Treaty teaching and learning resources
Increase your understanding of the importance of treaties in Ontario.
On this page Skip this page navigation
Please note: Some of the resources below were created by external partners and do not necessarily reflect the opinions or positions of the Ministry of Indigenous Affairs or the Government of Ontario.
Lesson plans and guides
- Historica Canada’s Treaties in Canada Education Guide (PDF) has discussion topics, including Indigenous oral traditions, a historical timeline of treaties and case studies
- Archives of Ontario James Bay Treaty lesson kits for grade 6 and grade 9 students and map of Treaty No. 9 signing locations
Printable resources for students
Treaty resources that you can print to help students learn about treaties in a fun and interactive way:
Indigenous partner resources
- Anishinabek Nation's teachers resource order form
- Anishinabek Nation's Ezhi-nawending: How we are related treaty education resource
- Anishinabek Nation’s Gdoo-Sastamoo Kii Mi treaty-related curriculum resources
- Videos: Indigenous voices on treaties. Listen to Indigenous Elders and knowledge keepers on the importance of treaties, treaty relationships and treaty rights in Ontario
- French educational videos available through Idéllo, including (in French only):
- The Indigenous Relations Project is a French resource with guides and videos to support the Ontario Ministry of Education curriculum. Videos include (in French only):
- Treaties in Ontario infographic (PDF) shows the number of treaties in Ontario, the regions they cover and the populations within treaty areas
- Canadian Encyclopedia’s Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada
- Historic treaties and treaty First Nations in Canada infographic
- Archives of Ontario James Bay Treaty virtual exhibit
- Ontario treaties and reserves allows you to search for a city, address or postal code to find nearby treaties and reserves in Ontario
- Ontario First Nations and treaties map shows treaty locations in Ontario. Order a copy for the classroom for free from Publications Ontario. A downloadable version (Publication #: 301069) and a printed version (Publication #: 301068) are available.
- Maps of Treaty-Making in Canada shows the Pre-1975 treaties of Canada, covering most of Ontario and negotiated between 1725 and 1923
- Algonquins of Ontario settlement area boundary map (PDF) shows the largest land claim currently being negotiated and the province’s first modern-day treaty
- A map of Indigenous Trail Markers shows 25 educational markers honouring the culture and history of Indigenous peoples along the TransCanada Trail
- Craft, Aimée. Treaty Words: For As Long As the Rivers Flow (FNCR 2022). Illustrated by Luke Swinson. Annick Press, 2021.
- Crawford, Kelly. Alex Shares His Wampum Belt. Illustrated by Don Chretien. North Bay: Union of Ontario Indians, 2017.
- Crawford, Kelly. Dakota Talks About Treaties. Illustrated by Don Chretien. North Bay: Union of Ontario Indians, 2017.
- General, Sara and General, Alyssa M. Treaty Baby. Spirit & Intent, 2016.
- Lynxleg, Betty. Treaty Tales (Set of 3). Manitoba First Nations Education Resource Centre, 2015.
- Misiak, Zig. Wampum: The Story of Shaylyn the Clam. Illustrated by Jennifer Bettio. Brantford: Real Peoples History, 2015.
- Robertson, Robbie. Hiawatha and the Peacemaker. Illustrated by David Shannon. New York: Abrams Books, 2015.
- Willett, Mindy, Zoe, Philip and Zoe, Therese. The Land is our Storybook: Living Stories: Godi Weghaa Ets eeda -hc. Fifth House Publishers, 2009.
- Rose, Simon. Indigenous Life in Canada: Governance. Beech Street Books, 2018.
- Rose, Simon. Indigenous Life in Canada: Treaties. Beech Street Books, 2018.
- Rose, Simon. Understanding Canadian Government and Citizenship. Beech Street Books, 2020.
- Switzer, Maurice. We are all Treaty People. Illustrated by Charley Hebert. North Bay: Union of Ontario Indians, 2011.
- Gilio-Whitaker Dina. As Long As the Grass Grows. Beacon Books, 2020.
- Joseph, Bob and Joseph, Cynthia. Indigenous Relations. Indigenous Relations Press, 2020.
- Switzer, Maurice. Nation to Nation, A Resource on Treaties in Ontario. North Bay: Union of Ontario Indians, 2013.The Royal Canadian Geographical Society. Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada. Kids Can Press, 2018.
- Miller, J.R. Compact, Contract, Covenant: Aboriginal Treaty-Making in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.
- Poetzer, Greg and Ken S. Coates. From Treaty Peoples to Treaty Nation: A Road Map for All Canadians. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2016.
- Angus, Charlie (2015) Children of the Broken Treaty: Canada’s Lost Promise and One Girl’s Dream. University of Regina Press, 2015.
- Asch, Michael. On Being Here to Stay: Treaties and Aboriginal Rights in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014.
- Blair, Peggy. Lament for a First Nation: The Williams Treaties of Southern Ontario. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2008.
- Bohaker, Heidi. Doodem and Council Fire: Anishinaabe Governance Through Alliance. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2020.
- Borrows, John and Michael Coyle, eds. The Right Relationship: Reimagining the Implementation of Historical Treaties. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017
- Calverley, David. Who Controls the Hunt? First Nations, Treaty Rights, and Wildlife Conservation in Ontario, 1783-1939. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2018.
- Fenge, Terry and Jim Aldrige, eds. Keeping Promises: The Royal Proclamation of 1763, Aboriginal Rights, and Treaties in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2015.
- Long, John S. Treaty No. 9: Making the Agreement to Share the Land in Far Northern Ontario in 1905. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2010.
- Luby, Brittany. Dammed: The Politics of Loss and Survival in Anishinaabe Territory. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 2020.
- Macklem, Patrick and Douglas Sanderson, eds. From Recognition to Reconciliation: Essays on the Constitutional Entrenchment of Aboriginal and Treaty Rights. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2015.
- Morin, Jean-Pierre. Solemn Words and Foundational Documents: An Annotated Discussion of Indigenous-Crown Treaties in Canada, 1752-1923. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2018.
- Morris, Alexander (1880-1991). The Treaties of Canada with the Indians of Manitoba and the North-West Territories including the Negotiations on which they were based. Belfords, Clarke & Co, Toronto.
- Tidridge, Nathan. The Queen at the Council Fire: The Treaty of Niagara, Reconciliation, and the Dignified Crown in Canada. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2015.
Updated: October 25, 2023
Published: October 19, 2021