Introduction

About the Ontario Employment Report

The Ontario Employment Report is released four times a year and provides an assessment of the current trends and developments in the Ontario labour market. The Ontario Employment Report is a companion report to the Ontario Economic Accounts, which provides an overall assessment of the current state of the Ontario economy.

Methodological note

In the current issue, year-over-year change represents change between the averages in the third quarter of 2022 and the third quarter of 2023. Note that the Ontario Economic Accounts report primarily shows changes between two consecutive quarters.

This report uses seasonally adjusted data in charts displaying data with a monthly frequency in the Overview section.

Unadjusted data are used in charts and tables showing the changes for the current quarter compared with the same quarter for the previous year. Unadjusted data are also used to calculate annual averages, year-to-date averages and 2023 third quarter averages.footnote 1

All estimates in this report are based on Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey (LFS), which measures the current state of the national provincial and territorial labour market. The LFS is based on a household survey carried out monthly by Statistics Canada in reference weeks of each month. The reference periods for the three months of the third quarter of 2023 are July 9 to 15, August 13 to 19, and September 11 to 16.

Overview

Ontario’s labour market overview

Employment:

  • +201,600 net jobs in Q3 2023, year-over-year
  • +176,600 net full-time jobs in Q3 2023, year-over-year
  • +19,900 net jobs in September 2023
  • +12,300 net full-time jobs in September 2023

Unemployment rate:

  • 6.3% in the third quarter of 2023
  • 6.0% in September 2023

Year-over-year, Ontario’s employment increased by 2.6% (+201,600) in the third quarter of 2023, while Canada’s employment also grew (+485,500, +2.4%).

Ontario’s unemployment rate was 6.3% in the third quarter of 2023, higher than the Canadian rate of 5.8%.

In September 2023, Ontario’s employment increased (+19,900, +0.3%), driven by gains in full-time employment (+12,300, +0.2%). Canada’s employment also increased in September 2023 (+63,800, +0.3%).

In September 2023, the unemployment rate in Ontario increased for the second consecutive month to 6.0% compared to 5.9% in August 2023 and 5.6% in July 2023. The unemployment rate in Canada remained unchanged from July to September 2023 at 5.5%.

Year-over-year overview

Ontario’s labour market, January 2014 – September 2023 (seasonally adjusted)

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The combination line and area chart shows Ontario’s unemployment rate (line chart) and employment (area chart) from January 2014 to September 2023. Ontario’s unemployment rate has trended downwards since January 2014, reaching 5.2% in January 2020, before rising to 14.0% in May 2020, and reaching 6.0% in September 2023. Employment in Ontario has risen steadily since January 2014, reaching just over 7.5 million workers in January 2020, before dropping to just above 6.3 million workers in May 2020, then risin

The combination line and area chart shows Ontario’s unemployment rate (line chart) and employment (area chart) from January 2014 to September 2023. Ontario’s unemployment rate has trended downwards since January 2014, reaching 5.2% in January 2020, before rising to 14.0% in May 2020, and reaching 6.0% in September 2023. Employment in Ontario has risen steadily since January 2014, reaching just over 7.5 million workers in January 2020, before dropping to just above 6.3 million workers in May 2020, then rising to 7,960,200 workers in September 2023.

Between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023:

  • employment gains were driven by growth in full-time employment (+176,600, +2.7%) while part-time employment also increased (+25,100, +2.0%)
  • employment increased in the private sector (+3.7%) and the public sector (+1.9%), and declined for those who are self-employed (-1.9%)
  • employment increased in services-producing industries (+2.5%) and goods-producing industries (+3.0%)
  • employment increased in most regions, with Southwestern Ontario (+3.2%) experiencing the highest rate of employment growth
  • employment increased for all age groups with core-aged workers experiencing the highest rate of employment growth (+2.9%) compared to other age groups

Type of Work quarterly details

Employment change by work status, Ontario, Q3 2023 over Q3 2022

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The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in Ontario’s employment by full-time and part-time status. Total employment increased by 201,600 (+2.6%), with full-time employment increasing by 176,600 (+2.7%), and part-time employment increasing by 25,100 (+2.0%).

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in Ontario’s employment by full-time and part-time status. Total employment increased by 201,600 (+2.6%), with full-time employment increasing by 176,600 (+2.7%), and part-time employment increasing by 25,100 (+2.0%).

Year-over-year, full-time employment increased by 2.7% and part-time employment increased by 2.0% in the third quarter of 2023.

Employment change by employment sector, Ontario, Q3 2023 over Q3 2022

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The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in Ontario’s employment in the private sector, public sector and among the self-employed. Employment increased in the private sector by 193,400 (+3.7%) and the public sector by 28,600 (+1.9%) and declined for the self-employed by 20,300 (-1.9%).

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in Ontario’s employment in the private sector, public sector and among the self-employed. Employment increased in the private sector by 193,400 (+3.7%) and the public sector by 28,600 (+1.9%) and declined for the self-employed by 20,300 (-1.9%).

Year-over-year, employment increased by 3.7% for the private sector and 1.9% for the public sectorfootnote 2, and decreased by 1.9% for the self-employed.

Employment change by above-average wage and below-average wage industries, Ontario, Q3 2023 over Q3 2022footnote 3

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The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in Ontario’s employment for above- and below-average wage industries, compared to the paid employment in all industries. Employment increased in both above-average wage (+100,200, +3.8%) and below-average wage (+121,800, +3.0%) industries. Paid employment in all industries (excluding self-employment) increased by 222,000 (+3.3%).

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in Ontario’s employment for above- and below-average wage industries, compared to the paid employment in all industries. Employment increased in both above-average wage (+100,200, +3.8%) and below-average wage (+121,800, +3.0%) industries. Paid employment in all industries (excluding self-employment) increased by 222,000 (+3.3%).

Year-over-year, paid employment increased by 3.8% in above-average wage industries and by 3.0% in below-average wage industries.

Sector and occupation quarterly details

Employment change by industry, goods-producing industries, Ontario, Q3 2023 over Q3 2022

 

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The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in Ontario’s employment by industry for goods-producing industries, measured in thousands with percentage changes in brackets. Employment increased in all five goods-producing industries: manufacturing (+2.9%), agriculture (+15.2%), utilities (+9.0%), forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas (+10.8%) and construction (+0.4%). The overall employment in goods-producing industries increased by 47,000 (

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in Ontario’s employment by industry for goods-producing industries, measured in thousands with percentage changes in brackets. Employment increased in all five goods-producing industries: manufacturing (+2.9%), agriculture (+15.2%), utilities (+9.0%), forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas (+10.8%) and construction (+0.4%). The overall employment in goods-producing industries increased by 47,000 (+3.0%).

Employment in goods-producing industries increased by 3.0% in the third quarter of 2023, compared to the same period in 2022. The overall gain was driven by increases in manufacturing (+23,400, +2.9%), while the remaining industries also experienced employment increases, with agriculture reporting the largest rate of employment growth (+11,300, +15.2%).

Employment change by industry, services-producing industries, Ontario, Q3 2023 over Q3 2022

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The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in Ontario’s employment by industry for services-producing industries, measured in thousands with percentage changes in brackets. Employment increased in eight of the eleven services-producing industries. Health care and social assistance (+5.1%) experienced the largest increase in employment, followed by accommodation and food services (+7.3%), professional, scientific and technical services (+3.6%), transp

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in Ontario’s employment by industry for services-producing industries, measured in thousands with percentage changes in brackets. Employment increased in eight of the eleven services-producing industries. Health care and social assistance (+5.1%) experienced the largest increase in employment, followed by accommodation and food services (+7.3%), professional, scientific and technical services (+3.6%), transportation and warehousing (+6.0%), other services (except public administration) (+8.8%), information, culture and recreation (+3.9%), educational services (+2.6%) and public administration (+0.3%). Employment declined in wholesale and retail trade (-0.6%), finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing (-1.1%), business, building and other support services (-3.1%) Overall employment in services-producing industries increased by 154,700 (+2.5%).

In the third quarter of 2023 compared to the same period in 2022, employment increased in the services-producing industries (+154,700, +2.5%). Eight services-producing industries experienced employment growth with health care and social assistance (+47,600, +5.1%) experiencing the largest employment gain and other services (except public administration) experiencing the largest rate of employment growth (+22,300, +8.8%). Three industry groups experienced a decline in employment with the largest decrease in business, building and other support services (-9,300, -3.1%).

Employment change by occupational group, Ontario, Q3 2023 over Q3 2022footnote 4

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The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in Ontario’s employment by broad occupational group measured in thousands with percentage changes in brackets. Business, finance and administration occupations (+5.4%) experienced the largest employment increase, followed by occupations in management (+5.7%), occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (+18.6%), trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (+3.5%), education, law a

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in Ontario’s employment by broad occupational group measured in thousands with percentage changes in brackets. Business, finance and administration occupations (+5.4%) experienced the largest employment increase, followed by occupations in management (+5.7%), occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (+18.6%), trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (+3.5%), education, law and social, community and government services occupations (+1.9%), health occupations (+1.7%), and natural and applied sciences and related occupations (+1.1%). Employment declined in natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations (-1.7%), occupations in manufacturing and utilities (-2.4%) and sales and service occupations (-0.9%).

Year-over-year, business, finance and administration occupations (+68,900, +5.4%) experienced the largest employment gain followed by management occupations (+45,800, +5.7%) and occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (+41,700, +18.6%), which recorded the highest rate of employment growth. Three occupational groups experienced a decline in employment with the largest decrease in sales and service occupations (-15,800, -0.9%).

Geographic regions

Ontario regionsfootnote 5

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The map shows Ontario’s five regions: Northern Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Central Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area.

The map shows Ontario’s five regions: Northern Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Central Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area.

Employment change by Ontario region, Q3 2023 over Q3 2022footnote 6

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The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in employment in the five Ontario regions: Northern Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Central Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Employment increased in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) (+3.1%), Central Ontario (+1.7%), Eastern Ontario (+2.9%), Southwestern Ontario (+3.2%), and Northern Ontario (+0.0%). Overall employment in Ontario increased by 201,600 (+2.6%).

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in employment in the five Ontario regions: Northern Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Central Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Employment increased in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) (+3.1%), Central Ontario (+1.7%), Eastern Ontario (+2.9%), Southwestern Ontario (+3.2%), and Northern Ontario (+0.0%). Overall employment in Ontario increased by 201,600 (+2.6%).

Year-over-year, employment increased in all Ontario regions in the third quarter of 2023. The Greater Toronto Area (GTA) footnote 7 experienced the largest employment gain (+115,000, +3.1%), followed by Central Ontario (+30,600, +1.7%), Eastern Ontario (+28,900, +2.9%), Southwestern Ontario (+27,300, +3.2%) and Northern Ontario (+100, +0.0%). Southwestern Ontario had the highest rate of employment growth (+3.2%).

Unemployment rates by Ontario region, Q3 2023footnote 8

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The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates by Ontario region in the third quarter of 2023 with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. The Greater Toronto Area had the highest unemployment rate (7.1%) followed by Southwestern Ontario (6.2%), Central Ontario (5.5%), Northern Ontario (5.5%) and Eastern Ontario (5.5%). The overall unemployment rate for Ontario was 6.4%.

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates by Ontario region in the third quarter of 2023 with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. The Greater Toronto Area had the highest unemployment rate (7.1%) followed by Southwestern Ontario (6.2%), Central Ontario (5.5%), Northern Ontario (5.5%) and Eastern Ontario (5.5%). The overall unemployment rate for Ontario was 6.4%.

In the third quarter of 2023, the unemployment rate increased in all regions. The GTA had the highest unemployment rate (7.1%), followed by Southwestern Ontario (6.2%). Eastern Ontario, Central Ontario, and Northern Ontario equally had the lowest unemployment rate (5.5%).

Participation rates by Ontario region, Q3 2023footnote 9

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The horizontal bar chart shows participation rates by Ontario region in the third quarter of 2023 with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. The Greater Toronto Area had the highest participation rate at 67.9%, followed by Eastern Ontario (66.0%), Central Ontario (65.6%), Southwestern Ontario (63.4%) and Northern Ontario (58.7%). The overall participation rate for Ontario was 66.2%.

The horizontal bar chart shows participation rates by Ontario region in the third quarter of 2023 with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. The Greater Toronto Area had the highest participation rate at 67.9%, followed by Eastern Ontario (66.0%), Central Ontario (65.6%), Southwestern Ontario (63.4%) and Northern Ontario (58.7%). The overall participation rate for Ontario was 66.2%.

In the third quarter of 2023, the labour force participation rate varied among economic regions, ranging from 58.7% in Northern Ontario to 67.9% in the GTA.

Age and gender quarterly details

Employment change by age group and gender, Ontario, Q3 2023 over Q3 2022

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The horizontal bar chart shows year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in Ontario’s employment for the three major age groups, as well as by gender, compared to the overall population. This is measured in thousands with percentage changes in brackets. Employment increased among workers in all age groups and for both males and females, with total employment increasing by 201,600 (+2.6%). Core-aged workers aged 25 to 54 years posted the largest employment increase (+2.9%), followed

The horizontal bar chart shows year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) change in Ontario’s employment for the three major age groups, as well as by gender, compared to the overall population. This is measured in thousands with percentage changes in brackets. Employment increased among workers in all age groups and for both males and females, with total employment increasing by 201,600 (+2.6%). Core-aged workers aged 25 to 54 years posted the largest employment increase (+2.9%), followed by older workers aged 55 years and over (+2.3%) and youth aged 15 to 24 years (+1.7%). Female employment increased by 2.2% and male employment increased by 2.9%.

Compared to the same quarter last year, employment increased for all age groups in the third quarter of 2023. Core-aged workers aged 25 to 54 years posted the highest rate of employment growth (+2.9%), followed by older workers aged 55 years and over (+2.3%) and youth aged 15 to 24 years (+1.7%).

Year-over-year, employment increased more for males (+2.9%) than females (+2.2%).

Unemployment rates by age group and gender, Ontario, Q3 2023

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The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates in the third quarter of 2023 for Ontario as a whole, by major age group and by gender with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. Ontario’s overall unemployment rate in the third quarter of 2023 was 6.3% (+0.6 percentage point compared to Q3 2022). Youth aged 15 to 24 years had the highest unemployment rate at 13.4% (+2.1 percentage points), followed by the core-aged population aged 25 to 54 years at 5.3% (+0.5 percentage point)

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates in the third quarter of 2023 for Ontario as a whole, by major age group and by gender with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. Ontario’s overall unemployment rate in the third quarter of 2023 was 6.3% (+0.6 percentage point compared to Q3 2022). Youth aged 15 to 24 years had the highest unemployment rate at 13.4% (+2.1 percentage points), followed by the core-aged population aged 25 to 54 years at 5.3% (+0.5 percentage point) and older Ontarians aged 55 years and over at 4.4% (-0.4 percentage point). The female unemployment rate was 7.1% (+0.8 percentage point) and the male unemployment rate was 5.7% (+0.3 percentage point).

In the third quarter of 2023, youth had the highest unemployment rate (13.4%), followed by core-aged individuals (5.3%) and older individuals (4.4%). Compared to the same period last year, the unemployment rate increased by 2.1 percentage points for youth and 0.5 percentage point for core-aged individuals, but decreased by 0.4 percentage point for older individuals.

In the third quarter of 2023, the unemployment rate for females (7.1%) was higher than that for males (5.7%). Compared to the same period last year, the unemployment rate increased by 0.3 percentage point for males and 0.8 percentage point for females.

Participation rates by age group and gender, Ontario, Q3 2023

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The horizontal bar chart shows labour force participation rates in the third quarter of 2023 for Ontario as a whole, by major age group and by gender with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. Ontario’s overall labour force participation rate was 66.2% (+0.4 from the third quarter of 2022). The core-aged population aged 25 to 54 years had the highest labour force participation rate at 88.1% (+0.6 percentage point), followed by youth aged 15 to 24 years at 66.7% (-0.1 percentag

The horizontal bar chart shows labour force participation rates in the third quarter of 2023 for Ontario as a whole, by major age group and by gender with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. Ontario’s overall labour force participation rate was 66.2% (+0.4 from the third quarter of 2022). The core-aged population aged 25 to 54 years had the highest labour force participation rate at 88.1% (+0.6 percentage point), followed by youth aged 15 to 24 years at 66.7% (-0.1 percentage point), and older Ontarians aged 55 years and over at 37.7% (unchanged from the third quarter of 2022). The male participation rate (70.8%, +0.3 percentage point) was higher than the female participation rate (61.6%, +0.4 percentage point).

In the third quarter of 2023, core-aged individuals had the highest labour force participation rate (88.1%), followed by youth (66.7%) and older individuals (37.7%). Compared to the third quarter of 2022, the participation rate decreased by 0.1 percentage point for youth, increased by 0.6 percentage point for the core-aged population and was unchanged for older individuals.

Males had a higher participation rate (70.8%) than females (61.6%) in the third quarter of 2023. Compared to the same period last year, the participation rate increased by 0.4 percentage point for females and 0.3 percentage point for males. The gap in labour force participation rates between males and females narrowed when compared to the third quarter of 2022 from 9.3 percentage points to 9.2 percentage points.

Education level and immigrant status quarterly details

Employment rates by education level and immigrant status (core-aged population), Ontario, Q3 2023footnote 10

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The horizontal bar chart shows employment rates by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years), in the third quarter of 2023, with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. By education level, those with a university degree had the highest employment rate (87.6%, -0.1 percentage point), followed by those with a postsecondary certificate/diploma (85.5%, +0.3 percentage point), those with a high school diploma (75.7%, -0.7 percentage point), an

The horizontal bar chart shows employment rates by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years), in the third quarter of 2023, with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. By education level, those with a university degree had the highest employment rate (87.6%, -0.1 percentage point), followed by those with a postsecondary certificate/diploma (85.5%, +0.3 percentage point), those with a high school diploma (75.7%, -0.7 percentage point), and those with less than high school education (57.7%, +1.2 percentage points). By immigrant status, those born in Canada had the highest employment rate (85.4%, +0.8 percentage point), followed by established immigrants with more than 10 years since landing (83.0%, -0.3 percentage point), very recent immigrants with 5 years or less since landing (77.8%, -0.3 percentage point), and recent immigrants with 5 to 10 years since landing (77.6%, -1.0 percentage point).

In the third quarter of 2023, core-aged individuals with less than a high school diploma continued to have the lowest employment rate (57.7%), while those with a university degree recorded the highest employment rate (87.6%), followed by those with a postsecondary certificate or diploma (85.5%).

Year-over-year, the employment rate decreased for those with a university degree (-0.1 percentage point) and high school graduates (-0.7 percentage point), but increased among those with less than high school (+1.2 percentage points) and those with a postsecondary certificate or diploma (+0.3 percentage point).

Those born in Canada had the highest employment rate (85.4%), while recent immigrants had the lowest employment rate (77.6%).

Year-over-year, the employment rate increased for the core-aged population born in Canada (+0.8 percentage point) and decreased for core-aged immigrants. Recent immigrants recorded the largest employment rate decrease (-1.0 percentage point).

Unemployment rates by education level and immigrant status (core-aged population), Ontario, Q3 2023footnote 11

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The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years), in the third quarter of 2023, with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. By education level, those with less than high school education had the highest unemployment rate (8.3%, -0.9 percentage point from Q3 2022), followed by those with high school education (6.8%, +0.6 percentage point), university degree holders (4.9%, +0.8 percentage point

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years), in the third quarter of 2023, with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. By education level, those with less than high school education had the highest unemployment rate (8.3%, -0.9 percentage point from Q3 2022), followed by those with high school education (6.8%, +0.6 percentage point), university degree holders (4.9%, +0.8 percentage point), and those with a postsecondary certificate or diploma (4.8%, +0.2 percentage point). By immigrant status, very recent immigrants with 5 years or less since landing had the highest unemployment rate (7.9%, -0.8 percentage point), followed by recent immigrants with 5 to 10 years since landing (6.9%, +1.6 percentage points), established immigrants with more than 10 years since landing (5.5%, +1.0 percentage point), and those born in Canada (4.5%, +0.1 percentage point).

In the third quarter of 2023, the core-aged population with a university degree and those with a postsecondary certificate/diploma had the lowest unemployment rates (4.9% and 4.8%, respectively) while those with less than a high school diploma had the highest unemployment rate (8.3%).footnote 12 Year-over-year, the unemployment rate of core-aged people edged up across most education levels. Those with a university degree recorded the largest increase in the unemployment rate (+0.8 percentage point).

Year-over-year, the unemployment rate increased for most groups by immigrant status, with the exception of very recent immigrants (-0.8 percentage point). In the third quarter of 2023, the core-aged population born in Canada had the lowest unemployment rate (4.5%), while very recent immigrants had the highest unemployment rate (7.9%).

Participation rates by education level and immigrant status (core-aged population), Ontario, Q3 2023footnote 13

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The horizontal bar chart shows labour force participation rates by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years), in the third quarter of 2023, with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. By education level, university degree holders had the highest participation rate (92.2%, +0.7 percentage point from Q3 2022), followed by postsecondary certificate or diploma holders (89.9%, +0.5 percentage point), high school graduates (81.3%, -0.2 percent

The horizontal bar chart shows labour force participation rates by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years), in the third quarter of 2023, with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. By education level, university degree holders had the highest participation rate (92.2%, +0.7 percentage point from Q3 2022), followed by postsecondary certificate or diploma holders (89.9%, +0.5 percentage point), high school graduates (81.3%, -0.2 percentage point), and those with less than high school education (63.3%, +1.0 percentage point). By immigrant status, those born in Canada had the highest participation rate (89.5%, +0.9 percentage point), followed by established immigrants with more than 10 years since landing (87.8%, +0.6 percentage points), very recent immigrants with 5 years or less since landing (84.5%, -1.0 percentage point), and recent immigrants with 5 to 10 years since landing (83.3%, +0.2 percentage point).

In the third quarter of 2023, among the core-aged population, those with a university degree continued to have the highest participation rate (92.2%), while those with less than a high school diploma had the lowest participation rate (63.3%). Year-over-year, the participation rate increased among every education level with the exception of those with high school attainment (-0.2 percentage point). Those with less than high school attainment recorded the largest increase in the participation rate (+1.0 percentage point).

In the third quarter of 2023, core-aged recent immigrants had the lowest participation rate (83.3%) compared to very recent immigrants, established immigrants and those born in Canada. Year-over-year, the participation rate increased for most groups by immigrant status with the exception of very recent immigrants (-1.0 percentage point). Those born in Canada recorded the largest increase in the participation rate (+0.9 percentage point).

Wages quarterly details

Average hourly wages by employment status, Ontario, 1997-2022

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The line chart shows average hourly wages for all employees, full-time and part-time employees expressed in real 2022 dollars from 1997 to 2022. Real average hourly wages of all employees increased from $27.82 in 1997 to $32.94 in 2022; those of full-time employees increased from $29.86 in 1997 to $34.93 in 2022 and those of part-time employees increased from $18.88 in 1997 to $22.61 in 2022.

The line chart shows average hourly wages for all employees, full-time and part-time employees expressed in real 2022 dollars from 1997 to 2022. Real average hourly wages of all employees increased from $27.82 in 1997 to $32.94 in 2022; those of full-time employees increased from $29.86 in 1997 to $34.93 in 2022 and those of part-time employees increased from $18.88 in 1997 to $22.61 in 2022.

Over the last two and a half decades, the average hourly wage increased in real termsfootnote 14 (i.e., after accounting for inflation) from $27.82 in 1997 to $32.94 in 2022, with the growth rate averaging 0.7% per year. Over this period, part-time workers experienced slightly higher average annual growth in real wages (+0.7%) compared to full-time workers (+0.6%).

Hourly wage growth by type of work, Ontario, Q3 2023 over Q3 2022footnote 15

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The vertical bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) per cent change in Ontario’s nominal hourly wages by type of work. The average hourly wage increased by 5.1%. Hourly wages increased for full-time employees (+5.5%) and for part-time employees (+2.3%). The average hourly wage increased for permanent employees (+5.5%) and temporary employees (+1.2%). Average hourly wages increased for employees with union coverage (+1.7%) and those without union coverage (+6.4%). Infl

The vertical bar chart shows a year-over-year (between the third quarters of 2022 and 2023) per cent change in Ontario’s nominal hourly wages by type of work. The average hourly wage increased by 5.1%. Hourly wages increased for full-time employees (+5.5%) and for part-time employees (+2.3%). The average hourly wage increased for permanent employees (+5.5%) and temporary employees (+1.2%). Average hourly wages increased for employees with union coverage (+1.7%) and those without union coverage (+6.4%). Inflation during the same period was 3.5%.

In the third quarter of 2023, the average hourly wage of Ontario employees was $34.71, an increase of 5.1% from the third quarter of 2022.footnote 16

Full-time employees (+5.5%), permanent employees (+5.5%) and employees with no union coverage (+6.4%) had a larger increase in the average hourly wage when compared to part-time employees (+2.3%), temporary employees (+1.2%) and employees with union coverage (+1.7%).

Consumer Price Index inflation over the third quarter of 2023 compared to the third quarter of 2022 was 3.5%.

Average hourly wage rate and wage growth by occupational group, Ontario, Q3 2023footnote 17

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The horizontal bar chart shows average hourly wage rates by occupational group in the third quarter of 2023, with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. In the third quarter of 2023, the average hourly wage rate for Ontario was $34.71 (+5.1%). The highest average hourly wage rate was for management occupations at $60.32 (+6.0%); followed by natural and applied sciences and related occupations at $46.16 (+5.7%); occupations in education, law and social, community and government

The horizontal bar chart shows average hourly wage rates by occupational group in the third quarter of 2023, with percentage point changes from the third quarter of 2022 in brackets. In the third quarter of 2023, the average hourly wage rate for Ontario was $34.71 (+5.1%). The highest average hourly wage rate was for management occupations at $60.32 (+6.0%); followed by natural and applied sciences and related occupations at $46.16 (+5.7%); occupations in education, law and social, community and government services at $41.81 (+5.8%); health occupations at $35.12 (+2.9%); business, finance and administration occupations at $34.35 (+4.8%); trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations at $30.66 (+3.1%); occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport at $28.29 (+8.0%); occupations in manufacturing and utilities at $27.11 (+6.8%); natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations at $26.32 (+11.8%); and sales and service occupations at $21.86 (+1.9%).

Year-over-year, all broad occupational groups experienced growth in average hourly wages led by occupations in natural resources, agriculture and related production (+11.8%); occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (+8.0%) and occupations in manufacturing and utilities (+6.8%). Sales and service occupations (+1.9%) experienced the smallest increase in average hourly wages among broad occupational groups.

Appendix I

Overview of annual employment ten-year review, Ontario

-2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Total Labour Force (000)7,367.47,384.87,386.47,442.77,576.37,679.47,866.67,788.08,048.88,190.4
Participation Rate (%)66.566.065.565.265.364.965.363.765.265.4
Male Participation Rate (%)71.070.670.469.970.069.670.068.669.969.9
Female Participation Rate (%)62.261.660.860.660.760.560.859.160.761.2
Total Employment (000)6,806.96,840.06,887.06,956.47,117.37,245.97,429.27,025.97,393.37,731.6
Full-time (000)5,463.45,497.55,580.05,630.55,740.55,883.46,042.35,801.06,088.96,372.4
Part-time (000)1,343.51,342.61,307.01,325.91,376.81,362.51,386.91,224.91,304.41,359.2
Employment-Population Ratio (%)61.461.161.160.961.361.361.657.559.961.8
Male Employment (000)3,532.43,566.03,603.73,641.93,730.43,808.73,901.73,717.33,891.64,060.1
Female Employment (000)3,274.53,274.03,283.33,314.53,386.93,437.23,527.53,308.53,501.73,671.5
Part-Time (% of total)19.719.619.019.119.318.818.717.417.617.6
Goods-Producing Sector Employment (000)1,410.41,393.81,406.71,440.21,457.51,476.81,474.61,415.51,466.21,543.5
Services-Producing Sector Employment (000)5,396.55,446.25,480.35,516.25,659.85,769.15,954.65,610.45,927.16,188.1
Private Sector Employment (000)4,488.24,542.14,545.44,613.44,741.54,809.64,936.54,600.14,876.45,127.2
Public Sector Employment (000)1,278.21,259.51,276.21,280.51,299.01,319.21,343.51,327.91,429.11,515.7
Self-Employment (%of total)15.315.215.515.315.115.415.515.614.714.1
Total Unemployment (000)560.5544.8499.5486.4459.0433.5437.5762.1655.5458.8
Unemployment Rate (%)7.67.46.86.56.15.65.69.88.15.6
Male Unemployment Rate (%)8.07.67.16.86.35.65.79.68.15.5
Female Unemployment Rate (%)7.27.16.46.25.85.75.410.08.25.7
Long-Term (27 wks+) (% of total)23.022.519.819.719.316.315.115.028.218.2
Average Unemployment in Weeks21.921.920.119.919.117.216.015.423.019.7
Youth Unemployment Rate (%)15.415.214.313.411.711.711.722.115.911.5
25-54 y.o. Unemployment rate (%)6.36.15.65.55.24.74.67.96.74.6
55+ y.o. Unemployment rate (%)5.85.65.05.04.74.24.37.37.44.6
Average Weekly Wage Rate ($)916.61931.31959.81985.76993.131,030.521,058.441,136.251,161.631,216.43
Average Hourly Wage Rate ($)25.0725.4526.2026.9227.1628.1828.9530.8631.6032.94

Employment by region (000)

-2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Greater Toronto Area3,229.63,221.83,281.63,320.93,392.63,471.53,576.03,387.53,568.53,728.7
Central1,552.61,583.51,594.91,598.61,670.41,676.21,708.61,615.11,692.61,779.9
Southwest769.8776.2775.6784.6793.8817.0817.4770.6833.1864.5
East897.2900.9885.7902.5906.8922.0967.8909.9954.41,000.2
North357.5357.8349.0349.7353.7359.2359.3342.8344.7358.2

Unemployment rate by region (%)

-2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Greater Toronto Area8.28.17.16.96.56.05.911.09.26.3
Central6.96.35.85.95.35.35.29.17.55.0
Southwest7.76.97.06.15.75.35.49.27.55.5
East6.57.26.76.45.94.85.07.76.54.4
North7.56.87.27.46.66.16.07.96.84.6

Total employment by CMA (000)

Greater Toronto Area
-2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Toronto3,075.23,061.93,130.43,155.73,235.33,301.43,412.13,227.03,409.23,569.4
Oshawa192.9198.2192.6209.9206.4215.5214.4205.4211.2226.6
Central Ontario
-2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Hamilton372.6378.1380.8380.6411.1407.4414.8384.1409.6418.6
Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo287.2290.1290.7293.1304.1312.4324.4305.5323.0333.7
St. Catharines-Niagara193.3195.3205.4205.8203.9208.8207.1189.5198.4221.2
Peterborough54.659.360.258.561.764.962.553.763.566.1
Brantford68.868.870.070.472.770.578.772.074.277.7
Guelph79.080.889.991.191.389.191.485.192.896.8
Barrie108.2109.7106.3102.7114.5112.4117.6118.7115.5124.3
Eastern Ontario
-2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Ottawa-Gatineau (Ontario part)527.6532.6530.1545.5551.5564.1589.8557.8590.2610.5
Kingston81.078.880.180.684.883.283.980.181.387.9
Belleville40.735.232.333.441.141.951.849.650.057.4
Southwestern Ontario
-2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
London238.3239.6249.0245.2247.4257.3256.1257.9281.8295.4
Windsor155.4155.9157.6164.0163.4166.5171.6152.1168.3174.7
Northern Ontario
-2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Greater Sudbury84.383.582.982.782.383.387.381.082.185.4
Thunder Bay62.861.459.760.362.164.463.259.161.161.9

Overview of quarterly employment year-over-year, Ontario

-2021Q42022Q42022Q12023Q12022Q22023Q22022Q32023Q3
Total Labour Force (000)8,123.48,178.78,085.98,2188,252.78,432.88,244.38,508.7
Participation Rate (%)65.565.064.964.96666.165.866.2
Male Participation Rate (%)69.969.369.369.170.470.770.570.8
Female Participation Rate (%)61.360.860.760.961.961.761.261.6
Total Employment (000)7,647.57,777.27,573.47,781.37,809.27,971.37,766.77,968.3
- Full-time (000)6,198.36,373.16,180.36,394.86,442.26,581.96,494.26,670.8
- Part-time (000)1,449.21,404.01,393.11,386.51,367.11,389.31,272.51,297.6
Employment-Population Ratio (%)61.761.860.861.562.562.562.062.0
Male Employment (000)4,002.84,079.13,967.54,060.44,082.14,198.64,111.74,231.8
Female Employment (000)3,644.73,698.13,605.93,720.93,727.13,772.73,655.13,736.6
Part Time (% of total)19.018.118.417.817.517.416.416.3
Goods-Producing Sector Employment (000)1,484.41,559.41,473.21,528.41,554.21,607.11,587.31,634.3
Services-Producing Sector Employment (000)6,163.06,217.86,100.26,252.96,255.06,364.16,179.46,334.1
Private Sector Employment (000)5,063.85,140.34,986.45,174.85,184.75,356.45,197.75,391.1
Public Sector Employment1,506.51,544.31,502.41,534.11,540.21,540.71,475.81,504.4
Self-Employment (% of total)14.114.014.313.813.913.514.113.5
Total Unemployment (000)476.0401.5512.5436.7443.4461.6477.6540.3
Unemployment Rate (%)5.94.96.35.35.45.55.86.3
Male Unemployment Rate (%)5.94.86.45.55.55.35.35.7
Female Unemployment Rate (%)5.85.06.35.15.25.76.37.1
Long-Term (27 wks+) (% of total)29.218.718.916.519.617.215.814.1
Average Unemployment in Weeks24.720.321.218.020.617.817.016.4
Youth Unemployment Rate (%)9.410.412.910.811.613.311.313.4
25-54 y.o Unemployment Rate (%)4.94.15.24.54.44.44.85.3
55+ y.o Unemployment Rate (%)6.43.95.74.44.03.34.74.4
Average Weekly Wage Rate ($)1,163.651,238.541,193.901,254.491,204.601,264.281,228.111,287.76
Average Hourly Wage Rate ($)31.7933.5832.4834.0532.6834.2533.0234.71

Employment by region (000)

Region2021Q42022Q42022Q12023Q12022Q22023Q22022Q32023Q3
Central1,718.31,814.91,712.91,7821,789.11,840.11,802.81,833.4
Southwestern866.1879.3847.9873.6871.8881.1859.0886.3
Eastern958.51,009.8967.51,007.91,014.91,032.31,008.71,037.6
Northern349.8358.4355.5357.1363.6357.7355.5355.6
Greater Toronto Area (GTA)3,754.83,714.83,689.73,760.73,769.63,860.13,740.53,855.5

Unemployment rate by region (%)

Region2021Q42022Q42022Q12023Q12022Q22023Q22022Q32023Q3
Central5.44.65.85.34.54.95.15.5
Southwestern5.34.96.15.75.35.15.86.2
Eastern4.23.75.24.34.14.44.65.5
Northern5.24.15.65.54.24.74.65.5
Greater Toronto Area (GTA)6.75.57.05.56.26.26.57.1

Total employment by CMA (000)

Greater Toronto Area
 2021Q42022Q42022Q12023Q12022Q22023Q22022Q32023Q3
Toronto3,587.13,568.23,523.63,613.53,599.53,709.93,586.43,698.6
Oshawa222.3227.1222.0225.8232.7223.0224.4222.1
Central Ontario
-2021Q42022Q42022Q12023Q12022Q22023Q22022Q32023Q3
Hamilton418.1423.9409.4411.0421.3413.7419.8411.6
Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo335.3341.1325.5333.0329.8343.6338.3350.2
St. Catharines-Niagara210.0220.1216.7216.6229.0219.5219.1224.7
Peterborough63.965.063.160.667.363.069.171.3
Brantford74.080.573.378.276.378.780.977.7
Guelph97.495.996.298.098.5102.896.798.7
Barrie117.8129.6111.7130.7126.4137.0129.7129.0
Eastern Ontario
-2021Q42022Q42022Q12023Q12022Q22023Q22022Q32023Q3
Ottawa-Gatineau (Ontario part)582.8616.3590.2623.0617.2648.9618.3655.9
Kingston81.991.082.491.187.995.390.593.1
Belleville54.055.053.963.759.765.961.060.0
Southwestern Ontario
-2021Q42022Q42022Q12023Q12022Q22023Q22022Q32023Q3
London290.6293.2294.8294.0298.5307.8295.3314.2
Windsor185.1184.9175.2189.8174.5191.9164.4189.7
Northern Ontario
-2021Q42022Q42022Q12023Q12022Q22023Q22022Q32023Q3
Greater Sudbury85.186.285.287.886.787.283.884.8
Thunder Bay62.960.763.264.362.364.661.564.4

Overview of monthly* labour force characteristics, Ontario

-July-22Aug-22Sept-22Oct-22Nov-22Dec-22Jan-23Feb-23Mar-23Apr-23May-23Jun-23Jul-23Aug-23Sept-23
Employment7,766.97,734.37,714.97,745.37,750.57,786.97,849.77,865.37,886.77,919.47,895.57,951.37,949.37,940.37,960.2
Unemployment rate5.15.65.65.75.75.35.25.15.14.95.55.75.65.96.0
Participation rate65.465.465.165.365.365.365.565.565.565.565.665.965.765.665.6

*Seasonally adjusted

Note: All estimates in this appendix are based on Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey.


Footnotes

  • footnote[1] Back to paragraph Estimates of employment changes and rate calculations are based on unrounded quarterly estimates and may differ slightly from estimates based on published quarterly data due to rounding.
  • footnote[2] Back to paragraph The public sector includes employees in federal, provincial, territorial, municipal and Aboriginal public administrations, as well as in Crown corporations, liquor control boards and other government institutions such as schools (including universities), hospitals and public libraries.
  • footnote[3] Back to paragraph Above-average wage industries are defined as those with earnings above the average hourly earnings of all industries in 2022. Self-employment is excluded.
  • footnote[4] Back to paragraph Occupation estimates are based on the 2021 National Occupational Classification. Management occupations are classified under the management occupational category and the remaining categories exclude management occupations.
  • footnote[5] Back to paragraph Based on groupings of Statistics Canada’s economic regions.
  • footnote[6] Back to paragraph Based on a three-month moving average for September 2023, using unadjusted data.
  • footnote[7] Back to paragraph The GTA refers to the Statistics Canada definition of the Toronto Economic Region; notably, this definition excludes the city of Burlington.
  • footnote[8] Back to paragraph Based on a three-month moving average for September 2023, using unadjusted data. The seasonally adjusted estimate for Ontario in Q3 2023 is 6.4%.
  • footnote[9] Back to paragraph Based on a three-month moving average for September 2023, using unadjusted data.
  • footnote[10] Back to paragraph Rate by immigrant status is based on a three-month moving average for September 2023. Education level refers to the highest level of schooling completed.
  • footnote[11] Back to paragraph Rate by immigrant status is based on a three-month moving average for September 2023. Education level refers to the highest level of schooling completed.
  • footnote[12] Back to paragraph The less than high school population includes those with 0 to 8 years of education and those with some high school education. In this quarter, the unemployment estimates for those with 0 to 8 years were not published due to data quality concerns. As a result, the unemployment rate for the less than high school population is likely underestimated.
  • footnote[13] Back to paragraph Rate by immigrant status is based on a three-month moving average for September 2023. Education level refers to the highest level of schooling completed.
  • footnote[14] Back to paragraph Real wages are based on nominal wages deflated by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for all items. Self-employment is excluded.
  • footnote[15] Back to paragraph Nominal wage growth, not adjusted for inflation. Self-employment is excluded. Inflation is measured as an increase in the all-items Consumer Price Index for Ontario between July and September 2022 and July and September 2023.
  • footnote[16] Back to paragraph Year-over-year comparison (between third quarters of 2022 and 2023) is in nominal dollars.
  • footnote[17] Back to paragraph Occupation estimates are based on the 2021 National Occupational Classification. Management occupations are classified under the management occupational category and the remaining categories exclude management occupations. Nominal wage growth, not adjusted for inflation. Self-employment is excluded.