these purposes in the United States.

  • kidneyshell

    Kidneyshell (Ptychobranchus fasciolaris)

    Status: endangered

    Kidneyshell larvae are clustered into packages called conglutinates when released, and somewhat resemble fish fry complete with eye spots, or insect larvae. When a fooled fish bites down on one of these packages, the larvae burst out and attach to the fish gills where they live as parasites and consume nutrients from the fish until they transform into juvenile mussels and drop off.

  • lake-chubsucker

    Lake Chubsucker (Erimyzon sucetta)

    Status: threatened

    Female Lake Chubsuckers can lay up to 20,000 eggs each!

  • lake-sturgeon

    Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    Status: special concern (Southern Hudson Bay/James Bay population), threatened (Northwestern Ontario and Great Lakes-Upper St. Lawrence River populations)

    The oldest known specimen of this fish, from Lake Huron, is 155 years old.

  • mapleleaf-mussel

    Mapleleaf Mussel (Quadrula quadrula)

    Status: threatened

    The Mapleleaf Mussel depends on the channel catfish to survive. By attaching itself to the gills of the catfish, the mussel larvae consume nutrients from the fish until they transform into juvenile mussels and drop off.

  • northern-brook-lamprey

    Northern Brook Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor)

    Status: special concern

    Unlike some other lamprey species, the Northern Brook Lamprey is non-parasitic and does not attach itself to larger host fish. The larvae are filter-feeders, consuming microscopic plant and animal life and decaying matter. Adults have a non-functional intestine and do not feed.

  • northern-madtom

    Northern Madtom (Noturus stigmosus)

    Status: endangered

    The sharp spines and poison glands found on the pectoral fins of the Northern Madtom can cause a painful wound!

  • northern-riffleshell

    Northern Riffleshell (Epioblasma torulosa rangiana)

    Status: endangered

    Northern Riffleshell may be the most imperiled mussel species we have in Ontario, as it is believed there are fewer than 15 locations where this species occurs globally.

  • paddlefish

    Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula)

    Status: extirpated

    Paddlefish have no teeth and eat by filtering zooplankton out of the water. They swim with their mouths open, filtering the water through gill arches in the mouth. The gill arches have filaments on them called gill rakers that sieve the zooplankton organisms from the water.

  • pugnose-minnow

    Pugnose Minnow (Opsopoeodus emiliae)

    Status: threatened

    Pugnose Minnows have a lifespan of about three years.

  • pugnose-shiner

    Pugnose Shiner (Notropis anogenus)

    Status: endangered

    The Pugnose Shiner is one of the rarest minnows in eastern North America.

  • rainbow-mussel

    Rainbow Mussel (Villosa iris)

    Status: threatened

    A mussel larva must attach to a host fish where it stays until is has consumed enough nutrients to transform into a juvenile mussel. The female Rainbow Mussel goes fishing for host fish by producing a lure that looks just like a crayfish, including an eyespot and wriggling legs. When a fooled fish attacks the lure the mussel ejects its larvae, which have a better chance of attaching to the host fish at such a close distance.

  • rayed-bean

    Rayed Bean (Villosa fabalis)

    Status: endangered

    The Rayed Bean is extremely rare throughout its range. It is known from fewer than 25 river systems in Canada and the United States.

  • redside-dace

    Redside Dace (Clinostomus elongatus)

    Status: endangered

    Redside dace are the only fish in Canada with the ability to jump out of the water to eat.

  • river-redhorse

    River Redhorse (Moxostoma carinatum)

    Status: special concern

    The maximum age reported for River Redhorse in Canada is 28 years.

  • round-hickorynut

    Round Hickorynut (Obovaria subrotunda)

    Status: endangered

    It is estimated that Round Hickorynut populations in Canada have declined by more than 90 per cent since the invasion of the Great Lakes by Zebra Mussels.

  • round-pigtoe

    Round Pigtoe (Pleurobema sintoxia)

    Status: endangered

    Round Pigtoe eggs hatch inside a special pouch in the mother's gills called a marsupium, where the larvae are supported before being ejected into the water.

  • salamander-mussel

    Salamander Mussel (Simpsonaias ambigua)

    Status: endangered

    The larvae of most freshwater mussels must attach to a fish host in order to survive. Once attached, the tiny parasitic larvae consume nutrients from the fish until they transform into mussels. The Salamander Mussel is unique in that their larvae use the aquatic Mudpuppy salamander as a host, instead of a fish.

  • shortjaw-cisco

    Shortjaw Cisco (Coregonus zenithicus)

    Status: threatened

    When it was more common, the Shortjaw Cisco was likely an important food source for fish predators such as Lake Trout and Burbot.

  • shortnose-cisco

    Shortnose Cisco (Coregonus reighardi)

    Status: endangered

    The Shortnose Cisco, also called chub, was once commercially fished in the Great Lakes. In the late 1800s it was the main fish caught by Toronto fishing boats. By the 1930s this species was seldom caught and by the 1980s it had nearly disappeared.

  • silver-chub

    Silver Chub (Macrhybopsis storeriana)

    Status: threatened

    Pollution abatement in and around Lake Erie has improved water quality dramatically which has helped improve habitat conditions for the Silver Chub.

  • silver-lamprey

    Silver Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis)

    Status: Special Concern (Great Lakes - Upper St. Lawrence River Population)

    Silver lampreys belong to the most ancestral lineage of vertebrates (animals with backbones). From them we may be able to learn about evolutionary pathways, such as the transition from jawless to jawed vertebrates.

  • silver-shiner

    Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis)

    Status: special concern

    Silver Shiners are easily confused with Emerald Shiners and Rosyface Shiners, which may have contributed to the fact that they were only confirmed in Canada in 1973, but may have always been present.

  • snuffbox

    Snuffbox (Epioblasma triquetra)

    Status: endangered

    The Snuffbox's main host is the Logperch, which is known to frequently roll over small stones and gravel in search of food. The Snuffbox waits patiently for a Logperch to come along and touch its shell. The Snuffbox then captures the Logperch in its shell and holds the stunned fish long enough to puff out a cloud of mussel larvae that attach to the fish gills, where they live as parasites that consume nutrients from the fish body. The startled fish is then released.

  • spotted-gar

    Spotted Gar (Lepisosteus oculatus)

    Status: threatened

    The Spotted Gar can breathe air! It uses a special organ called a swim bladder like a lung when the fish comes to the surface for a breath of air. This allows the fish to live in areas with little oxygen in the water. Like most fishes, the Spotted Gar also uses gills to breath underwater.

  • spotted-sucker

    Spotted Sucker (Minytrema melanops)

    Status: special concern

    Spotted Sucker was not observed in Canada until 1962, when it was captured by a commerical fisherman in Lake St. Clair.

  • upper-great-lakes-kiyi

    Upper Great Lakes Kiyi (Coregonus kiyi kiyi)

    Status: special concern

    The Kiyi can be distinguished from the two other deepwater cisco species, Bloater and Shortjaw Cisco, known to exist in the Great Lakes by its unique combination of long paired fins, and eyes so large they make up almost 25 per cent of the head length.

  • warmouth

    Warmouth (Lepomis gulosus)

    Status: endangered

    The Warmouth feeds on small fishes, crayfishes and aquatic insects, and is likely to eat proportionally more fishes than most sunfishes.

  • wavy-rayed-lampmussel

    Wavy-rayed Lampmussel (Lampsilis fasciola)

    Status: threatened

    The Wavy-rayed Lampmussel can fish. To attract a fish host that its parasitic larvae can attach to, the female produces a lure that looks like a wriggling minnow. When a fooled fish attacks the lure, the mussel ejects its larvae, which have a better chance of attaching to the host at such a close distance.


  • mottled-duskywing

    Mottled duskywing (Erynnis martialis)

    Status: endangered

    The mottled duskywing lives in some of the rarest ecosystems in Ontario, such as oak woodlands, pine woodlands and tallgrass prairies. Other butterfly species with similar habitats, such as the Karner blue, frosted elfin and eastern Persius duskywing, have mostly disappeared from Ontario and Canada.

  • riverine-clubtail

    Riverine clubtail (Stylurus amnicola)

    Status: endangered

    Members of the riverine clubtail's genus are referred to as hanging clubtails for their habit of hanging vertically (tails pointing downward) when perched on streamside vegetation.

  • american-burying-beetle

    American Burying Beetle (Nicrophorus americanus)

    Status: extirpated

    American burying beetles are the largest carrion feeding insects in North America. These beetles have highly sensitive organs on their antennae that can detect the smell of decaying flesh three kilometres away.

  • aweme-borer-moth

    Aweme Borer Moth (Papaipema aweme)

    Status: endangered

    An Aweme Borer was found on Manitoulin Island in 2005 - the first sighting of this species in almost 70 years!

  • bogbean-buckmoth

    Bogbean Buckmoth (Hemileuca sp.)

    Status: endangered

    Unlike most buckmoths, which live in drier habitats, the Bogbean Buckmoth depends primarily on wetlands that support the bogbean, its preferred food source.

  • eastern-persius-duskywing

    Eastern Persius Duskywing (Erynnis persius persius)

    Status: extirpated


  • frosted-elfin

    Frosted Elfin (Callophrys irus)

    Status: extirpated

    The Frosted Elfin is a poor flier, which, along with its dependence on lupine, may explain why its populations are isolated and scattered.

  • hines-emerald

    Hine's Emerald (Somatochlora hineana)

    Status: endangered

    Hine's Emerald lives for three to five years, spending most of that time underwater as larvae.

  • hungerfords-crawling-water-beetle

    Hungerford's Crawling Water Beetle (Brychius hungerfordi)

    Status: endangered

    This beetle is likely a glacial relict, a species that survived from the ice age in an isolated habitat.

  • karner-blue

    Karner Blue (Lycaeides Melissa Samuelis)

    Status: extirpated

    The Karner Blue has a lifespan of about five days as an adult butterfly.

  • lauras-clubtail

    Laura's Clubtail (Stylurus laurae)

    Status: endangered

    Laura's Clubtail was first recorded in Ontario in 1999.

  • monarch

    Monarch (Danaus plexippus)

    Status: special concern

    Caterpillars store a toxin in milkweed plants they eat, making them poisonous to bird predators as adults.

  • northern-barrens-tiger-beetle

    Northern Barrens Tiger Beetle (Cicindela patruela)

    Status: endangered

    Females lay about 50 eggs during early summer, placing each egg in an individual hole in the ground.

  • pygmy-snaketail

    Pygmy Snaketail (Ophiogomphus howei)

    Status: endangered

    Adult Pygmy Snaketails are rarely seen because they spend much of their time in the forest canopy.

  • rapids-clubtail

    Rapids Clubtail (Gomphus quadricolor)

    Status: endangered

    Larvae bury themselves under a fine layer of sediment and breathe through the exposed tips of their abdomens.

  • rusty-patched-bumble-bee

    Rusty-patched Bumble Bee (Bombus affinis)

    Status: endangered

    The Rusty-patched Bumble Bee gets nectar from flowers by biting a hole in the outside of it and sucking up the nectar with its tongue. This behaviour, called nectar-robbing, leaves marks on the flower than can help researchers detect the bees' presence in an area.

  • west-virginia-white

    West Virginia White (Pieris virginiensis)

    Status: special concern

    This butterfly was officially listed as endangered by Ontario in 1977, but in 1990, after a review of its distribution and abundance, its status was changed to vulnerable (now special concern).

  • yellow-banded-bumble-bee

    Yellow-banded Bumble Bee (Bombus terricola)

    Status: special concern

  • gypsy-cuckoo-bumble-bee

    Gypsy Cuckoo Bumble Bee (Bombus bohemicus)

    Status: endangered


  • american-badger

    American badger (Taxidea taxus)

    Status: endangered

    When threatened, badgers release a foul smelling musk to drive off enemies.

  • beluga

    Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Status: special concern

    The Beluga's enlarged forehead is involved in echo-location, in which clicks are emitted to help locate prey and aid in navigation under ice. The forehead is thought to focus the clicks.

  • eastern-mole

    Eastern Mole (Scalopus aquaticus)

    Status: special concern

    Eastern Moles can dig more than a metre in an hour, and their tunnels can be up to a kilometre long.

  • eastern-small-footed-bat

    Eastern Small-footed Myotis (Myotis leibii)

    Status: endangered

    The eastern small-footed bat is the smallest bat and one of the rarest bats in eastern North America.

  • algonquin-wolf

    Algonquin Wolf (Canis sp.)

    Status: threatened

    Ontario is home to the majority of the global range for the Algonquin Wolf. It is also found in Quebec.

  • grey-fox

    Grey Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)

    Status: threatened

    Grey Foxes can climb trees! They use their sharp, hooked claws to scramble up tree trunks and can even jump from branch to branch.

  • little-brown-bat

    Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus)

    Status: endangered

    Little brown bats are one of only two bat species in Ontario that are known to use human structures as summer maternity colony habitat.

  • mountain-lion-cougar

    Mountain Lion (Cougar) (Puma concolor)

    Status: endangered

    Cougars rarely chase their prey. They are masters of camouflage and will slowly and silently slink forward and then pounce. The Cougar usually hunts at night.

  • northern-long-eared-bat

    Northern Long-eared Myotis (Myotis septentrionalis)

    Status: endangered

    While most Ontario bats catch their dinner in mid-air, northern long-eared bats have also been observed flying down and picking insects off tree leaves, grasses and the ground.

  • polar-bear

    Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus)

    Status: threatened

    Female polar bears can travel more than 3,500 kilometres in a year.

  • wolverine

    Wolverine (Gulo gulo)

    Status: threatened

    Wolverines mark their territory with urine and a musty-smelling scent from glands at the base of the tail, which led to its nickname skunk-bear. This scent marker tells other animals, This area is occupied!

  • woodland-caribou

    Caribou, Boreal population (Rangifer tarandus)

    Status: threatened

    Caribou are excellent swimmers with hollow hair that makes them extremely buoyant.

  • woodland-vole

    Woodland Vole (Microtus pinetorum)

    Status: special concern

    Woodland Voles are monogamous, and both males and females participate in caring for the young.

  • tri-colored-bat

    Tr-colored Bat (Perimyotis subflavus)

    Status: endangered

Plants and Lichens

  • american-chestnut

    American Chestnut (Castanea dentata)

    Status: endangered

    People used the American Chestnut for treating numerous ailments (from coughs and dermatitis to heart trouble), as a staple food and beverage, to build shelters, for firewood and as a source of dye. Early settlers soon realized the many important uses of this tree.

  • american-columbo

    American Columbo (Frasera caroliniensis)

    Status: endangered

    American Columbo may live for many years but it flowers only once and then dies.

  • american-ginseng

    American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius)

    Status: endangered

    Aboriginal people have used American Ginseng for a wide range of medicinal purposes including treatment of headaches, earaches, rheumatism, convulsions, bleeding, fevers, vomiting, tuberculosis, gonorrhea and as a cure-all when other treatments failed.

  • american-harts-tongue-fern

    Hart's-tongue Fern (Asplenium scolopendrium)

    Status: special concern

    Hart's-tongue Fern has very specific habitat requirements, making transplantation and artificial propagation difficult.

  • american-water-willow

    American Water-willow (Justicia americana)

    Status: threatened

    American Water-willow (Latin name: Justicia americana) is named after James Justice who was an 18th century Scottish horticulturalist and botanist. Americana refers to the plant being native to the Americas.

  • bent-spike-rush

    Bent Spike-rush (Eleocharis geniculata)

    Status: endangered

    This plant can store seeds in the soil for years waiting for the right conditions to grow.

  • birds-foot-violet

    Bird's-foot Violet (Viola pedata)

    Status: endangered

    Bird's-foot Violet has a creative way to disperse seeds. The tiny seeds are contained inside a smooth green seedpod that bursts open and flings the seeds up to five metres away.

  • blue-ash

    Blue Ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata)

    Status: threatened

    Blue Ash is named for the dye which can be extracted by mashing and cooking the inner trunk bark. It was used by First Nations and early European settlers.

  • bluehearts

    Bluehearts (Buchnera americana)

    Status: endangered

    The seeds of Bluehearts require light to germinate. As a result, the species depends on disturbances such as fire and water level fluctuations to prevent shade-producing vegetation, trees and shrubs from taking over their habitat.

  • blunt-lobed-woodsia

    Blunt-lobed Woodsia (Woodsia obtusa)

    Status: endangered

    Blunt-lobed Woodsia may live as long as several decades.

  • branched-bartonia

    Branched Bartonia (Bartonia paniculata)

    Status: threatened

    This plant's tiny fruits are only about four millimetres long, but each fruit contains 1,000 to 1,500 seeds.

  • broad-beech-fern

    Broad Beech Fern (Phegopteris hexagonoptera)

    Status: special concern

    Broad Beech Fern reproduces through spores. The spores are contained in a case-like structure called a sporangium. The sporangia burst upon maturity at the end of summer and the spores are scattered through the air.

  • butternut

    Butternut (Juglans cinerea)

    Status: endangered

    Aboriginal people used this plant medicinally to treat toothaches, injuries and digestive problems.

  • cherry-birch

    Cherry Birch (Betula lenta)

    Status: endangered

    A Cherry Birch tree can live for 265 years or longer.

  • climbing-prairie-rose

    Climbing Prairie Rose (Rosa setigera)

    Status: special concern

    Climbing Prairie Rose is dioecious (having male and female reproductive structures on separate plants), which is unusual for rose species.

  • colicroot

    Colicroot (Aletris farinosa)

    Status: threatened

    Colicroot is also known as Ague root because it was used to treat some fevers, which were often referred to as ague in Middle English.

  • common-hoptree

    Common Hoptree (Ptelea trifoliata)

    Status: threatened

    Common Hoptree is one of two native larval host plants for the rare Giant Swallowtail butterfly.

  • crooked-stem-aster

    Crooked-stem Aster (Symphyotrichum prenanthoides)

    Status: threatened

    Bees and butterflies pollinate the flowers of the Crooked-stem Aster. The seeds are scattered by wind after ripening.

  • cucumber-tree

    Cucumber Tree (Magnolia acuminata)

    Status: endangered

    The Cucumber Tree gets its name from its fruit that is pickle-like in shape and changes from green to red as it ripens. Once ripe, the oily, scented seeds are exposed and hang by fine threads. It is assumed that birds are the main consumers and dispersers of these seeds.

  • deerberry

    Deerberry (Vaccinium stamineum)

    Status: threatened

    Efforts are being made at St. Lawrence Islands National Park to re-introduce Deerberry to other areas of the park where the habitat is suitable, in order to increase the overall numbers of the species. Related research is being carried out in partnership with universities.

  • dense-blazing-star

    Dense Blazing Star (Liatris spicata)

    Status: threatened

    Dense Blazing Star is able to grow in soil that is contaminated with cadmium by turning this toxic heavy metal into a non-toxic form in its tissues.

  • drooping-trillium

    Drooping Trillium (Trillium flexipes)

    Status: endangered

    Drooping Trillium may take up to 10 years to produce flowers.

  • dwarf-hackberry

    Dwarf Hackberry (Celtis tenuifolia)

    Status: threatened

    Many insects rely on the Dwarf Hackberry for survival. Several rare insects, including beetles that were only recently discovered in Canada, also depend on the Dwarf Hackberry for part of their life cycles.

  • dwarf-lake-iris

    Dwarf Lake Iris (Iris lacustris)

    Status: special concern

    Michigan recently designated the Dwarf Lake Iris as its official wildflower.

  • eastern-flowering-dogwood

    Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida)

    Status: endangered

    The bright red fruit of this tree is poisonous to humans but can be eaten by over 50 species of birds and small mammals. These animals help distribute Eastern Flowering Dogwood seeds throughout forests.

  • eastern-prairie-fringed-orchid

    Eastern prairie fringed-orchid (Platanthera leucophaea)

    Status: endangered

    This orchid's seeds are produced in huge numbers, but germination and seedling growth depend on the presence of special fungi in the soil.

  • eastern-prickly-pear-cactus

    Eastern Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia humifusa)

    Status: endangered

    Birds sometimes nest among the stems of the Eastern Prickly Pear Cactus, where spines of the cactus aid in protecting eggs and nestlings from predators.

  • engelmanns-quillwort

    Engelmann's quillwort (Isoetes engelmannii)

    Status: endangered

    Researchers need to examine this plant under a microscope to tell the difference between different types of quillworts.

  • false-hop-sedge

    False Hop Sedge (Carex lupuliformis)

    Status: endangered

    The tiny flowers of False Hop Sedge are wind pollinated, so the plant does not attract many insects. However, the caterpillars of various butterflies, skippers, and moths feed on various sedge species, while a number of species of birds feed on the seeds.

  • false-rue-anemone

    False Rue-anemone (Enemion biternatum)

    Status: threatened

    Unlike other flowering plants, False Rue-anemone does not produce nectar to attract insects to pollinate its flowers. However, because it is one of the first plants to produce flowers in the spring, it is able to attract insects that don't yet have tastier options.

  • few-flowered-club-rush

    Few-flowered club rush (Trichophorum planifolium)

    Status: endangered

    All Canadian populations of this plant have been found near openings in the forest canopy, suggesting that once the ground is heavily shaded, this sedge cannot survive.

  • forked-three-awned-grass

    Forked Three-awned Grass (Aristida basiramea)

    Status: endangered

    Since Forked Three-awned Grass is an annual, its growth and reproduction are influenced by each year's environmental conditions. This makes estimating population size difficult, as a number of plants present in an area may remain relatively undetectable in the soil seed bank during any given year.

  • four-leaved-milkweed

    Four-leaved Milkweed (Asclepias quadrifolia)

    Status: endangered

    The two populations of Four-leaved Milkweed which are known to still exist in Ontario were only recently discovered - in 2006 and 2007. It is possible that additional populations may be identified in the future.

  • gattingers-agalinis

    Gattinger's Agalinis (Agalinis gattingeri)

    Status: endangered

    Gattinger's Agalinis looks so similar to its close relative, Skinner's Agalinis, that it can only be distinguished by experts who closely analyze specific features of the flowers, leaves and stems.

  • goldenseal

    Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis)

    Status: threatened

    A tea made from the roots of Goldenseal was used in traditional aboriginal medicine to treat a variety of complaints including ulcerated or inflamed mucous membranes. This plant continues to be popular in herbal medicine today, but only farm-grown Goldenseal should be used owing to its extreme rarity in the wild.

  • green-dragon

    Green Dragon (Arisaema dracontium)

    Status: special concern

    The Green Dragon's root is bitter tasting and poisonous unless specially prepared, but it was used medicinally by Aboriginal people and European settlers.

  • heart-leaved-plantain

    Heart-leaved Plantain (Plantago cordata)

    Status: endangered

    Heart-leaved Plantain is capable of self-pollinating but generally the seeds are wind-pollinated.

  • hills-pondweed

    Hill's Pondweed (Potamogeton hillii)

    Status: special concern

    Hill's Pondweed was not discovered in Ontario until 1951, but a specimen in the Canadian Museum of Nature was collected in 1901. More historical specimens may be discovered in Canadian collections.

  • hills-thistle

    Hill's Thistle (Cirsium hillii)

    Status: threatened

    In Ontario, Hill's Thistle often grows with other species at risk such as Lakeside Daisy and Houghton's Goldenrod.

  • hoary-mountain-mint

    Hoary Mountain-mint (Pycnanthemum incanum)

    Status: endangered

    Hoary Mountain-mint is a very fragrant plant that is attractive to bees and known to produce high quality honey.

  • horsetail-spike-rush

    Horsetail Spike-rush (Eleocharis equisetoides)

    Status: endangered

    Horsetail Spike-rush was used by the Seminole Indians to make beads for jewelry.

  • houghtons-goldenrod

    Houghton's Goldenrod (Solidago houghtonii)

    Status: threatened

    Houghton's Goldenrod is thought to have evolved as a result of hybridization between two other goldenrod species and a subsequent increase in chromosome number.

  • illinois-tick-trefoil

    Illinois Tick-trefoil (Desmodium illinoense)

    Status: extirpated

    Illinois Tick-trefoil has explosive blossoms, which means that when a bee or butterfly stops on a flower, a cloud of pollen is shot at it.

  • incurved-grizzled-moss

    Incurved Grizzled Moss (Ptychomitrium incurvum)

    Status: extirpated


  • juniper-sedge

    Juniper Sedge (Carex juniperorum)

    Status: endangered

    This species is new to science. The biology of the Juniper Sedge is not well known, since the plant was only discovered in Ontario in the early 1990s.

  • kentucky-coffee-tree

    Kentucky Coffee-tree (Gymnocladus dioicus)

    Status: threatened

    The leaves and seeds of Kentucky Coffee-tree contain a toxic substance, the alkaloid, cytosine, which may be fatal if consumed. However, aboriginal people used the roasted seeds of the Kentucky Coffee-tree to treat headaches and relieve digestion problems. Roasting is supposed to neutralize the toxins.

  • lakeside-daisy

    Lakeside Daisy (Tetraneuris herbacea)

    Status: threatened

    The Ontario populations of Lakeside Daisy constitute about 95 per cent of the populations existing in the world. Lakeside Daisy is one of very few plant species with most of its global range in Ontario.

  • large-whorled-pogonia

    Large Whorled Pogonia (Isotria verticillata)

    Status: endangered

    As do all orchids, Large Whorled Pogonia has a symbiotic relationship with fungus found in the soil, which means they are interdependent for nourishment and survival. The Large Whorled Pogonia will only produce seeds if the necessary fungus is present in the soil.

  • nodding-pogonia

    Nodding Pogonia (Triphora trianthophoros)

    Status: endangered

    Orchids can remain dormant in the soil before emerging when the conditions are suitable.

  • ogdens-pondweed

    Ogden's Pondweed (Potamogeton ogdenii)

    Status: endangered

    Pondweeds provide habitat for aquatic invertebrates, food for mammals and waterfowl, and hiding places for amphibians and fish.

  • pale-bellied-frost-lichen

    Pale-bellied Frost Lichen (Physconia subpallida)

    Status: endangered

    This lichen grows on the surface of other plants, rocks, or structures and derives nutrients from the air and rain.

  • pink-milkwort

    Pink Milkwort (Polygala incarnata)

    Status: endangered

    Fire plays an important role in maintaining open prairie habitat where Pink Milkwort lives. Fire actually stimulates the growth of these hardy flowers and naturally removes trees and shrubs that would otherwise overtake its habitat.

  • pitchers-thistle

    Pitcher's Thistle (Cirsium pitcheri)

    Status: threatened

    Pitcher's Thistle was named after Dr. Zina Pitcher, who discovered the plant while serving as an army surgeon during the 1820s at Fort Brady, Sault Ste. Marie on Lake Superior.

  • purple-twayblade

    Purple Twayblade (Liparis liliifolia)

    Status: threatened

    Purple Twayblade often grows in grassland savanna - one of the most endangered habitats in Canada. This extremely rare community supports an amazing diversity of wildlife, plants, butterflies and other insects.

  • pygmy-pocket-moss

    Pygmy Pocket Moss (Fissidens exilis)

    Status: special concern

    Pygmy Pocket Moss can self-fertilize and produce fertile spores without being in close proximity to other Pygmy Pocket Mosses.

  • red-mulberry

    Red Mulberry (Morus rubra)

    Status: endangered

    Unlike most fruit trees that are pollinated by insects, the flowers of this plant are pollinated by the wind.

  • riddells-goldenrod

    Riddell's Goldenrod (Solidago riddellii)

    Status: special concern

    Riddell's Goldenrod has the potential to self-pollinate but it is primarily an out-breeder, pollinated by a variety of flies, bees, wasps, and moths.

  • round-leaved-greenbrier

    Round-leaved Greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia)

    Status: threatened

    The seeds of Round-leaved Greenbrier can remain buried in the soil for at least three years while waiting for the right conditions to start growing a new plant.

  • scarlet-ammannia

    Scarlet Ammannia (Ammannia robusta)

    Status: endangered

    In British Columbia, Scarlet Ammannia is found alongside another species at risk, Toothcup (Rotala ramosior). While these species are also both found in Ontario, they do not occur together here.

  • showy-goldenrod

    Showy Goldenrod (Solidago speciosa)

    Status: threatened (Boreal population), endangered (Great Lakes Plains population)

    The root of this species was used by Aboriginal people for burns, strained muscles, trouble breathing and difficult labour.

  • shumard-oak

    Shumard Oak (Quercus shumardii)

    Status: special concern

    The Shumard Oak's shiny, deep-lobed leaves help distinguish the species from the similar-looking Red Oak.

  • skinners-agalinis

    Skinner's Agalinis (Agalinis skinneriana)

    Status: endangered

    Skinner's Agalinis is able to steal nutrients from other plants. It uses a fungus to attach its own roots to the roots of its host plant, and is then able to leech nutrients and water out of the plant.

  • slender-bush-clover

    Slender Bush-clover (Lespedeza virginica)

    Status: endangered

    Fire plays an important roll in maintaining the prairie habitat of Slender Bush-clover. Fire naturally removes trees, shrubs and many invasive plants that would otherwise shade-out prairie plants.

  • small-white-ladys-slipper

    Small White Lady's-slipper (Cypripedium candidum)

    Status: endangered

    Individual Small White Lady's-slipper plants may not flower until as many as 16 years after germination.

  • small-whorled-pogonia

    Small Whorled Pogonia (Isotria medeoloides)

    Status: endangered

    The Small Whorled Pogonia appears to be primarily self-pollinated. The flowers lack nectar guides and fragrance and insect pollination has not been observed.

  • small-flowered-lipocarpha

    Small-flowered Lipocarpha (Lipocarpha micrantha)

    Status: threatened

    This tiny plant has a very wide range. It is found all the way from Brazil to southern Canada, and in Africa.

  • spoon-leaved-moss

    Spoon-leaved Moss (Bryoandersonia illecebra)

    Status: endangered

    A previously unknown population of Spoon-leaved Moss was discovered in Welland County in 2002.

  • spotted-wintergreen

    Spotted Wintergreen (Chimaphila maculata)

    Status: endangered

    Aboriginal peoples used Spotted Wintergreen for a variety of medicinal purposes including as a poultice, for rheumatism, and for the treatment of colds and fevers.

  • spring-blue-eyed-mary

    Spring Blue-eyed Mary (Collinsia verna)

    Status: extirpated

    The plant's flowers are pollinated by bees, butterflies and flies.

  • swamp-rose-mallow

    Swamp Rose-mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos)

    Status: special concern

    The total Canadian population of Swamp Rose-mallow is estimated to consist of fewer than 10,000 plants.

  • toothcup

    Lowland Toothcup (Rotala ramosior)

    Status: endangered

    The populations of Toothcup in Canada are believed to be post-glacial relicts - a once widespread natural population surviving only in isolated localities in British Columbia and Ontario because of environmental changes.

  • tuberous-indian-plantain

    Tuberous Indian-plantain (Arnoglossum plantagineum)

    Status: special concern

    Tuberous refers to the plant's fleshy, thickened roots.

  • virginias-goats-rue

    Virginia Goat's-rue (Tephrosia virginiana)

    Status: endangered

    Virginia Goat's-rue has its own self-defence against pesky insects. The chemical rotenone has been found in the plant, a chemical that is used as an insecticide and piscicide.

  • virginia-mallow

    Virginia Mallow (Sida hermaphrodita)

    Status: endangered

    In Poland and Russia, this plant is cultivated and used as biomass for creating energy and heat.

  • western-silvery-aster

    Western Silvery Aster (Symphyotrichum sericeum)

    Status: endangered

    This plant is Ontario's rarest aster, growing in rare bur oak savannahs.

  • white-prairie-gentian

    White Prairie Gentian (Gentiana alba)

    Status: endangered

    Bumblebees are one of the few insects that are strong enough to open the White Prairie Gentian's flowers and pollinate them.

  • white-wood-aster

    White Wood Aster (Eurybia divaricata)

    Status: threatened

    The flowers of White Wood Aster are attractive to butterflies and it is the host plant for Pearly Crescents, a common North American butterfly.

  • wild-hyacinth

    Wild Hyacinth (Camassia scilloides)

    Status: threatened

    A single Wild Hyacinth can produce over 100 flowers in a single season.

  • willowleaf-aster

    Willowleaf Aster (Symphyotrichum praealtum)

    Status: threatened

    Aboriginal people used Willowleaf Aster to treat stomach aches and injuries. They also smoked the dried leaves for good luck while hunting.

  • wood-poppy

    Wood-poppy (Stylophorum diphyllum)

    Status: endangered

    Wood-poppy seeds have an elaiosome, which is a fleshy structure that is rich in lipids and proteins. Ants, which are attracted to these elaiosomes, carry them back to their nests, feed them to their larvae, and then discard the intact seed. In doing this, the ants serve as dispersers of the Wood-poppy seeds.

Snakes and Lizards

  • blue-racer

    Blue Racer (Coluber constrictor foxii)

    Status: endangered

    The Blue Racer is among the most graceful and swiftest of Ontario's snakes, though it only reaches a top speed of 12 to16 kilometres per hour. It is easily startled and will flee if threatened. It will also imitate a rattlesnake by vibrating the tip of its tail in leaf litter to produce a buzzing sound.

  • butlers-gartersnake

    Butler's Gartersnake (Thamnophis butleri)

    Status: endangered

    The Butler's Gartersnake exhibits a peculiar behaviour called side-winding. When excited, it will vigorously wriggle from side to side, making little forward progress.

  • common-five-lined-skink

    Common Five-lined Skink (Plestiodon fasciatus)

    Status: endangered (Carolinian population), special concern (Great Lakes/St. Lawrence population)

    When attacked by a potential predator, a skink's tail can autotomize: spontaneously break off and thrash for several minutes, distracting the predator so the lizard can escape. The tail is able to grow back at a rate of about six millimetres a week.

  • eastern-foxsnake

    Eastern Foxsnake (Pantherophis gloydi)

    Status: endangered (Carolinian population), threatened (Georgian Bay population)

    If frightened, this harmless snake will mimic a rattlesnake by vibrating the tip of its tail in leaf litter to produce a buzzing noise.

  • eastern-hog-nosed-snake

    Eastern Hog-nose snake (Heterodon platirhinos)

    Status: threatened

    Unlike other snakes that tend to hibernate in groups, the Eastern Hog-nosed Snake usually spends the winter months alone. It may hibernate in a pre-existing burrow or dig a burrow in the ground with its snout.

  • eastern-ribbonsnake

    Eastern Ribbonsnake (Thamnophis sauritus)

    Status: special concern

    Many species of snakes lay eggs, but Eastern Ribbonsnakes give birth to live young.

  • gray-ratsnake

    Gray Ratsnake (Pantherophis spiloides)

    Status: endangered (Carolinian population), threatened (Frontenac Axis population)

    This snake is an excellent climber and may be seen up a tree or bush sunning, preparing to shed its skin or hunting for prey.

  • lake-erie-watersnake

    Lake Erie Watersnake (Nerodia sipedon insularum)

    Status: endangered

    Lake Erie Watersnakes can be a paler colour than watersnakes found elsewhere in Ontario. This is believed to be an adaptation that helps the snake camouflage on the pale limestone beaches characteristic of the islands it inhabits.

  • massasauga-rattlesnake

    Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus)

    Status: threatened

    The Massasauga is very shy and prefers to hide or retreat from enemies rather than bite them. If threatened, it will shake its tail as a warning and strike only as a last resort to protect itself if it can not escape.

  • queensnake

    Queensnake (Regina septemvittata)

    Status: endangered

    Queensnakes are excellent swimmers and can often be seen swimming and hunting underwater for their main food source - freshly-moulted crayfish. When freshly moulted, crayfish are soft, defenceless and easier to swallow. Ironically, during winter hibernation, crayfish turn the table and will eat juvenile and hibernating Queensnakes.

  • timber-rattlesnake

    Timber Ratlesnake (Crotalus horridus)

    Status: extirpated

    Individuals return to the same hibernation site year after year.


  • eastern-box-turtle

    Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina)

    Status: extirpated

  • blandings-turtle

    Blanding's Turtle (Emydoidea blandingii)

    Status: threatened

    These turtles can survive in the wild for more than 75 years.

  • eastern-musk-turtle

    Eastern Musk Turtle (Sternotherus odoratus)

    Status: threatened

    Unlike other turtles, the Eastern Musk Turtle rarely leaves the water except when females lay eggs. It spends most of the day resting on the soft lake bottom, foraging for food or basking in the sun under floating aquatic vegetation in shallow water.

  • northern-map-turtle

    Northern Map Turtle (Graptemys geographica)

    Status: special concern

    The Northern Map Turtle is extremely wary and will dive into the water at the slightest provocation.

  • snapping-turtle

    Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina)

    Status: special concern

    These turtles spend so much time underwater that algae grow on their shells. This helps them blend in with their surroundings.

  • spiny-softshell

    Spiny Softshell (Apalone spinifera spinifera)

    Status: threatened

    The Spiny Softshell turtle captures crayfish and molluscs by partially burying itself underwater in the sand or mud and snatching unsuspecting prey. Its snorkel-like snout allows it to take a breath of air while submerged.

  • spotted-turtle

    Spotted Turtle (Clemmys guttata)

    Status: endangered

    Most female and male turtles look a little bit different. In the case of Spotted Turtles, females have bright orange eyes and chins whereas males' are dark brown or black.

  • wood-turtle

    Wood Turtle (Glyptemys insculpta)

    Status: endangered

    Wood turtles do not begin reproducing until they are at least 17 years old.

Updated: June 20, 2016