April to June, 2022
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About the Ontario Employment Report
The Ontario Employment Report is released four times a year and provides an assessment of the current trends and developments in the Ontario labour market. The Ontario Employment Report is a companion report to the Ontario Economic Accounts, which provides an overall assessment of the current state of the Ontario economy.
In the current issue, year-over-year change represents change between the averages in the second quarter of 2021 and the second quarter of 2022. Note that the Ontario Economic Accounts report primarily shows changes between the previous and the current quarter.
This report uses seasonally adjusted data in charts displaying data with a monthly frequency in the Overview section.
Unadjusted data are used in charts and tables showing the changes for the current quarter compared with the same quarter for the previous year. Unadjusted data are also used to calculate annual averages, year-to-date averages and 2022 second quarter averages.
All estimates in this report are based on Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey (LFS), which measures the current state of the national provincial and territorial labour market. The LFS is based on a household survey carried out monthly by Statistics Canada in reference weeks of the month. The reference periods for the three months of the second quarter of 2022 are April 10 to 16, May 15 to 21 and June 12 to 18.
Impact of COVID‑19 on the labour market
Beginning in mid-March 2020, travel restrictions, business closures and physical distancing measures were put in place by various levels of government to help contain the spread of COVID‑19 and protect the health of Ontarians. These restrictions and public health measures were in place to varying degrees throughout the past couple of years.
Ontario began gradually easing the most recent restrictions starting January 31, 2022. No additional public health measures and restrictions were imposed in the second quarter of 2022.
In the second quarter of 2022, seasonally adjusted employment in Ontario remained relatively unchanged month-over-month, but the unemployment rate declined.
Ontario’s labour market overview
- +495,800 net jobs in Q2 2022, year-over-year
- +370,400 net full-time jobs in Q2 2022, year-over-year
- -24,700 net jobs in June 2022
- +27,900 full-time jobs in June 2022
- 5.4% in the second quarter of 2022
- 5.1% in June 2022
Year-over-year, Ontario’s employment increased by 6.8% (+495,800) in the second quarter of 2022, while Canada’s employment increased by 5.1% (+959,800). Employment in Ontario in the second quarter of 2022 was 5.0% higher than in the same quarter in 2019, prior to the COVID‑19 pandemic.
Ontario’s unemployment rate was 5.4% in the second quarter of 2022, slightly higher than the Canadian rate of 5.1%. It was 3.6 percentage points lower than in the second quarter of 2021 and 0.3 percentage point lower than in the second quarter of 2019.
In June 2022, Ontario’s employment slightly decreased by 0.3% (-24,700), driven by a decrease in part-time employment (-52,500) and self-employment (-54,900). Employment has remained relatively unchanged since March 2022 and exceeded its pre-pandemic level by 2.9%. Canada’s employment decreased by 0.2% (-43,200) in June 2022, exceeding its pre-pandemic level by 2.4%.
In June 2022, the unemployment rate in Ontario decreased from 5.5% to 5.1% and the rate in Canada decreased from 5.1% to 4.9%. In June 2022, Ontario’s unemployment rate was below its pre-pandemic rate of February 2020.
Ontario’s labour market, 2008-2022
Between the second quarters of 2021 and 2022:
- employment gains were concentrated in both full-time employment (+370,400, +6.1%) and part-time employment (+125,400, +10.1%);
- employment increased in the private sector (+8.6%) and public sector (+9.3%), but declined for those who are self-employed (-3.8%);
- employment increased in services-producing industries (+7.2%) and goods-producing industries (+5.2%);
- employment increased in every region with the Greater Toronto Area (+8.4%) experiencing the highest rate of employment growth; and
- employment increased for all age groups with youth experiencing the highest rate of employment growth (+16.7%) compared to other age groups.
Type of Work quarterly details
Employment change by work status
Year-over-year, part-time employment increased by 10.1% and full-time employment increased by 6.1% in the second quarter of 2022.
Overall, part-time workers have been disproportionally impacted by the COVID‑19 pandemic as they are more likely to work in industries that experienced the largest declines in employment, including accommodation and food services and retail trade. As of June 2022, full-time employment in Ontario exceeded its pre-pandemic level in February 2020 by 3.7% and part-time employment was below its pre-pandemic level by 0.6%.
Employment change by employment sector
Year-over-year, employment increased by 8.6% for the private sector and 9.3% for the public sector
Throughout the pandemic, self-employed workers experienced relatively higher employment losses and their employment has been slower to recover. As of June 2022, self-employment (-132,600 or -11.1%) was significantly below its pre-COVID level.
Employment change by above-average wage and below-average wage industries
Year-over-year, paid employment increased by 13.0% in above-average wage industries and by 5.6% in below-average wage industries.
Sector and occupation quarterly details
Employment change by industry, goods-producing industries
Employment in goods-producing industries increased in the second quarter of 2022, compared to the same period in 2021. The overall gain was driven by increases in construction (+10.5%) and utilities (+23.8%), which experienced the largest rate of employment growth. Employment in forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas (+21.5%) and manufacturing (+0.7%) also increased, while employment in agriculture (-7.7%) declined.
Employment change by industry, services-producing industries
In the second quarter of 2022 compared to the same period in 2021, employment increased in all services-producing industries, except for other services (excluding public administration) (-11.1%). Among services-producing industries, wholesale and retail trade (+9.6%) experienced the largest employment gains followed by professional, scientific and technical services (+10.6%), and accommodation and food services (+22.5%), which also experienced the highest rate of employment growth.
Employment change by occupational group
Year-over-year, employment increased in every broad occupational group, except in natural resources, agriculture and related occupations (-0.7%). Sales and service occupations (+7.3%) experienced the largest increase in employment followed by management (+14.8%), natural and applied sciences and related occupations (+13.2%) and business, finance and administration occupations (+4.0%). Management occupations (+14.8%) experienced the highest rate of employment growth in the second quarter of 2022 compared to the second quarter of 2021.
Employment change by Ontario region
Year-over-year, employment increased in all Ontario regions in the second quarter of 2022. The Greater Toronto Area (GTA)
Unemployment rates by Ontario region
In the second quarter of 2022, the unemployment rate decreased in every region. The GTA had the highest unemployment rate (6.3%), while Eastern Ontario and Northern Ontario had the lowest unemployment rate (4.3%).
Participation rates by Ontario region
In the second quarter of 2022, the labour force participation rate varied among economic regions, ranging from 59.5% in Northern Ontario to 67.7% in the GTA.
Age and gender quarterly details
Employment change by age group and gender
Compared to the same quarter last year, employment increased for all age groups in the second quarter of 2022. Youth aged 15 to 24 posted the highest rate of employment growth (+16.7%), followed by core-aged workers aged 25 to 54 (+6.4%) and older workers aged 55 years and over (+2.6%).
Year-over-year, employment increased more for females (+7.8%) than males (+5.9%).
Overall, employment losses during the COVID‑19 pandemic have been more severe for youth and women as they were more likely to work in industries that were heavily impacted by the pandemic, such as accommodation and food services and retail trade.
As of June 2022, employment for core-aged people surpassed its pre-pandemic level in February 2020 (+4.9%), while employment for youth remained virtually unchanged and employment for older workers was slightly below its pre-pandemic level (-0.9%).
As of June 2022, employment for males (+2.7%) and females (+3.2%) exceeded their pre-pandemic levels in February 2020.
Unemployment rates by age group and gender
In the second quarter of 2022, youth had the highest unemployment rate (11.6%), followed by core-aged people (4.4%) and older people (4.2%). Compared to the same period last year, the unemployment rate decreased by 8.8 percentage points for youth, 2.5 percentage points for core-aged people and 3.5 percentage points for older people.
In the second quarter of 2022, the unemployment rate for males (5.5%) was slightly higher than that for females (5.3%). Compared to the same period last year, the unemployment rate decreased by 3.4 percentage points for males and 3.8 percentage points for females.
Participation rates by age group and gender
In the second quarter of 2022, core-aged people had the highest labour force participation rate (88.2%), followed by youth (64.4%) and older people (37.6%). Compared to the second quarter of 2021, the participation rate increased by 3.3 percentage points for youth and 1.7 percentage points for core-aged people, but decreased by 1.2 percentage points for older people.
Men had a higher participation rate (70.3%) than women (61.3%) in the second quarter of 2022. Compared to the same period last year, the participation rate increased by 0.4 percentage point for males and 1.2 percentage points for females.
Education level and immigrant status quarterly details
Employment rates by education level and immigrant status (core-aged population)
In the second quarter of 2022, those with less than a high school diploma continued to have the lowest employment rate (57.9%), while those with a university degree recorded the highest employment rate (88.2%), followed by those with a postsecondary certificate or diploma (87.3%).
Year-over-year, the employment rate increased for all education levels, led by those with a high school diploma (+6.7 percentage points).
Those born in Canada had the highest employment rate (86.3%), while very recent immigrants had the lowest employment rate (78.8%).
Year-over-year, the employment rate increased for all groups by immigrant status, led by very recent immigrants (+5.6 percentage points).
Unemployment rates by education level and immigrant status (core-aged population)
In the second quarter of 2022, those with a university degree had the lowest unemployment rate (3.8%) while those with less than a high school diploma had the highest unemployment rate (9.8%). Year-over-year, the unemployment rate of core-aged people decreased for all education levels led by those with a high school diploma (-3.6 percentage points).
Year-over-year, the unemployment rate also decreased for all groups by immigrant status. In the second quarter of 2022, those born in Canada had the lowest unemployment rate (3.6%), while very recent immigrants had the highest unemployment rate (8.7%).
Participation rates by education level and immigrant status (core-aged population)
In the second quarter of 2022, those with a university degree continued to have the highest participation rate (91.7%), while those with less than a high school diploma had the lowest participation rate (64.2%). Year-over-year, the participation rate increased for all groups except those with university attainment (-0.4 percentage points).
In the second quarter of 2022, recent immigrants had the lowest participation rate compared to very recent immigrants, established immigrants and those born in Canada. Year-over-year, the participation rate increased for all groups by immigrant status.
Wages quarterly details
Average hourly wages by employment status, 1997-2021
Over the last two decades, the average hourly wage increased in real terms
Hourly wage growth by type of work
In the second quarter of 2022, the average hourly wage of Ontario employees was $31.94, an increase of 3.6% from the second quarter of 2021.
The average hourly wage for part-time positions increased by 3.5%, while the average hourly wage for full-time workers increased by 3.8%.
Consumer Price Index inflation over the second quarter of 2022 compared to the second quarter of 2021 was 7.5%.
Average hourly wage rate and wage growth by occupational group
Year-over-year, eight broad occupational groups experienced growth in average hourly wages led by occupations in manufacturing and utilities (+6.9%), natural and applied sciences and related occupations (+5.8%) and natural resources, agriculture and related occupations (+5.0%). Two broad occupational groups experienced a decrease in average hourly wages - occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (-11.0%) and sales and service occupations (-0.8%).
Net employment between February 2020 and June 2022
Below are highlights (seasonally adjusted) of recent trends in Ontario’s labour market between February 2020 and June 2022.
Overview of annual employment ten-year review
|Total Labour Force (000)||7,238.7||7,325.1||7,345.3||7,343.0||7,408.9||7,506.5||7,608.9||7,816.3||7,766.0||8,006.8|
|Participation Rate (%)||66.0||66.1||65.7||65.1||64.9||64.7||64.3||64.9||63.6||64.9|
|Male Participation Rate (%)||70.7||70.5||70.2||70.0||69.6||69.3||68.8||69.5||68.4||69.7|
|Female Participation Rate (%)||61.5||61.9||61.3||60.5||60.4||60.2||60.1||60.4||58.9||60.2|
|Total Employment (000)||6,666.7||6,768.1||6,809.1||6,845.4||6,921.4||7,052.5||7,173.3||7,376.9||7,021.6||7,366.4|
|Employment-Population Ratio (%)||60.8||61.1||60.9||60.7||60.6||60.8||60.6||61.2||57.5||59.7|
|Male Employment (000)||3,470.1||3,508.9||3,549.1||3,583.9||3,622.6||3,692.1||3,760.6||3,874.7||3,722.1||3,885.7|
|Female Employment (000)||3,196.6||3,259.1||3,260.1||3,261.4||3,298.8||3,360.4||3,412.7||3,502.2||3,299.6||3,480.8|
|Part-Time (% of total)||19.2||19.5||19.4||18.8||18.9||19.0||18.5||18.7||17.4||17.6|
|Goods-Producing Sector Employment (000)||1,406.8||1,381.0||1,366.4||1,393.8||1,425.1||1,439.4||1,463.9||1,467.3||1,410.7||1,466.6|
|Services-Producing Sector Employment (000)||5,259.9||5,387.1||5,442.7||5,451.6||5,496.3||5,613.1||5,709.5||5,909.7||5,610.9||5,899.9|
|Private Sector Employment (000)||4,347.1||4,405.3||4,473.5||4,505.5||4,544.1||4,640.1||4,716.7||4,830.6||4,542.0||4,807.7|
|Public Sector Employment (000)||1,289.5||1,310.0||1,298.1||1,281.2||1,293.7||1,318.8||1,359.7||1,375.4||1,358.8||1,456.9|
|Self-Employment (%of total)||15.4||15.6||15.2||15.5||15.7||15.5||15.3||15.9||16.0||15.0|
|Total Unemployment (000)||572.0||557.1||536.1||497.6||487.5||454.0||435.5||439.4||744.4||640.4|
|Unemployment Rate (%)||7.9||7.6||7.3||6.8||6.6||6.0||5.7||5.6||9.6||8.0|
|Male Unemployment Rate (%)||8.2||8.0||7.5||7.0||6.8||6.3||5.7||5.8||9.2||8.0|
|Female Unemployment Rate (%)||7.5||7.2||7.1||6.5||6.3||5.8||5.7||5.5||10.0||8.0|
|Long-Term (27 wks+) (% of total)||22.8||23.1||22.9||20.0||20.0||19.5||16.9||15.0||14.7||28.3|
|Average Unemployment in Weeks||22.3||21.9||22.5||20.0||20.0||19.3||17.2||15.8||15.3||23.2|
|Youth Unemployment Rate (%)||16.6||15.9||15.2||14.3||13.7||12.2||11.8||12.0||22.0||15.7|
|25-54 y.o. Unemployment rate (%)||6.5||6.3||6.0||5.6||5.5||5.1||4.8||4.6||7.7||6.6|
|55+ y.o. Unemployment rate (%)||5.9||5.6||5.5||5.0||5.0||4.6||4.3||4.2||7.0||7.2|
|Average Weekly Wage Rate ($)||883.62||896.44||907.05||938.01||958.16||965.71||998.41||1,033.38||1,113.99||1,133.90|
|Average Hourly Wage Rate ($)||24.10||24.50||24.81||25.58||26.13||26.38||27.28||28.26||30.24||30.82|
Employment by region (000)
|Greater Toronto Area||3,099.6||3,214.9||3,202.7||3,264.8||3,303.9||3,363.5||3,432.8||3,548.3||3,381.8||3,551.4|
Unemployment rate by region (%)
|Greater Toronto Area||8.8||8.2||8.0||7.1||7.0||6.5||6.2||6.0||10.7||9.0|
Total employment by CMA (000)
Greater Toronto Area
Overview of quarterly employment year-over-year
|Total Labour Force (000)||7,951.7||8,145.4||7,913.7||8,071.5||7,817.6||8,023.4||7,992.8||8,214.4|
|Participation Rate (%)||65.0||65.9||64.5||65.1||63.6||64.4||64.9||65.7|
|Male Participation Rate (%)||70.2||70.9||69.1||69.7||68.4||69.1||69.6||70.3|
|Female Participation Rate (%)||60.0||61.2||60.1||60.7||59.0||59.9||60.1||61.3|
|Total Employment (000)||7,070.2||7,485.0||7,236.4||7,601.7||7,105.6||7,523.9||7,273.4||7,769.2|
|- Full-time (000)||5,860.4||6,193.0||5,904.2||6,175.8||5,883.9||6,135.8||6,030.8||6,401.2|
|- Part-time (000)||1,209.7||1,292.1||1,332.2||1,426.0||1,221.8||1,388.1||1,242.6||1,368.0|
|Employment-Population Ratio (%)||57.8||60.6||59.0||61.3||57.8||60.4||59.0||62.2|
|Male Employment (000)||3,768.7||3,958.1||3,812.8||3,992.1||3,742.0||3,964.2||3,850.5||4,077.9|
|Female Employment (000)||3,301.4||3,526.9||3,423.5||3,609.7||3,363.6||3,559.7||3,422.9||3,691.2|
|Part Time (% of total)||17.1||17.3||18.4||18.8||17.2||18.4||17.1||17.6|
|Goods-Producing Sector Employment (000)||1,451.0||1,497.5||1,476.9||1,482.0||1,423.9||1,466.2||1,462.8||1,538.5|
|Services-Producing Sector Employment (000)||5,619.1||5,987.6||5,759.5||6,119.8||5,681.7||6,057.6||5,810.5||6,230.7|
|Private Sector Employment (000)||4,659.8||4,939.6||4,735.8||4,995.4||4,596.9||4,919.0||4,698.9||5,104.3|
|Public Sector Employment||1,312.7||1,434.6||1,399.9||1,517.3||1,434.8||1,511.9||1,440.9||1,574.4|
|Self-Employment (% of total)||15.5||14.8||15.2||14.3||15.1||14.5||15.6||14.0|
|Total Unemployment (000)||881.5||660.4||677.3||469.8||712.0||499.5||719.4||445.2|
|Unemployment Rate (%)||11.1||8.1||8.6||5.8||9.1||6.2||9.0||5.4|
|Male Unemployment Rate (%)||10.6||7.9||8.3||5.9||9.3||6.2||8.9||5.5|
|Female Unemployment Rate (%)||11.7||8.3||8.8||5.7||8.9||6.3||9.1||5.3|
|Long-Term (27 wks+) (% of total)||12.5||25.9||29.2||28.7||29.1||19.2||29.6||19.7|
|Average Unemployment in Weeks||15.6||24.0||20.1||24.5||21.8||21.5||23.2||20.5|
|Youth Unemployment Rate (%)||26.1||14.1||19.3||9.4||19.1||12.9||20.4||11.6|
|25-54 y.o Unemployment Rate (%)||8.5||6.8||6.9||5.0||7.7||5.1||6.9||4.4|
|55+ y.o Unemployment Rate (%)||7.7||7.7||6.6||6.0||7.5||5.5||7.7||4.2|
|Average Weekly Wage Rate ($)||1,122.04||1,128.59||1,109.06||1,137.66||1,135.33||1,168.67||1,134.02||1,178.28|
|Average Hourly Wage Rate ($)||30.33||30.55||30.21||31.01||30.89||31.74||30.83||31.94|
Employment by Region (000)
Unemployment Rate by Region (%)
|Greater Toronto Area (GTA)||13.1||9.3||10.1||6.6||10.1||7.0||10.0||6.3|
Total Employment by CMA (000)
Greater Toronto Area
|Ottawa (Ontario part)||563.0||591.9||561.1||579.6||581.7||585.1||601.5||616.1|
Overview of monthly* labour force characteristics
Note: All estimates in this appendix are based on Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey.
- footnote Back to paragraph Estimates of employment changes and rate calculations are based on unrounded quarterly estimates and may differ slightly from estimates based on published quarterly data due to rounding.
- footnote Back to paragraph The public sector includes employees in federal, provincial, territorial, municipal and Aboriginal public administrations, as well as in Crown corporations, liquor control boards and other government institutions such as schools (including universities), hospitals and public libraries.
- footnote Back to paragraph This economic region closely matches the GTA, the main exception being that it excludes the city of Burlington.
- footnote Back to paragraph Real wages are based on nominal wages deflated by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for all items. Self-employment is excluded.
- footnote Back to paragraph Year-over-year comparison (between second quarters of 2021 and 2022) is in nominal dollars.
- footnote Back to paragraph Measured as an increase in the all-items Consumer Price Index for Ontario between April and June of 2021 and April and June of 2022.