July to September, 2022
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About the Ontario Employment Report
The Ontario Employment Report is released four times a year and provides an assessment of the current trends and developments in the Ontario labour market. The Ontario Employment Report is a companion report to the Ontario Economic Accounts, which provides an overall assessment of the current state of the Ontario economy.
In the current issue, year-over-year change represents change between the averages in the third quarter of 2021 and the third quarter of 2022. Note that the Ontario Economic Accounts report primarily shows changes between the previous and the current quarter.
This report uses seasonally adjusted data in charts displaying data with a monthly frequency in the Overview section.
Unadjusted data are used in charts and tables showing the changes for the current quarter compared with the same quarter for the previous year. Unadjusted data are also used to calculate annual averages, year-to-date averages and 2022 third quarter averages.
All estimates in this report are based on Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey (LFS), which measures the current state of the national provincial and territorial labour market. The LFS is based on a household survey carried out monthly by Statistics Canada in reference weeks of the month. The reference periods for the three months of the third quarter of 2022 are July 10 to 16, August 14 to 20 and September 11 through 17.
Ontario’s labour market overview
- +232,400 net jobs in Q3 2022, year-over-year
- +244,900 net full-time jobs in Q3 2022, year-over-year
- -31,500 net jobs in September 2022
- +3,500 full-time jobs in September 2022
- 5.8% in the third quarter of 2022
- 5.8% in September 2022
Year-over-year, Ontario’s employment increased by 3.1% (+232,400) in the third quarter of 2022, while Canada’s employment increased by 2.9% (+563,200).
Ontario’s unemployment rate was 5.8% in the third quarter of 2022, slightly higher than the Canadian rate of 5.3%.
In September 2022, Ontario’s employment decreased slightly (-31,500, -0.4%), driven by a decline in part-time employment (-35,000, -2.6%). Canada’s employment was little changed in September 2022 (+21,100, +0.1%).
In September 2022, the unemployment rate in Ontario edged up from 5.7% to 5.8% and the rate in Canada decreased slightly from 5.4% to 5.2%.
Ontario’s labour market, 2008-2022
Between the third quarters of 2021 and 2022:
- employment gains were driven by growth in full-time employment (+244,900, +4.0%) while part-time employment decreased (-12,500, -1.0%);
- employment increased in the private sector (+3.5%) and public sector (+5.1%), but declined for those who are self-employed (-1.2%);
- employment increased in services-producing industries (+2.6%) and goods-producing industries (+5.2%);
- employment increased in every region with Central Ontario (+5.0%) experiencing the highest rate of employment growth; and
- employment increased for all age groups with core-aged workers experiencing the highest rate of employment growth (+3.6%) compared to other age groups.
Type of Work quarterly details
Employment change by work status
Year-over-year, full-time employment increased by 4.0% and part-time employment decreased by 1.0% in the third quarter of 2022.
Employment change by employment sector
Year-over-year, employment increased by 3.5% for the private sector and 5.1% for the public sector
Employment change by above-average wage and below-average wage industries
Year-over-year, paid employment increased by 7.0% in above-average wage industries and by 1.5% in below-average wage industries.
Sector and occupation quarterly details
Employment change by industry, goods-producing industries
Employment in goods-producing industries increased by 5.2% in the third quarter of 2022, compared to the same period in 2021. The overall gain was driven by increases in construction (+9.8%), while the remaining industries also experienced employment increases, with forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas reporting the largest rate of employment growth (+19.9%).
Employment change by industry, services-producing industries
In the third quarter of 2022 compared to the same period in 2021, employment increased in the services-producing industries (+2.6%). Among services-producing industries, finance, insurance, real estate and leasing experienced the largest employment gain and the highest rate of employment growth (+9.5%). Six additional services-producing industries experienced employment growth led by professional, scientific and technical services (+5.3%) and wholesale and retail trade (+2.6%). Four industry groups experienced a decline in employment with the largest decrease in other services (except public administration) (-6.8%).
Employment change by occupational group
Year-over-year, employment increased in every broad occupational group, except in business, finance and administration (-3.4%). Management occupations (+17.3%) experienced the highest rate of employment growth and the largest employment gain followed by trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (+4.2%), and natural and applied sciences and related occupations (+4.9%).
Employment change by Ontario region
Year-over-year, employment increased in all Ontario regions in the third quarter of 2022. Central Ontario experienced the highest rate of employment growth (+5.0%) and the largest employment gain, followed by the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)
Unemployment rates by Ontario region
In the third quarter of 2022, the unemloyment rate decreased in every region. The GTA had the highest unemployment rate (6.5%), while Northern Ontario had the lowest unemployment rate (4.6%).
Participation rates by Ontario region
In the third quarter of 2022, the labour force participation rate varied among economic regions, ranging from 58.2% in Northern Ontario to 67.0% in the GTA.
Age and gender quarterly details
Employment change by age group and gender
Compared to the same quarter last year, employment increased for all age groups in the third quarter of 2022. Core-aged workers aged 25 to 54 years posted the highest rate of employment growth (+3.6%), followed by youth aged 15 to 24 years (+2.4%) and older workers aged 55 years and over (+2.0%).
Year-over-year, employment increased more for males (+3.5%) than females (+2.6%).
Unemployment rates by age group and gender
In the third quarter of 2022, youth had the highest unemployment rate (11.6%), followed by core-aged people (4.9%) and older people (4.7%). Compared to the same period last year, the unemployment rate decreased by 2.5 percentage points for youth, 1.9 percentage points for core-aged people and 3.0 percentage points for older people.
In the third quarter of 2022, the unemployment rate for females (6.4%) was higher than that for males (5.3%). Compared to the same period last year, the unemployment rate decreased by 2.6 percentage points for males and 1.9 percentage points for females.
Participation rates by age group and gender
In the third quarter of 2022, core-aged people had the highest labour force participation rate (87.2%), followed by youth (66.4%) and older people (37.2%). Compared to the third quarter of 2021, the participation rate decreased by 0.5 percentage point for youth and 1.1 for older people, and was essentially unchanged for the core-aged population.
Males had a higher participation rate (70.3%) than females (60.7%) in the third quarter of 2022. Compared to the same period last year, the participation rate decreased by 0.6 percentage point for males and 0.5 percentage point for females.
Education level and immigrant status quarterly details
Employment rates by education level and immigrant status (core-aged population)
In the third quarter of 2022, core-aged people with less than a high school diploma continued to have the lowest employment rate (56.8%), while those with a university degree recorded the highest employment rate (87.2%), followed by those with a postsecondary certificate or diploma (85.0%).
Year-over-year, the employment rate increased for all education levels, led by those with a high school diploma (+4.0 percentage points).
Those born in Canada had the highest employment rate (84.5%), while very recent immigrants had the lowest employment rate (77.6%).
Year-over-year, the employment rate increased for all groups by immigrant status, led by established immigrants (+4.0 percentage points).
Unemployment rates by education level and immigrant status (core-aged population)
In the third quarter of 2022, core-aged population with a university degree and a postsecondary certificate or diploma had the lowest unemployment rate (4.4%) while those with less than a high school diploma had the highest unemployment rate (8.5%). Year-over-year, the unemployment rate of core-aged people decreased for all education levels led by those with less than a high school diploma (-6.3 percentage points).
Year-over-year, the unemployment rate also decreased for all groups by immigrant status, except very recent immigrants (+0.5 percentage point). In the third quarter of 2022, those born in Canada had the lowest unemployment rate (4.3%), while very recent immigrants had the highest unemployment rate (8.2%).
Participation rates by education level and immigrant status (core-aged population)
In the third quarter of 2022, among core-aged population, those with a university degree continued to have the highest participation rate (91.2%), while those with less than a high school diploma had the lowest participation rate (62.0%). Year-over-year, the participation rate decreased for all groups except high school graduates (+1.8 percentage points).
In the third quarter of 2022, core-aged recent immigrants had the lowest participation rate (82.9%) compared to very recent immigrants, established immigrants and those born in Canada. Year-over-year, the participation rate decreased for recent immigrants and those born in Canada, while very recent immigrants and established immigrants experienced an increase.
Wages quarterly details
Average hourly wages by employment status, 1997-2021
Over the last two decades, the average hourly wage increased in real terms
Hourly wage growth by type of work
In the third quarter of 2022, the average hourly wage of Ontario employees was $32.26, an increase of 5.6% from the third quarter of 2021.
The average hourly wage for part-time positions increased by 7.4%, while the average hourly wage for full-time workers increased by 5.0%.
Consumer Price Index inflation over the third quarter of 2022 compared to the third quarter of 2021 was 7.1%.
Average hourly wage rate and wage growth by occupational group
Year-over-year, most broad occupational groups experienced growth in average hourly wages led by natural resources, agriculture and related occupations (+7.3%), natural and applied sciences and related occupations (+6.8%), occupations in manufacturing and utilities (+6.3%) and health occupations (+6.3%). Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (-6.0%) experienced a decrease in average hourly wages.
Overview of annual employment ten-year review
|Total Labour Force (000)||7,238.7||7,325.1||7,345.3||7,343.0||7,408.9||7,506.5||7,608.9||7,816.3||7,766.0||8,006.8|
|Participation Rate (%)||66.0||66.1||65.7||65.1||64.9||64.7||64.3||64.9||63.6||64.9|
|Male Participation Rate (%)||70.7||70.5||70.2||70.0||69.6||69.3||68.8||69.5||68.4||69.7|
|Female Participation Rate (%)||61.5||61.9||61.3||60.5||60.4||60.2||60.1||60.4||58.9||60.2|
|Total Employment (000)||6,666.7||6,768.1||6,809.1||6,845.4||6,921.4||7,052.5||7,173.3||7,376.9||7,021.6||7,366.4|
|Employment-Population Ratio (%)||60.8||61.1||60.9||60.7||60.6||60.8||60.6||61.2||57.5||59.7|
|Male Employment (000)||3,470.1||3,508.9||3,549.1||3,583.9||3,622.6||3,692.1||3,760.6||3,874.7||3,722.1||3,885.7|
|Female Employment (000)||3,196.6||3,259.1||3,260.1||3,261.4||3,298.8||3,360.4||3,412.7||3,502.2||3,299.6||3,480.8|
|Part-Time (% of total)||19.2||19.5||19.4||18.8||18.9||19.0||18.5||18.7||17.4||17.6|
|Goods-Producing Sector Employment (000)||1,406.8||1,381.0||1,366.4||1,393.8||1,425.1||1,439.4||1,463.9||1,467.3||1,410.7||1,466.6|
|Services-Producing Sector Employment (000)||5,259.9||5,387.1||5,442.7||5,451.6||5,496.3||5,613.1||5,709.5||5,909.7||5,610.9||5,899.9|
|Private Sector Employment (000)||4,347.1||4,405.3||4,473.5||4,505.5||4,544.1||4,640.1||4,716.7||4,830.6||4,542.0||4,807.7|
|Public Sector Employment (000)||1,289.5||1,310.0||1,298.1||1,281.2||1,293.7||1,318.8||1,359.7||1,375.4||1,358.8||1,456.9|
|Self-Employment (%of total)||15.4||15.6||15.2||15.5||15.7||15.5||15.3||15.9||16.0||15.0|
|Total Unemployment (000)||572.0||557.1||536.1||497.6||487.5||454.0||435.5||439.4||744.4||640.4|
|Unemployment Rate (%)||7.9||7.6||7.3||6.8||6.6||6.0||5.7||5.6||9.6||8.0|
|Male Unemployment Rate (%)||8.2||8.0||7.5||7.0||6.8||6.3||5.7||5.8||9.2||8.0|
|Female Unemployment Rate (%)||7.5||7.2||7.1||6.5||6.3||5.8||5.7||5.5||10.0||8.0|
|Long-Term (27 wks+) (% of total)||22.8||23.1||22.9||20.0||20.0||19.5||16.9||15.0||14.7||28.3|
|Average Unemployment in Weeks||22.3||21.9||22.5||20.0||20.0||19.3||17.2||15.8||15.3||23.2|
|Youth Unemployment Rate (%)||16.6||15.9||15.2||14.3||13.7||12.2||11.8||12.0||22.0||15.7|
|25-54 y.o. Unemployment rate (%)||6.5||6.3||6.0||5.6||5.5||5.1||4.8||4.6||7.7||6.6|
|55+ y.o. Unemployment rate (%)||5.9||5.6||5.5||5.0||5.0||4.6||4.3||4.2||7.0||7.2|
|Average Weekly Wage Rate ($)||883.62||896.44||907.05||938.01||958.16||965.71||998.41||1,033.38||1,113.99||1,133.90|
|Average Hourly Wage Rate ($)||24.10||24.50||24.81||25.58||26.13||26.38||27.28||28.26||30.24||30.82|
Employment by region (000)
|Greater Toronto Area||3,099.6||3,214.9||3,202.7||3,264.8||3,303.9||3,363.5||3,432.8||3,548.3||3,381.8||3,551.4|
Unemployment rate by region (%)
|Greater Toronto Area||8.8||8.2||8.0||7.1||7.0||6.5||6.2||6.0||10.7||9.0|
Total employment by CMA (000)
Greater Toronto Area
|Ottawa-Gatineau (Ontario part)||540.4||524.7||532.4||528.6||542.5||547.9||558.4||588.0||557.1||588.7|
Overview of quarterly employment year-over-year
|Total Labour Force (000)||7,913.7||8,071.5||7,817.6||8,023.4||7,992.8||8,214.4||8,145.4||8,195.9|
|Participation Rate (%)||64.5||65.1||63.6||64.4||64.9||65.7||65.9||65.4|
|Male Participation Rate (%)||69.1||69.7||68.4||69.1||69.9||70.3||70.9||70.3|
|Female Participation Rate (%)||60.1||60.7||59.0||59.9||60.1||61.3||61.2||60.7|
|Total Employment (000)||7,236.4||7,601.7||7,105.6||7,523.9||7,273.4||7,769.2||7,485.0||7,717.4|
|- Full-time (000)||5,904.2||6,175.8||5,883.9||6,135.8||6,030.8||6,401.2||6,193.0||6,437.9|
|- Part-time (000)||1,332.2||1,426.0||1,221.8||1,388.1||1,242.6||1,368.0||1,292.1||1,279.5|
|Employment-Population Ratio (%)||59.0||61.3||57.8||60.4||59.0||62.2||60.6||61.6|
|Male Employment (000)||3,812.8||3,992.1||3,742.0||3,964.2||3,850.5||4,077.9||3,958.1||4,097.1|
|Female Employment (000)||3,423.5||3,609.7||3,363.6||3,559.7||3,422.9||3,691.2||3,526.9||3,620.3|
|Part Time (% of total)||18.4||18.8||17.2||18.4||17.1||17.6||17.3||16.6|
|Goods-Producing Sector Employment (000)||1,476.9||1,482.0||1,423.9||1,466.2||1,462.8||1,538.5||1,497.5||1,576.0|
|Services-Producing Sector Employment (000)||5,759.5||6,119.8||5,681.7||6,057.6||5,810.5||6,230.7||5,987.6||6,141.4|
|Private Sector Employment (000)||4,735.8||4,995.4||4,596.9||4,919.0||4,698.9||5,104.3||4,939.6||5,111.8|
|Public Sector Employment||1,399.9||1,517.3||1,434.8||1,511.9||1,440.9||1,574.4||1,434.6||1,507.7|
|Self-Employment (% of total)||15.2||14.3||15.1||14.5||15.6||14.0||14.8||14.2|
|Total Unemployment (000)||677.3||469.8||712.0||499.5||719.4||445.2||660.4||478.5|
|Unemployment Rate (%)||8.6||5.8||9.1||6.2||9.0||5.4||8.1||5.8|
|Male Unemployment Rate (%)||8.3||5.9||9.3||6.2||8.9||5.5||7.9||5.3|
|Female Unemployment Rate (%)||8.8||5.7||8.9||6.3||9.1||5.3||8.3||6.4|
|Long-Term (27 wks+) (% of total)||29.2||28.7||29.1||19.2||29.6||19.7||25.9||16.6|
|Average Unemployment in Weeks||20.1||24.4||21.8||21.5||23.3||20.5||24.1||17.8|
|Youth Unemployment Rate (%)||19.3||9.4||19.1||12.9||20.4||11.6||14.1||11.6|
|25-54 y.o Unemployment Rate (%)||6.9||5.0||7.7||5.1||6.9||4.4||6.8||4.9|
|55+ y.o Unemployment Rate (%)||6.6||6.0||7.5||5.5||7.7||4.2||7.7||4.7|
|Average Weekly Wage Rate ($)||1,109.06||1,137.66||1,135.33||1,168.67||1,134.02||1,178.28||1,128.59||1,201.93|
|Average Hourly Wage Rate ($)||30.21||31.01||30.89||31.74||30.83||31.94||30.55||32.26|
Employment by Region (000)
|Greater Toronto Area (GTA)||3,504.0||3,723.7||3,390.9||3,653.6||3,457.8||3,746.9||3,633.2||3,712.2|
Unemployment Rate by Region (%)
|Greater Toronto Area (GTA)||10.1||6.6||10.1||7.0||10.0||6.3||9.3||6.5|
Total Employment by CMA (000)
Greater Toronto Area
|Ottawa-Gatineau (Ontario part)||561.1||579.6||581.7||585.1||601.5||616.1||591.9||615.1|
Overview of monthly* labour force characteristics
Note: All estimates in this appendix are based on Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey.
- footnote Back to paragraph Estimates of employment changes and rate calculations are based on unrounded quarterly estimates and may differ slightly from estimates based on published quarterly data due to rounding.
- footnote Back to paragraph The public sector includes employees in federal, provincial, territorial, municipal and Aboriginal public administrations, as well as in Crown corporations, liquor control boards and other government institutions such as schools (including universities), hospitals and public libraries.
- footnote Back to paragraph This economic region closely matches the GTA, the main exception being that it excludes the city of Burlington.
- footnote Back to paragraph Real wages are based on nominal wages deflated by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for all items. Self-employment is excluded.
- footnote Back to paragraph Year-over-year comparison (between third quarters of 2021 and 2022) is in nominal dollars.
- footnote Back to paragraph Measured as an increase in the all-items Consumer Price Index for Ontario between July and September of 2021 and July and September of 2022.